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  • Cited by 2
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Alicia 2017. An approach to the historical sketches of the English language in eighteenth-century grammars of English. Language & History, Vol. 60, Issue. 2, p. 79.

    Chadelat, Jean-Marc 2004. Du signe au sens : l’adaptation traductive du lexique dans quelques traductions de Shakespeare. Palimpsestes, p. 85.

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  • Volume 3: 1476–1776
  • Edited by Roger Lass, University of Cape Town

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    The Cambridge History of the English Language
    • Online ISBN: 9781139053747
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264761
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This volume of the Cambridge History of the English Language covers the period 1476–1776, beginning at the time of the establishment of Caxton's first press in England and concluding with the American Declaration of Independence, the notional birth of the first (non-insular) extraterritorial English. It encompasses three centuries which saw immense cultural change over the whole of Europe: the late middle ages, the renaissance, the reformation, the enlightenment, and the beginnings of romanticism. During this time, Middle English became Early Modern English and then developed into the early stages of indisputably 'modern', if somewhat old-fashioned, English. In this book, the distinguished team of six contributors traces these developments, covering orthography and punctuation, phonology and morphology, syntax, lexis and semantics, regional and social variation, and the literary language. The volume also contains a glossary of linguistic terms and an extensive bibliography.

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‘… the fullest treatment of the language of the period available in one place to date.’

Source: Language

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  • 1 - INTRODUCTION
    pp 1-12
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264761.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This introduction presents an overview of concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book treats the history of English from the late fifteenth to the late eighteenth century. The dates are at least partly symbolic, framing the establishment of Caxton's first press in England and the American Declaration of Independence, the notional birth of the first (non-insular) extraterritorial English. One might expect enormous social, political and cultural change to correlate with great linguistic change. From the mid-sixteenth century there is a new historiograpical dimension: people now have access to writers on the language. For the first time in the history of English there is extensive metalinguistic discourse: grammarians and orthoepists comment not only on sociolinguistic matters, but on linguistic structure itself. There is a new tradition of phonetic description, explicit grammatical analysis, and a wealth of judgement on the status of particular pronunciations, forms and constructions.
  • 2 - ORTHOGRAPHY AND PUNCTUATION
    pp 13-55
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264761.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    With the growth of literacy which accompanied the development of printing, English linguistic scholars were forced, if only for practical reasons, to confront the orthographical problems which were a legacy of the Middle Ages and to search for solutions for those characteristic of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, in particular the problems posed by homophones, homographs and homonyms. Manuscripts written by two authors who were concerned with the reform of orthography, and in one case, in describing the function of punctuation, are examined for evidence they provide of the extent to which punctuation was regarded as of importance by careful writers. Once the problem of orthography had been largely solved, grammarians turned to a detailed analysis of the forms and function of punctuation and capitalisation. Current English orthography does benefit from the rules for marking long and short vowels by final and doubled consonants, which were first clearly formulated by Mulcaster.
  • 3 - Phonology and Morphology
    pp 56-186
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264761.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter talks about the history of English phonology and morphology. It focuses on John Hart's Orthographie (1569), probably the most important of the sixteenth-century witnesses, and one of the monuments of English descriptive phonetics. Most linguistic information from the past is contained not in grammatical descriptions but in ordinary texts, which simply represent the normal use of language for other tasks. Morphological and syntactic information is more or less directly present; phonology comes only indirectly, through spellings, rhymes and metrical usage. The standard presentation of morphology in historical grammars is in terms of paradigms: inventories of forms taken by given lexemes or lexeme-classes. Such inventories are of course 'true', and often useful, and the chapter cites them where appropriate. Morphology ultimately depends on syntax, and to a lesser but significant degree on extragrammatical factors as well, e.g. style.
  • 4 - SYNTAX
    pp 187-331
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264761.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses the most important syntactic constructions in Early Modern English, with particular attention to the features which underwent major changes. In the formation of noun phrases, the use of the articles becomes more systematic than in Middle English, and the possibility of using adjectives or the adjectival forms of indefinite pronouns as heads more restricted. The majority of the examples illustrating the syntactic constructions and their development are taken from the Early Modern English section of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts. The most important Early Modern developments in the structure of the clause are the establishment of the subject-verb order in most statement types and the regularization of do in questions and negations. Composite sentences consist of two or more clauses. The chapter explains many interesting aspects of the structure and linking of the subordinate clauses including nominal clause, relative clause and adverbial clause.
  • 5 - EARLY MODERN ENGLISH LEXIS AND SEMANTICS
    pp 332-458
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264761.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses the various ways in which the lexicon was enriched and stratified in the formative centuries of the emerging standard language. It provides an overview of the varying degrees to which different lexical processes were being implemented in Early Modern English. Serving as a background to the individual sections on borrowing, word-formation and semantic change, the chapter discusses the general conditions, linguistic and extralinguistic, under which these processes operate. The productivity of word-formation processes was increased during the first two centuries of the Early Modern English period by the loose constraints regulating their input ranges and synonymy. A word could serve as a base for multiple synonymous derivations. Fewer affixes fell into disuse than were introduced in the wake of borrowing. Hybrid formations were found with affixes that had come into English in the Middle English period, and were fully naturalised in Early Modern English. All these factors contributed to lexical growth.
  • 6 - REGIONAL AND SOCIAL VARIATION
    pp 459-538
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264761.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Early Modern English period was decisive for the modern definition of the status of the newly emerging standard language. A great number of social, regional and stylistic factors combine when it comes to deciding about prestige and correctness, and about the appropriateness of specific forms of language in a given situation. Modern sociolinguistic studies have shown that social variables like age, sex, religion, social status and occupation are relevant for linguistic stratification, and also for how they correlate with statistical probabilities of occurrence in individual speech communities or groups. However, it is also evident that social factors and their relative importance are subject to change, at least as much as the linguistic variables and their available variants are. Moreover, modern sociolinguistics has also shown that factors that speakers are unaware of are frequently as crucial as those that are conspicuous, and that there may be combinations of determinants that are relevant where the individual categories are not.
  • 7 - LITERARY LANGUAGE
    pp 539-653
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264761.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter presents two overlapping phases in the history of the Literary Standard. The first phase begins with the educational reforms associated with Erasmus and Colet at the start of the sixteenth century and ends in 1667 with Milton's publication of Paradise Lost, the last major work written fully in the spirit of those reforms. The second phase begins in the 1640s, when writers attached to the Stuart court in exile came under the influence of French neo-classicism and writers who remained in England were released from the hegemony of court style and the restrictions of royal censorship. The chapter looks at the terms of the compromise as they affect two key areas of neo-classical poetic practice, poetic diction and versification, corresponding to those aspects of the sublime that Addison in labels 'the magnificence of the words' and 'the harmonious and lively turn of the phrase'.
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