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Hard-to-Survey Populations
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  • Cited by 11
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Heeringa, Steven G 2018. Discussion of “Probability Sampling by Connecting Space with Households Using GIS/GPS Technologies” by Chen, X.; Xu, X.; Gong, J.; Yan, Y.; Fang, L.. Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, Vol. 6, Issue. 2, p. 169.

    Chykina, Volha and Crabtree, Charles 2018. Using Google Trends to Measure Issue Salience for Hard-to-Survey Populations. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, Vol. 4, Issue. , p. 237802311876041.

    Crowley, Jocelyn Elise and Brand, Jessica DePalma 2018. Should It Be Easy? Divorce Process Attitudes Among Those Who Have Split Up in Midlife. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, p. 1.

    Lupu, Noam and Michelitch, Kristin 2018. Advances in Survey Methods for the Developing World. Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 195.

    González-Echevarría, Angélica M. Rosario, Ernesto Acevedo, Summer and Flores, Idhaliz 2018. Impact of coping strategies on quality of life of adolescents and young women with endometriosis. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, p. 1.

    Shevchuk, Andrey and Strebkov, Denis 2017. Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies. p. 401.

    Llamas, Jasmin Holmes, Louisa M. Lisha, Nadra E. and Ling, Pamela M. 2017. Psychometric evaluation of an abbreviated version of the intragroup marginalization inventory. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, p. 1.

    Kneafsey, Moya Owen, Luke Bos, Elizabeth Broughton, Kevin and Lennartsson, Margi 2017. Capacity building for food justice in England: the contribution of charity-led community food initiatives. Local Environment, Vol. 22, Issue. 5, p. 621.

    Holmes, Louisa M and Ling, Pamela M 2017. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure: a lingering hazard for young adults in California. Tobacco Control, Vol. 26, Issue. e1, p. e79.

    Farina, Patrizia Ortensi, Livia Elisa and Menonna, Alessio 2016. Estimating the number of foreign women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Italy. The European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 656.

    Chen, Sixia and Kalton, Graham 2015. Geographic Oversampling for Race/Ethnicity Using Data from the 2010 U.S. Population Census. Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, Vol. 3, Issue. 4, p. 543.


Book description

Surveys are used extensively in psychology, sociology and business, as well as many other areas, but they are becoming increasingly difficult to conduct. Some segments of the population are hard to sample, some are hard to find, others are hard to persuade to participate in surveys, and still others are hard to interview. This book offers the first systematic look at the populations and settings that make surveys hard to conduct and at the methods researchers use to meet these challenges. It covers a wide range of populations (immigrants, persons with intellectual difficulties, and political extremists) and settings (war zones, homeless shelters) that offer special problems or present unusual challenges for surveys. The team of international contributors also addresses sampling strategies including methods such as respondent-driven sampling and examines data collection strategies including advertising and other methods for engaging otherwise difficult populations.


‘The challenge of doing research with rare and difficult to find populations is shared across all sectors of the research industry. This book offers the first comprehensive treatment of methods specifically designed to meet that challenge.’

Reg Baker - Senior Consultant, Market Strategies International

'Hard- to-Survey Populations fills a key gap in the survey methods literature. It will be relied upon by both novices and experts.’

Stanley Presser - Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland

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