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Book description

This is the second of two volumes in this major Cambridge history dealing with the gradual decline of the Ch'ing empire in China (the first was volume 10). Volume 11 surveys the persistence and deterioration of the old order in China during the late nineteenth century, and the profound stirring during that period, which led to China's great twentieth-century revolution. The contributors focus on commercial and technological growth, foreign relations, the stimulation of Chinese intellectual life by the outside world, and military triumphs and disasters. They show that the effects of the accelerating changes were to fragment the old ruling class and the ancient monarchy, finally bringing the Chinese people face to face with the challenges of the new century. For readers with Chinese, proper names and terms are identified with their characters in the glossary, and full references to Chinese, Japanese and other works are given in the bibliographies.

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  • 1 - Economic trends in the late Ch'ing empire, 1870–1911
    pp 1-69
  • View abstract
    This chapter provides an analysis of the structure and development of Chinese agriculture in the nineteenth century and its implications for the rest of the economy. It discusses the single rural handicraft in the nineteenth century. The agricultural sector of the Chinese economy in the last decades of the Ch'ing dynasty was characterized by a factor mix in which land and capital were in short supply and the superabundance of labour was subject to some diminishing returns. Handicraft and modern industries in late nineteenth-and early twentieth-century China were subservient to foreign capitalism. The economy of late-Ch'ing China was, at its given level of technology, characterized by a high degree of commercial development. Goods and traders moved extensively throughout the country and, to a limited extent, the domestic economy had developed links with the world market. In brief, the fiscal system of the central government like other aspects of its administration was quite superficial.
  • 2 - Late Ch'ing foreign relations, 1866–1905
    pp 70-141
  • View abstract
    Late Ch'ing foreign relations must be examined both in the global context of intensified imperialism and shifting power configurations among the leading Western states and Japan, and also against the background of the progressive decline of Manchu rule and the disintegration of the imperial tradition of foreign intercourse. The last three decades of the nineteenth century were a period of accelerated foreign imperialism in China. Korea, regarded by the Chinese as a valuable 'outer fence' of North China, was a leading tributary state during Ming and Ch'ing times. The Japanese minister in Peking warned Prince Ch'ing that any concession on the Russian occupation of Manchuria would lead to the partition of China. It was clear that if the Anglo-Japanese Alliance led to a Russo-Japanese understanding, China would be the loser, and if it led to a war, Chinese territory would be the battleground, and China would be at the mercy of the victor.
  • 3 - Changing Chinese views of Western relations, 1840–95
    pp 142-201
  • View abstract
    Chinese views of Western relations kept changing during the 1840-95 period, with a quickened tempo after 1860. Generally, foreign policy views changed from a 'closed door' policy in the forties to the 'good faith' policy based on the Confucian principle of sincerity during the sixties. Modern diplomatic skills, especially the idea of international law, were stressed during the ensuing two decades. Power politics, particularly the concepts of balance of power and alliance with strong countries, prevailed during the eighties and nineties. In spite of all these changes, the power of conservatism remained strong. Success in the introduction of things Western into China depended in large measure on the extent to which they were compatible with this tradition. China's inertia can also be seen in the views held by some political leaders towards the West. In addition to the conservatives, many literati-officials who championed Western learning were at the same time anti-Christian. Modernization in some senses meant Westernization.
  • 4 - The military challenge: the north-west and the coast
    pp 202-273
  • View abstract
    By the early 1870s, the Ch'ing forces undoubtedly had acquired the capacity to suppress rebellion in most areas of China proper. However, it remained questionable as to whether they could stand up to foreign invaders on the coast or even deal with rebels in the difficult terrain of the North-West or Central Asia. Before imperial China's forces could get to Sinkiang, they had first to overcome the Chinese Muslims in Shensi and Kansu. The Sino-French War of 1884-5 was the first external test of China's new military and naval programmes of the past two decades. From beginning to end, the Sino-Japanese War had been an unmitigated disaster. In the peace negotiations, China's most effective bargaining point was not the remaining strength of her military and naval forces, but rather Japanese guilt over the wounding of Li Hung-chang by a Japanese fanatic.
  • 5 - Intellectual change and the reform movement, 1890–8
    pp 274-338
  • View abstract
    The contribution of the Wan-kuo kung-pao to the intellectual ferment of the reform period should be gauged by the kind of influence it had on contemporary Chinese literati. The publication of the reformist writings in the early 1890s contributed to the changing intellectual climate in the decade, their aggregate impact was far less than that of an intellectual and political movement started at the time by a group of young Cantonese scholars whose leader was K'ang Yu-wei. From the very beginning, K'ang saw the threat of Western expansion as not simply socio-political but cultural and religious as well. After the Ch'ing court clamped down on K'ang Yu-wei's campaign in Peking in early 1896, the reform movement had to confine its activities to ideological propaganda in Shanghai and Macao in order to gain public support. But new developments were meanwhile under way in Hunan, which soon brought the centre of the reform movement to the capital, Changsha.
  • 6 - Japan and the chinese revolution of 1911
    pp 339-374
  • View abstract
    The modern transformations of China and Japan were inextricably interrelated. As the urgency of modernization became apparent, Japan's modernized institutions became the objects of study, and Japan itself a breeding ground for revolution in China. Since China and Japan interacted so importantly in their respective modern histories, it is useful to look at both sides of the relationship. China's contribution to the modernization of Japan provides an appropriate beginning for this discussion. Its dimensions were several. Meiji Japan held a very special place in the minds of the Confucian reformers of late Ch'ing times. Japan served to strengthen the students' consciousness of nationality in many ways. Japan made a more positive contribution to Chinese nationalism through example. To the intellectual and educational impact there was added a direct personal and political contact between Japan and the Chinese revolutionary movement. It is a contact that has been a good deal more noted in Western and Japanese scholarship than in Chinese studies.
  • 7 - Political and institutional reform 1901–11
    pp 375-415
    • By Chuzo Ichiko, Center for Modern Chinese Studies, Toyo Bunko, Tokyo
  • View abstract
    This chapter reviews the political and institutional reforms made by the Ch'ing government after 1901 with some conspicuous points. First, there were many self-defeating contradictions among the reform plans. For example, while creating the National Assembly and Provincial Assemblies in order to widen the path for the expression of public opinion as part of the preparation for constitutionalism, the government put increasingly strict controls over all expression of thought. Once the Ch'ing had accepted the idea of constitutionalism, Chinese intellectuals began to demand the immediate opening of the parliament. Secondly, all the participants in the reform programmes sought their own interest. The reforms after 1901 were promoted mainly by Jung-lu, a Manchu grand councillor, and Chang Chih-tung, Liu K'un-i and Yuan Shih-k'ai, who were Chinese governors-general. Finally in 1908, when the emperor and the empress dowager both died, and Prince Ch'un became the prince regent, Yuan Shih-k'ai was forced to retire to Honan.
  • 8 - Government, merchants and industry to 1911
    pp 416-462
  • View abstract
    Many scholar-officials' main emphasis was on modern industry. They generally assumed that commercial enterprises could at best play a supporting role. Influential officials who became major sponsors of modern enterprise were especially partial to industry. From the early 1870s, Li Hung-chang argued that guns and gunboats alone did not make a nation strong; their operation required the support of industry in manufacturing, mining and modern communications; industry would create new wealth - a further source of national strength. Chang Chih-tung, too, realized the link between military power and economic development. Chinese promotion of modern enterprise in the late nineteenth century was inspired by the political necessity of quickly achieving respectable national strength. This fundamental goal united government officials of various persuasions in a common commitment to industrialization. A few modern enterprises were able to avoid either official sponsorship or comprador management. Hua-hsin was in fact a private enterprise in which official and merchant shareholders collaborated as individuals.
  • 9 - The republican revolutionary movement
    pp 463-534
  • View abstract
    The unity achieved by the revolutionaries in 1905 was a higher degree of unity than the ten-year-old movement had previously reached. Much of its cement was supplied by ideology, but this is only to say that in the realm of ideas the revolutionaries were somewhat less divided than they were otherwise. There was no widely accepted doctrine in the republican revolutionary movement. The widening area of consensus and the sharpening points of ideological conflict help us to understand the character of the republican revolutionary movement and its place in China's modern history. The widening consensus embraced many so-called 'reformers' as well as revolutionaries. The main outlines of revolutionary ideology were provided by Sun Yatsen. Supporters such as Hu Han-min, a leading People's Report writer, defended Sun's ideas, and the Revolutionary Alliance openly appealed for foreign help. The revolutionaries had always insisted that the Ch'ing reforms were designed only to strengthen the dynasty; now they had fresh ammunition and new targets.
  • 10 - Currents of social change
    pp 535-602
  • View abstract
    This chapter elucidates the internal dynamic of China's social evolution at the end of the Ch'ing by looking at the rural world which still contained some 95 per cent of the total population. In the very last years of the monarchy, division among the new privileged classes grew from within and was actually more ideological than social. Instability and precariousness more aptly characterize lower class conditions in Chinese society at the end of the monarchy than do models of continuous evolution. Among the many factors contributing to changes in Chinese society during the last forty years of the monarchy, the foreign intrusion, in various forms, was of primary importance. The force behind the changes which shook Chinese society at the end of the imperial era perhaps lay more in the progressive deterioration of the agrarian situation and especially in landowners' relationships with their tenants.
  • Bibliographical essays
    pp 603-626
  • View abstract
    This bibliography presents a list of titles that help the reader to understand the China's modern economic history. Published sources for the economy in the late Ch'ing period include two large collections of documents photographically reproduced from the archives of the Tsungli Yamen and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Chinese diplomatic history must begin with documented studies in the several major languages, and be supplemented by consideration of the Chinese social, political, economic, intellectual and psychological milieu which set the stage for China's foreign relations. Historical sources for the study of China's perception of Western relations during the late Ch'ing period are rich but scattered. The main source materials on the outspoken scholar-officials are their own writings. The reform movement of the 1890s is an under-researched subject. The military system of the late Ch'ing was outlined in 1930 by Wen Kungchih.
A Ying, (Hsing-ts'un, Ch'ien), comp. Ya-p'ien chan-cheng wen-hsueh chi (Literary writings concerning the Opium War). 2 vols. Peking: Ku-chi, 1957.
Alder, G. J. British India's northern frontier 1865–95: a study in imperial policy. London: Longmans, 1963.
Amagai, Kenzaburō. Chūgoku tochi monjo no kenkyū (Studies on Chinese documents on land). Tokyo: Keisō Shobō, 1966.
Amano, Motonosuke. Shina nōgyō keizai ron (On the Chinese agricultural economy). 2 vols. Tokyo: Kaizōsha, 1940–2.
Amano, Motonosuke. Chūgoku nōgyō no sho mondai (Problems of Chinese agriculture). 2 vols. Tokyo: Gihōdō, 1952–3.
Anon, . ‘The Chinese and Japanese armies’. Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 15 (1894) 255–9.
Armengaud, Captain (Jean, Louis). Lang-Son: journal des opérations qui ont précédé et suivi la prise de cette citadelle. Paris: R. Chapelot et Cie, 1901.
Ayers, William. Chang Chih-tung and educational reform in China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971.
Bales, W. L. Tso Tsungt'ang: soldier and statesman of old China. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1937.
Banno, Masataka. ‘Furansu ryūgaku jidai no Ba Ken-chū — gaikō oyobi gaikōkan seido ni tsuite no futatsu no ikensho’ (Ma Chien-chung during his days of study in France — two proposals regarding foreign relations and the foreign service system). Kokkagakkai zassbi, 84.5 and 6 (1971) 257–93.
Banno, Masataka. China and the West, 1858–1861: the origins of the Tsungli Yamen. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964.
Barnett, Suzanne Wilson. ‘Wei Yuan and Westerners. Notes on the sources of the Hai-kuo t'u-chih’. Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i, 2.4 (1970) 1–20.
Bastid, Marianne. Aspects de la réforme de l'enseignement en Chine au début de XX' siécie, d'après des écrits de Zhang Jian. Paris and The Hague: Mouton, 1971.
Bawden, C. R. The modern history of Mongolia. New York: Praeger, 1968.
Bays, Daniel H. China enters the twentieth century: Chang Chih-tung and the issues of a new age, 1895–1909. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1978.
Bell, Mark. China, being a military report on the northeastern portions of the provinces of Chihli and Shantung; Nanking and its approaches; Canton and its approaches; etc., 2 vols. Simla: Government Central Branch Press, 1884.
Bellew, Henry Walter. Kashmir and Kashgar: a narrative of the journey of the embassy to Kashgar in 1873–1874. London: Trübner, 1875.
Bennett, Adrian A. Research guide to the Chiao-hui hsin-pao (The church news), 1868–1874. San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center, 1975.
Bennett, Adrian A. Research guide to the Wan-kuo kung-pao (The globe magazine), 1874–1883. San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center, 1976.
Bennett, Adrian A. and Liu, Kwang-Ching. ‘Christianity in the Chinese Idiom: Young J. Allen and the early Chiao-hui hsin-pao, 1868–70’, in Fairbank, John K., ed. The missionary enterprise in China and America, pp. 159–96. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975.
Bergère, Marie-Claire. ‘La Révolution de 1911 jugée par les historiens de la république populaire de Chine: themes et controverses’, Revue Historique, 468 (Oct.–Dec. 1963) 403–36.
Bergère, Marie-Claire. La Bourgeoisie chinoise et la révolution de 1911. Paris: Mouton, 1968.
Bernal, Martin. Chinese socialism to 1907. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976.
Biggerstaff, Knight. ‘The Ch'ung-hou mission to France, 1870–71’. Nankai Social and Economic Quarterly, 8.3 (Oct. 1935) 633–47.
Biggerstaff, Knight. The earliest modern government schools in China. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1961.
,Blackburn Chamber of Commerce. Report of the mission to China of the Blackburn Chamber of Commerce, 1896–7. Blackburn: North East Lancashire Press, 1898.
Blacker, Carmen. The Japanese enlightenment: a study of the writings of Fukuzawa Yukichi. Cambridge University Press, 1964.
Blythe, Wilfred. The impact of Chinese secret societies in Malaya. A historical study. London, Kuala-Lumpur, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1969.
Boorman, Howard L. and Howard, Richard C. Biographical dictionary of Republican China. 4 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967–71. Vol. 5 index, 1979.
Brassey, T. A., ed. The naval annual, 1895. Portsmouth: J. Griffin, 1895.
Britton, Roswell S. The Chinese periodical press, 1800–1912. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1933.
Buck, John Lossing. Land utilization in China. 3 vols. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1937.
Bujac, E. Précis de quelques campagnes contemporaines: vol. 2, La Guerre sino-japonaise. Paris: Henri Charles-Lavauzelle, 1896.
Cady, John F. The roots of French imperialism in Eastern Asia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967.
Cameron, Meribeth E. The reform movement in China, 1898–1912. Stanford University Press, 1931.
Carlson, Ellsworth C. The Kaiping mines, 1877–1912: a case study of early Chinese industrialization. 2nd edn. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971.
Cavendish, A. E. J.The armed strength (?) of China’, Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, 42 (June 1898) 705–23.
Ch'ai, Te-keng et al. eds. Hsin-hai ko-ming (The 1911 Revolution). 8 vols. Shanghai: Jen-min 1957; also cited as Te-keng, Ch'ai, et al. eds. Hsin-bai ko-ming.
Chambre, Commerce Lyon, ed. La Mission lyonnaise d'exploration commerciale en Chine 1895–1897. Lyon: A. Rey et Cie, 1898.
Chan, Wellington K. K.Ma Ju-lung: from rebel to turncoat in the Yunnan rebellion’, Papers on China, 20 (1966) 86–118.
Chan, Wellington, K. K. Merchants, mandarins and modern enterprise in late Ch'ing China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977.
Chang, Ch'i-yun et al. eds. Ch'ing-shih (History of the Ch'ing dynasty). 8 vols. Taipei: Kuo-fang yen-chiu yuan, 1961.
Chang, Chien. T'ung-chou hsing-pan shih-yeh chih li-shih: Ta-sheng sha-ch'ang (A history of the industries established at T'ung-chou: The Dah Sun Cotton Spinning Mill). Nan-t'ung, 1910.
Chang, Chien. Chang Chi-tzu chiu lu (Nine records of Chang Chien). Hsiao-jo, Chang, ed. 80 chüan. Shanghai: Chung-hua, 1931; Taipei: Wen-hai, 1965.
Chang, Chien. Liu-hsi-ts'ao-t'angjih-chi (Diary from the cottage west of the willow). Original edn: 15 ts'e in Jen-min, Shanghai, 1962; and 4 t'se in Wen-hai, Taipei, 1967. 2nd edn complete: 12 ts'e in Wen-hai, Taipei, 1969.
Chang, Chih-tung. Chang Wen-hsiang kung chi (The papers of Chang Chih-tung). T'ung-hsin, Hsu, ed. 150 chüan. Peking, 1919–21.
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Chang, Chih-tung. Chang Wen-hsiang kung ch'üan-chi (Complete collection of Chang Chih-tung's papers). Shu-nan, Wang, ed. 228 chüan. Peiping 1937. Taipei, reproduction, Wen-hai, , 1963.
Chang, Chih-tung. Ch'üan-hsueh p'ien (Exhortation to study). 1898 preface; Kuang-hsu, period edn. Taipei, reproduction, Wen-hai, , 1966.
Chang, Ching-lu Chung-kuo chin-tai ch'u-pan shih-liao ch'u-pien (Materials on the history of publication in modern China, first collection). Shanghai: Ch'ün-lien, 1954.
Chang, Ching-lu. Chung-kuo chin-tai ch'u-pan shih-liao pu-pien (Materials on the history of publication in modern China, supplementry collection). Shanghai: Chung-hua, 1957.
Chang, Hsiao-jo. Nan-t'ung Chang Chi-chih hsien-sheng chuan-chi (A biography of Mr Chien, Chang of Nan-t'ung). Shanghai: Chung-hua, 1930. Taipei reproduction, Wen-hsing, 1965.
Chang, Ming-san, trans. Jih-pen wen-hsueh tui Chung-kuo ti ying-hsiang (The influence of Japanese literature on China). Shanghai: Hsin shen pao k'an, 1944. See Keishū, Sanetō, Nihon bunka no Shina e no eikyō (q.v.).
Chang, Nan and Jen-chih, Wang. Hsin-hai ko-ming ch'ien shih-nien chien shih-lun hsuan-chi (Selections from opinions expressed in periodicals and newspapers during the decade before the 1911 Revolution). 2 series (chüan), each in 2 vols. Peking: San-lien, 1960, 1963.
Chang, P'ei-lun. Chien-yü chi (Memorials of Chang P'ei-lun). 6 chüan, 1918 preface. Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1967.
Chang, P'eng-yuan. Li-hsien-p'ai yü hsin-hai ko-ming (The constitutionalists and the 1911 Revolution). Taipei: Commercial Press for IMH, Academia Sinica, 1969.
Chang, Po-fang, comp. Ch'ing-tai ko-ti chiang-chün tu-t'ung ta-ch'en teng nien-piao, 1796–1911 (Chronological tables of Manchu generals-in-chief, lieutenants-general, imperial agents, etc., in various areas under the Ch'ing, 1796–1911). Peking: Chung-hua, 1965.
Chang, Po-hsi et al. Tsou-ting hsueh-t'ang chang-ch'eng (Regulations concerning educational institutions as approved by the throne). 5 ts'e. Nanking, 1904. Wuchang: Hu-pei hsueh-wu ch'u, Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1972.
Chang, T'ing-chü. ‘Wu-hsu cheng-pien shih-ch'i wan-ku-p'ai chih ching-chi ssu-hsiang’ (The economic thought of the reactionary faction during the reform of 1898). Chung-kuo ching-chi, 4.6 (1936) 141–7.
Chang, Yü-chao. Ch'ien-t'ing wen-chi (Chang, Yü-chao's writings). 8 chüan. Soochow: Ch'a-shih mu-chien chai, 1882.
Chang, Yü-fa. Ch'ing-chi ti li-hsien t'uan-t'i (Constitutionalist groups of the late Ch'ing period). Taipei: IMH, Academia Sinica, 1971.
Chang, Yü-fa. Ch'ing-chi ti ko-ming t'uan-t'i (Revolutionary groups of the late Ch'ing period). Taipei: IMH, Academia Sinica, 1975.
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Chang, Chung-li. The Chinese gentry. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1955.
Chang, Chung-li. The income of the Chinese gentry. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1962.
Chang, Hao. ‘The antiforeignist role of Wo-jen, 1804–1871’, Papers on China, 14 (1960) 1–29.
Chang, Hao. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and intellectual transition in China, 1890–1907. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971.
Chang, Kuo-t'ao. The rise of the Chinese Communist Party. 2 vols. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1971–2.
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Chao, Feng-t'ien. Wan-Ch'ing wu-shih-nien ching-chi ssu-hsiang shih (History of economic thought during the last fifty years of the Ch'ing period). Peiping: Yenching University, 1939.
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Ch'en, Chih. Yung-shu (Commonplace writings). 1897, preface 1896, n. p.
Ch'en, Ch'ing-chih. Chung-kuo chiao-yü shih (History of education in China). Taipei: Commercial Press, 1966.
Ch'en, Ch'iu. Ching-shih po-i (Broad suggestions on statecraft). n. p., 1893.
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