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Resentment and other hard feelings may outlive their targets, and people often express a desire to overcome these feelings through forgiveness. While some see forgiving the dead as an important moral accomplishment, others deny that genuine forgiveness of the dead is coherent, let alone desirable or valuable. According to one line of thought, forgiveness is something we do for certain reasons, such as the offender’s expressed contrition. Given that the dead cannot express remorse, forgiveness of the dead is impossible. Others see the apparent coherence and moral importance of forgiving the dead as a reason to give up on the idea that forgiveness is conditional upon the offender’s remorse. According to these philosophers, forgiveness of the dead poses no special problems; forgiveness of the dead, like forgiveness of the living, is not contingent upon the offender’s contrition. I steer a path between these two positions in such a way as to bring out an important aspect of forgiveness that is not adequately addressed in the literature: I argue that forgiving the dead may be perfectly coherent and morally valuable even though the dead cannot ask for forgiveness or engage in reparative activities. A full appreciation of the relational character of forgiveness allows us to make sense of forgiving the dead.
The social networks of older people are a significant influence on their health and wellbeing. Adult children are an important element in their parent's network and provide the majority of informal care. The morphology of personal networks alters with age, employment, gender and relationships. Not having children automatically reduces both vertical familial structure and affects the wider formal and informal social links that children can bring. Childless men are missing from gerontological, reproduction, sociological and psychological research. These fields have all mainly focused on family and women. This paper reports on an auto/biographical qualitative study framed by biographical, feminist, gerontological and lifecourse approaches. Data were gathered from semi-structured biographical interviews with 14 self-defined involuntarily childless men aged between 49 and 82 years old. A latent thematic analysis highlighted the complex intersections between childlessness and individual agency, relationships and socio-cultural structures. The impact of major lifecourse events and non-events had significant implications for how childless people perform and view their social and self-identity. I argue that involuntary childlessness affects the social, emotional and relational aspects of men's lived experience across the lifecourse.
Existing research on phubbing has focused mainly on one relationship group (i.e., partner phubbing). How does phubbing differ across different relationship groups (i.e., family vss people at work)? How does phubbing differ within the same relationship group (i.e., in the case of family relations: parents vs. children)? In which situations (i.e., in bed or at the dinner table) are people more likely to phub others? An online survey of 387 participants, predominantly Australians, revealed that participants were more likely to phub family, friends and strangers than people at work, and they were more likely to phub family and friends than strangers. With regard to family relations, participants were more likely to phub parents, partners and children than grandparents. They were more likely to phub partners and children than parents. The reason certain people are phubbed more frequently than others and in specific situations more than others is due to which social norms matter the most: injunctive norms or smartphone-related internalised norms. Considering that phubbing impacts those with whom the phubber has a closer relationship and those with whom the phubber has a distant relationship, comparing how phubbing differs across different relationship groups contributes to understanding the impact of phubbing on social relationships.
Previous research has discovered different subtypes of social withdrawal based on motivations to approach or avoid social interactions. Each of these motivations are uniquely related to indices of maladjustment during emerging adulthood, including aspects of the self. However, research has yet to investigate whether or not relationship quality moderates these associations. The purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship quality with best friends, romantic partners, mothers, and fathers, respectively, serve as protective factors in the negative links between shyness and avoidance and self-worth. The participants included 519 college students (Mage = 19.87, SD = 1.99, 61% female) from four universities across the United States. Results revealed that relationship quality with both best friends and romantic partners moderated the relation between shyness and self-worth. The differences between parent and peer relationships are discussed.
Emotion dysregulation is defined as patterns of emotional experience or expression that interfere with goal-directed activity. This paper considers this functionalist definition from a developmental perspective with the goal of elaborating this approach with respect to its central questions. What are the goals that are impeded by emotionally dysregulated responding, and what alternative goals might motivate emotion dysregulation? What are the developmental processes by which these goals take shape, and what are the influences of the family context, and especially of central relationships in the family, in their emergence? How does this functionalist account address the complex interaction of experience and developing biological processes that also influence emotion regulation and dysregulation? Drawing on research literature concerning children at risk for affective psychopathology and considering relevant examples of the interaction of biology and context, this discussion offers a portrayal of emotion dysregulation as a biologically dynamic, experience-based aspect of adaptation to environments and relationships that, in conditions of risk for the emergence of developmental psychopathology, motivates patterns of emotional responding that serve immediate coping often at the cost of long-term maladaptation. Implications for emotions theory and the study of developmental psychopathology are also considered.
Objective: To increase understanding of the community neuropsychological rehabilitation goals of young people with acquired brain injuries (ABIs). Method: Three hundred twenty-six neuropsychological rehabilitation goals were extracted from the clinical records of 98 young people with ABIs. The participants were 59% male, 2–19 years old, and 64% had a traumatic brain injury. Goals were coded using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to assess the distribution of goals across the ICF-CY. Chi-squared and Cramer’s V were used to identify demographic and injury-related associations of goal type. Results: The distribution of goals was 52% activities and participation (AP), 28% body functions (BF), 20% environmental factors (EF), and <1% body structures (BS). The number of EF goals increased with age at assessment (V = .14). Non-traumatic causes of ABIs were associated with more EF goals (V = .12). There was no association between sex or time post-injury and the distribution of goals across the ICF-CY. Conclusions: Young people with ABIs have a wide range of community neuropsychological rehabilitation goals that require an individualized, context-sensitive, and interdisciplinary approach. Community neuropsychological rehabilitation services may wish to ensure they are resourced to focus intervention on AP, with increasing consideration for EF as a young person progresses through adolescence. The findings of this research support models of community neuropsychological rehabilitation that enable wellness by combining direct rehabilitative interventions with attention to social context and systemic working across agencies. (JINS, 2019, 25, 403–412)
The purpose of the current study was to use a mixed-methods approach to assess the perspective of cancer survivors on the bidirectional impact between cancer and their social contexts.
A fixed concurrent triangulation mixed-methods survey design was used with open- and closed-ended questions that were predetermined and administered to participants. Quantitative items included demographic questions and the Life Impact Checklist. Qualitative questions were designed to explore the bidirectional impact between the patient and specific contexts including spirituality/faith, the spousal/partner relationship, and the family. A cross-sectional descriptive approach was used to evaluate the quantitative items and the constant comparative method guided the analysis of open-ended questions.
Among 116 participants (mean age 58.4 years), the majority were female (66.7%) with breast cancer (27.9%). Nearly one-half the respondents endorsed a positive impact of cancer on their spirituality/faith, but qualitative results suggested less of a bidirectional impact. The importance of the spouse/partner during the cancer experience was emphasized, including the subthemes of instrumental and emotional support; however, there was often a negative impact of cancer on the spouse/partner relationship, including sexual functioning. Survivors indicated family members provided instrumental and emotional support, but not as regularly or directly as a spouse/partner.
Significance of results
Social contexts are important among cancer survivors, with many cancer survivors relying more on their spouse/partner than other family members for support. The cancer experience is stressful not only for survivors, but also for individuals in their social contexts and relationships.
The present qualitative study was conducted with 20 women with serious mental illness (SMI) in order to better characterise their romantic and intimate relationship experiences. Grounded theory methodology directed the identification of intimate and romantic relationships themes for women with SMI, which included the following: function matching, pathologising problems, symptom interference, dating deal breakers, sexual foreclosure, dating deprioritised, and relational resilience strategies. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.
This paper seeks to understand the engagement of people with dementia in creative and arts-based activities by applying a relational model of citizenship and incorporating concepts of contextual and embodied learning from adult learning theory. A theoretically driven secondary analysis of observational and interview data focuses on the engagement of staff, volunteers and people with dementia during an arts-based intervention in a day centre and care home. The processes through which learning is co-constructed between the person with dementia, staff/volunteer facilitators and peers in the group to co-produce a creative engaged experience involves: increasing confidence for learning, facilitating social and physical connections, and affirming creative self-expression. The role of facilitator is central to the process of creative engagement to reinforce a sense of agency amongst participants and recognise people's prior experiences of learning and engagement in creative activities. People with dementia continue to learn and grow through engagement in creative activities to produce positive outcomes for the individual participants and for the care staff who observe and participate in this creativity. Facilitating creativity requires attention to lifelong experiences of learning in addition to the immediate interactional context to integrate arts-based interventions in dementia care successfully.
Specimens of trematopid amphibians from the Asturian (Upper Carboniferous) of Nýřany, Czech Republic, are redescribed as two taxa, namely Mordex calliprepes Steen and Mattauschia (gen. nov) laticeps Fritsch. Mordex calliprepes is represented by a single post-metamorphic specimen and has the diagnostic trematopid characters of the nasal region. Mattauschia laticeps is represented by one adult partial skull and mandible plus some fragments and two small post-metamorphic specimens including the species name-bearer. It has the trematopid-type modified lacrimal and a large but oval naris and appears to be the most primitive trematopid yet described. The stratigraphically sequential large trematopids Mattauschia, Fedexia, Ecolsonia and Acheloma show progressive acquisition of the derived features that characterise the terminal form Acheloma.
Mordex has a combination of primitive and derived characters and its position within the family is less clear. The many ‘branchiosaurs' in the Nýřany assemblage include specimens that could be larvae of both Mordex and Mattauschia but certain attribution is not possible and they are assigned to Olsoniformes incertae sedis. Mordex and Mattauschia appear to be terrestrial exotic elements in the Nýřany tetrapod assemblage, but with possible larvae in the lake assemblage. Representatives of at least four Palaeozoic dissorophoid families were present in late Middle Pennsylvanian/Asturian strata implying diversification of the Dissorophoidea prior to this time.
Philosophers have often understood self-knowledge's value in instrumentalist terms. Self-knowledge may be valuable as a means to moral self-improvement and self-satisfaction, while its absence can lead to viciousness and frustration. These explanations, while compelling, do not fully explain the value that many of us place in self-knowledge. Rather, we have a tendency to treat self-knowledge as its own end. In this article, I vindicate this tendency by identifying a moral reason that we have to value and seek self-knowledge that is independent of the reason that we have to value the beneficial ends that it helps us achieve. I argue that we are in an inescapable relationship with ourselves that requires both self-love and self-respect. Self-love gives us a noninstrumental reason to know ourselves, while self-respect demands that we take this reason seriously. To pursue a project of self-discovery carefully and for its own sake, then, is part of what it is to stand in a loving and respectful relationship with ourselves.
This paper identifies some of the key debates about the evidence from outcomes for children placed in foster care, the challenging issues in the design of the system, how it operates and what the outcomes for children look like. The paper explores foster care as being based in the evolution of the human species in its capacity to adapt, problem-solve and identify resources through cooperative effort between individuals and social groupings with the family as key. An essential attribute of families and parenting is the ability to form close, meaningful and sustained relationships that provide security, stability and opportunity, including connectedness to the community and the resources that are a part of this. Family forms the basis for the child being able to access personal, social, cultural and economic capital both in the present and into the future. One of the serious issues for foster care is the short-term basis of that commitment and, even when it lasts over the longer term, the care arrangement typically ends as the child reaches adulthood. These issues are explored through the concept of resilience and place foster care within an ecological framework that evolves over time.
Extradyadic involvement — emotional, romantic, or sexual involvement with another person outside of one's romantic relationship — may have serious personal and relational consequences. The current research examines extradyadic involvement in two samples of individuals in relationships and identifies subgroups of people based on their engagement in different types of extradyadic behaviour. To assess involvement in such behaviour, we created a new behavioural inventory intended to broaden the conceptualisation of types of extradyadic behaviours. Subgroups of individuals who engage in these behaviours were extracted using latent class analysis. Study 1 assessed undergraduate students in relationships (N = 339), and results revealed four classes of individuals: loyal, confiding, deceptive, and unfaithful. Follow-up tests demonstrated that these classes of individuals differed significantly in ways that are consistent with the investment model and attachment theory. Study 2 (N = 202) replicated the four-class solution, as well as the group differences in relationship functioning and attachment orientations. Results suggest theoretically consistent typologies of extradyadic behaviour that may be useful in differentiating deceptive behaviour in close relationships in a more precise way.
Family members of incarcerated people are often faced with financial, social and emotional costs related to the imprisonment of their loved ones. These costs can be conceptualized as investments both in the sustenance of personal relationships and in a greater social good in the form of assisting with the reintegration of former prisoners. In this article, we draw upon data from a mixed-methods study to elucidate the costs of detention on families of prisoners. We demonstrate that financial, social and emotional costs associated with imprisonment of a family member are interrelated and often compound each other, indicating the importance of addressing them in a holistic framework.
The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to describe and analyse the meaning of love in relationships between couples living with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the wealth of studies describing relationships in the face of AD, little is known about the experience and changing meaning of ‘love’ between spouses when one of them is suffering from AD. A qualitative narrative approach was used to capture what love means for couples when one spouse is living with AD. A combination of open discussion along with a semi-guided interview was conducted with N = 16 spouses of persons living with AD. Data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. A leading theme that emerges from the interviews is that AD provides a significant indicator of the meaning and understanding of the experience of love. Five major types of relationship developments occurred after the disease emerged: love died, love became weaker, love did not change, love was enhanced and the spouse fell in love again. The need for further research is discussed. The findings of this study offer an additional perspective to the existing literature, thereby providing a more comprehensive outlook on marital relationships within the context of AD.
Interpersonal relationships are the recent focus of research identifying protective factors in adolescent psychological health. Using an attachment theory perspective, this study examines the relationship of normative attachment strength and individual differences in attachment expectancies on self-reports of depression and stress in 511 Australian high school students. Attachment reorganisation was demonstrated, but only father attachment uniquely predicted self-reported stress. Age moderated the relationships between peers and depression and stress among romantically involved adolescents. Individual differences in attachment styles, particularly anxious attachment, were most predictive of adolescent psychological health. These findings highlight the complexity of adolescent attachment relationships and suggest that interventions target both normative and individual factors in adolescent development to enhance adolescent psychological health.
There is sparse research on playgroups for fathers, therefore, the benefits of such programmes are difficult to discern. However, there is much research on the positive developmental outcomes children experience with involved fathers (Appl, Brown, & Stone, 2008; Evans, Harrison, Rempel, & Slater, 2006; Green, 2003; Rosenberg & Wilcox, 2006). This research focused on a Dad's playgroup run as part of the Communities for Children Logan Project in south-east Queensland, Australia. The research found that the fathers gained positive results as being a part of the playgroup, including improved family functioning, a feeling of belonging to a community in which advice was freely available, improved relationships with their child/children and feelings that this programme met the unique needs of fathers when others in the community have not. These needs were met through the play environment, scheduling, staffing and support networks.
Adults who were victims of childhood maltreatment tend to have poorer health compared with adults who did not experience abuse. However, many are in good health. We tested whether safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships buffer women with a history of childhood maltreatment from poor health outcomes in later life.
Participants included women from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study who were involved in an intimate relationship at some point by the time their twin children were 10 years old. Women were initially interviewed in 1999–2000 (mean age = 33 years) and 2, 5, and 7 years later. They reported on their physical and mental health, and their health-risk behaviours.
Compared with women who did not experience abuse in childhood, women with histories of maltreatment were at elevated risk for mental, physical, and health-risk behaviours, including major depressive disorder, sleep, and substance use problems. Cumulatively, safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships characterized by a lack of violence, emotional intimacy, and social support buffered women with a history of maltreatment from poor health outcomes.
Our findings emphasize that negative social determinants of health – such as a childhood history of maltreatment – confer risk for psychopathology and other physical health problems. If, however, a woman's current social circumstances are sufficiently positive, they can promote good health, particularly in the face of past adversity.
The goal of this study was to elicit and analyse teachers’ reflections on the benefits of the implementation of the SEL program in Latvia, both in regard to benefits for the students and in regard to benefits for themselves. The school-wide Latvia SEL program was initiated during the 2012–13 academic year and to date has been implemented in 41 Latvian schools. In order to ascertain the teachers’ views on issues of program effectiveness, seven focus groups were organised consisting of teachers who had participated in the SEL program implementation. Thematic analysis of the focus group discussions indicated that the teachers appreciate various benefits of the SEL program, but among the most prominent themes were those concerning improved relationships, both student-student and student-teacher relationships. The views expressed by the teachers align with previous studies implying the significance of the teachers’ own social and emotional competencies in facilitating quality maintenance of the program.
This study looked at lay theories of how people with personality disorders (PDs) are perceived to cope with their interpersonal relationships. In all, 213 participants read 14 vignettes derived from Oldham's and Morris's (2000) book describing DSM III personality disorders for a popular audience. Participants were invited to do six ratings, including how happy each person in each vignette appeared to be and how successful at establishing long-term relationships. Effect sizes for each question across the 14 vignettes were small to medium. The six ratings factored into a single social adjustment scale, and there were many differences across the PDs on this measure. Those with dependent PD were judged as most successful in their social relationships while those who were schizoid PD were judged as least successful. A similar analysis using the three higher order clusters showed significant differences: Cluster C disordered people were judged as better adjusted than Cluster A people. Limitations of the methodology and implications are discussed.