Skip to main content
Microclimate and Local Climate
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Microclimate and Local Climate
    • Online ISBN: 9781316535981
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This book provides an up-to-date, comprehensive treatment of the variables and processes of microclimate and local climate, including radiation balance and energy balance. It describes and explains the climate within the lower atmosphere and upper soil, the region critical to life on Earth. Topics that are covered include not only the physical processes that affect microclimate, but also biological processes that affect vegetation and animals, including people. A geographic tour of the microclimates of the major ecosystems around the world is included. All major biomes and surface types, including urban areas, are examined, and the effects of climate change on microclimate are described. This book is invaluable for advanced students and researchers in climatology in departments of environmental science, geography, meteorology, agricultural science, and forestry.


‘A masterful overview of a fundamental topic in climatology, by two leaders in the field who provide clear explanations and an up-to-date summary of the literature. Essential reading for anybody interested in climate science.’

Raymond Bradley - Director, Climate System Research Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

‘… a must-have for all climate scientists, not just those working in the boundary layer or on processes at the second and meter scales … The range of topics presented is encyclopedic, and includes in-depth discussion of urban climates, bio-climatology, agro-climatology, remote sensing approaches, and many others. Barry and Blanken have done an astounding job of knitting these many disparate yet related topics into a coherent and well-organized discussion that spans all of Earth's latitude zones and surface environments … this ambitious book fully delivers: it is a masterpiece of knowledge, experience, insights, and data on observed climate features and modeled climate processes occurring on all scales … For many years to come, this will be a crucial reference and textbook for climate scientists in meteorology, geography, biology and ecology, landscape and urban design, agriculture, remote sensing, and many other disciplines.’

Andrew M. Carleton - Pennsylvania State University

‘There are relatively few textbooks written on this topic, making this book a very welcome addition to the existing literature. … this textbook brings the study of microclimate up to date … it does an excellent job of linking the microclimate to the larger scale climate within which it exists.'

Marilyn N. Raphael - University of California, Los Angeles

‘The authors’ succeed commendably in their stated goal to quantitatively integrate processes acting on the small-scale (microclimate) with those operating at the larger scale (macroclimate). … There is much to learn from this book. … This volume will serve well as both a senior-level textbook and as an up-to-date reference for the knowledgeable reader.’

Wayne Rouse - McMaster University, Ontario

‘[The book’s] many strengths include, in particular, the chapters on observations and instrumentation, radiation, energy and moisture monitoring from remote sensing, the microclimates of different vegetation environments, and Bioclimatology; the emphasis on urban climate processes at both micro and local-to-regional scales; the larger context and importance of global environmental changes …; consideration of a wide range of non-vegetated environments; the integration of modeling approaches with the observational and empirical approaches; the physical geography and environmental history contexts of many topics …; the Box topics; the high-quality figures and clear, incisive tables; and the inclusion of detailed information from published studies spanning the widest ranges geographically and temporally. In short, this book is an outstanding, essential addition to the personal library of every student of climate and environmental science writ large!’

Andrew M. Carleton Source: Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

W. A. Baum , and A. Court 1949. Research status and needs in microclimatology. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 30, 488–93.

G. Bonan 2008. Ecological climatology: Concepts and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

J. Franklin et al. 2013. Modeling plant species distributions under future climates: How fine scale do climate projections need to be? Global Change Biol. 19, 473–83.

R. M. Holmes , and A. N. Dingle 1965. The relationship between the macro- and microclimate. Agric. Met. 2, 127–33.

M. R. Kearney , A. Matzelle , and B. Helmuth 2012. Biomechanics meets the ecological niche: The importance of temporal data resolution. J. Exper. Biol. 215, 922–33.

R. Monson , and D. Baldochhi 2014. Terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere fluxes. New York: Cambridge University Press.

K. A. Potter , H. A. Woods , and S. Pincebourde 2013. Microclimatic challenges in global change biology. Global Change Biol. 19, 2932–9)

J. N Wolfe . et al. 1943. The microclimates of a small valley in central Ohio. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 24, 154–66.

P. D. Blanken , and W. R. Rouse 1996. Evidence of water conservation mechanisms in several subarctic wetland species. J. Appl. Ecol. 33(4): 842–50.

P. Damos , and M. Savopoulou-Soultani 2012. Temperature-driven models for insect development and vital thermal requirements. Psyche 2012, Article ID 123405.

S. R. Fassnacht , and J. S. Deems 2006. Measurement sampling and scaling for deep montane snow depth data. Hydrol. Proc. 20: 829–38.

L. Gimeno et al. 2014. Atmospheric rivers: A mini review. Frontiers Earth Science 2: 2. doi: 10.3389/feart.2014.00002

J. P. Hardy et al. 2001. Snow depth manipulation and its influence on soil frost and water dynamics in a northern hardwood forest. Biogeochem. 56(2): 151–74.

J. L. Heitman et al. 2008. Sensible heat observations reveal soil-water evaporation dynamics. J. Hydrometeor 9: 165–71.

G. J. Husak , G. Michaelsen , and C. Funk 2007. Use of the gamma distribution to represent monthly rainfall in Africa, for drought monitoring applications. Int. J. Climatol. 27: 935–44.

S. Jasechko et al. 2013. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration. Nature 496: 347–5

P. D. Jones et al. 1999. Surface air temperzture and its changes over the past 150 years. Rev. Geophys. 37: 173–99.

T. R. Karl 1986. The sensitivity of the Palmer Drought Severity Index and Palmer's Z-Index to their calibration coefficients including potential evapotranspiration. J. Climate Appl. Met. 25: 77–86.

G. Katata 2014. Fogwater deposition modeling for terrestrial ecosystems: A review of developments and measurements. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119. doi:10.1002/2014JD02166.

J. F. Knowles , P. D. Blanken , and M. W. Williams 2015. Soil respiration variability across a soil moisture and vegetation community gradient within a snow-scoured alpine meadow. Biogeochemistry. doi: 10.1007/s10533-015-0122-3.

K. J. Kristensen 1959. Temperature and heat balance of soil. Oikos 10:103–20.

B. E. Law , M. G. Ryan , and P. M. Anthoni 1999. Seasonal and annual respiration of a ponderosa pine ecosystem. Global Change Biol. 5: 169–82.

J. Lloyd , and J. A. Taylor 1994. On the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Functional Ecol. 8: 315–23.

N. G. McDowell , S. White , and W. T. Pockman 2008. Transpiration and stomatal conductance across a steep climate gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains. Ecohydrol. 1: 193–204. doi: 10.1002/eco.20.

J. L. Monteith , and G. Szeicz 1962. Radiative temperature in the heat balance of natural surfaces. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 88: 496–507.

P. J. Neiman et al. 2008. Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West Coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations. J. Hydromet. 9: 22–47.

R. E. Newell et al. 1992, Tropospheric rivers? A pilot study. Geophys. Res. Lett. 19: 2401–4.

J. L. H. Paulhus 1965. Indian Ocean and Taiwan rainfall set new records. Mon. Wea. Rev., 93(5): 331–35.

F. M. Ralph , P. J. Neiman , and G. A Wick . 2004: Satellite and CALJET aircraft observations of atmospheric rivers over the eastern north Pacific Ocean during the winter of 1997/98. MWR 132: 1721–45.

W. H. Ransom 1963. Solar radiation and temperature. Weather 18: 18–23.

J. W. Ramsey , H. D. Chiang , and R. J. Goldstein 1982. A study of the incoming long wave atmospheric radiation from a clear sky, J. Appl. Met. 21: 566–78.

W. G. N. Slinn 1982. Predictions for particle deposition to vegetative canopies. Atmos. Environ. 16, 1785–94.

K. Shook , and D. M. Gray 1996. Small-scale spatial structure of shallow snowcovers. Hydrol. Proc. 10: 283–92.

J. J. Sinclair 1922. Temperature of soil and air in a desert. MWR 50: 142–4.

C. Tarnocai et al. 2009. Carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region. Global Biogeochem. Cycles: 23: GB003327.

D. E. Waliser et al. 2012. The year of tropical convection (May 2008–April 2010): climate variability and weather highlights. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 93: 1189–1218.

L-X. Wang , S. P. Good , and K. K. Caylor 2014. Global synthesis of vegetation control on evapotranspiration partitioning. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41: 6753–7.

J. M. Warren , F. C. Meinzer , R. Brooks , J-C. Domec , and R. Coulombe 2007. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water in two old-growth coniferous forests: Quantifying patterns and controls. New Phytologist 173: 753–65.

M. Aubinet , T. Vesala , and D. Papale (eds.) 2012. Eddy covariance: A practical guide to measurement and data analysis. Dordrecht: Springer.

M. Y. Leclerc and T. Foken 2014. Footprints in micrometeorology and ecology.Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

S. Merz et al. 2014. Moisture profiles of the upper soil layer during evaporation monitored by NMR. Water Resour. Res. doi: 10.1002/2013WR014809.

M. Mudelsee 2014. Climate time series analysis. Netherlands: Springer.

A. Navarra , and V. Simoncini 2010. A guide to empirical orthogonal functions for climate data analysis.Netherlands: Springer.

A. M. Obukhov 1971. Turbulence in an atmosphere with a non-uniform temperature, Boundary-Layer Met. 2, 7–29.

P. J. Perez , F. Castellvi , M. Ibañez , and J. I. Rosell 1999. Assessment of reliability of Bowen ratio method for partitioning fluxes, Agric. Forest Met. 97, 141–50.

R Rasmussen et al. 2012. How well are we measuring snow? Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 93(6), 811–29. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00052.1.

A. Robock et al., 2000. The global soil moisture data bank. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 81(6), 1281–99.

K. Rötzer , C. Montzka and H. Vereecken 2015. Spatio-temporal variability of global soil moisture products. J. Hydrol. 522, 187–202.

M. J. Savage , C. S. Everson , and B. R. Metelerkamp 2009. Bowen ratio evaporation measurement in a remote montane grassland: Data integrity and fluxes. J. Hydrol. 376, 249–60.

C. Sayde et al. 2014. Mapping variability of soil water content and flux across 1–1000 m scales using the Actively Heated Fiber Optic method, Water Resour. Res. 50. doi:10.1002/2013WR014983.

H., von Storch , and A Navarra (eds.) 1999. Analysis of Climate Variability, 2nd Ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

H. Vereecken et al. 2008. On the value of soil moisture measurements in vadose zone hydrology: a review. Water Resour. Res. 44, W00D06.

M. Zreda et al. 2012. COSMOS: the cosmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System. Hydrol. Earth System Sci. 16(11).

G. P. Asner et al. 1998. Ecological research needs from multi-angle remote sensing data. Remote Sensing Environment 63, 155–65.

P. D. Blanken et al. 2001. The seasonal energy and water exchange above and within a boreal aspen forest. J. Hydrology 245(1–4), 118–36.

K. L Bristow . et al. 1985. An equation for separating daily solar irradiation into direct and diffuse components. Agric. For. Met. 35, 123–31.

T. D. Brock 1981. The calculation of solar radiation for ecological studies. Ecol. Modelling 14, 1–19.

O,T. Denmead , I. J. Fritschen , and R. H. Shaw 1962. Spatial distribution of net radiation in a cornfield. Agron. J, 54, 505–10.

J. Goudrian 1988. The bare bones of leaf-angle distribution in radiation models for canopy photosynthesis and energy exchange. Agric. Forest Met. 43, 155–69.

B. Haurwitz 1948. Insolation in relation to cloud type. J. Met. 5, 110–13.

G. Kopp , and J. L. Lean 2011. A new lower value of total solar irradiance L evidence and climate significance. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L01706

R. Lemeur , and B. L. Blad 1974. A critical review of light models for estimating the shortwave radiation regime of plant canopies. Agric. Met. 14, 255–86.

Sh-L Liang , and A. H. Strahler 1994. Retrieval of surface BDRF from multiangle remotely sensed data. Rem. Sens. Environ. 50, 18–30.

K-N. Liou 1976. On the absorption, reflection and transmission of solar radiation in cloudy atmospheres .J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 798–805.

J. L. Monteith 1962. Attenuation of solar radiation – a climatological study, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 88, 508–21.

W. B. Rossow , and R. A. Schiffer 1999. Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 80, 2261–87.

G. Schaepman-Strub et al. 2006. Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing – definitions and case studies. Remote Sens. Environ. 103, 27–42.

G. Stanhill , G. J. Hofstede , and J. D. Kalma 1966. Radiation balance of natural and agricultural vegetation. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 92, 128–40.

M. Šuri , and J. Hofierka 2004. A new GIS-based solar radiation model and its application to photovoltaic assessments. Transactions in GIS. 8, 175–90.

W. C. Swinbank 1963. Long-wave radiation from clear skies. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 89, 339–48.

T. A. Tarasova , and B. A. Fomin 2000. Solar radiation absorption due to water vapor: Advanced broadband parameterizations. J. Appl. Met. 39, 1946–51.

S. Twomey 1976. Computations of the absorption of solar radiation by clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1087–91.

S. Twomey , and C. F. Bohren 1980. Simple approximations for calculations of absorption in clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2086–95.

C. L. Walthall et al. 1985. Simple equation to approximate the bidirectional reflectance from vegetation canopies and bare soil surfaces. Appl. Opt. 24, 383–7.

G. Wendler , B. Moore , B. Hartmann , M. Stuefer , and R. Flint 2004. Effects of multiple reflection and albedo on the net radiation in the pack ice zones of Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06113. doi:10.1029/2003JD003927.

L. D. Williams , R. G. Barry , and J. T. Andrews 1972. Application of computed global radiation for areas of high relief. J. Appl. Met. 11, 526–33.

G. Al Nakshabandi and H. Kohnke 1965. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of soils as related to moisture tension and other physical properties. Agric. Met. 2, 271–9.

D. D. Baldocchi and K. S. Rao 1995. Intra-field variability of scalar flux densities across a transition between a desert and an irrigated potato field. Boundary-Layer Met. 76 ,109–356.

R.G. Barry and T.Y. Gan 2011. The global cryosphetre; Past, presentand future. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.

P. D. Blanken et al. 1997. Energy balance and canopy conductance of a boreal aspen forest: Partitioning overstory and understory components. J. Geophys. Res. 102(D24), 28915–27.

I. S. Bowen 1926. The ratio of heat losses by conduction and by evaporation from any water surface. Phys. Rev. 27, 779–87.

W. H. Brutsaert 1982. Evaporation into the atmosphere. New York: Reidel.

W. H. Brutsaert , and M. B. Parlange 1998. Hydrologic cycle explains the evaporation paradox. Nature 396(30). doi: 10.1038/23845.

D-L. Cai et al. 2014. Climate and vegetation: An ERA-Interim and GIMMS NDVI analysis. J. Climate 27, 5111–18.

J. E. Carson 1963. Analysis of soil and air temperatures by Fourier technique .J. Geophys. Res. 68, 2217–32.

V. Conrad , and L. W. Pollak 1950. Methods in climatology, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

B. J Cosby . et al. 1984. A statistical exploration of the relationships of soil moisture characteristics to the physical properties of soils. Water Resour. Res. 20, 682–90.

B. O. M. Dirks , and A. Hensen 1999. Surface conductance and energy exchange in an intensively managed peat pasture. Climate Res. 12, 29–37. doi:10.3354/cr012029.

A. J. Dyer 1963. The adjustment of profiles and eddy fluxes. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 89, 276–80.

H. M. French 2007. The periglacial environment. New York: Wiley.

J. H. C. Gash 1979. An analytical model of rainfall interception by forests. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 105, 45–53.

J. H. C. Gash , C. R. Lloyd , and G. Lachaud 1995. Estimating sparse forest rainfall interception with an analytical model. J Hydrol. 170, 79–86.

L. E. Goodrich 1982. The influence of snow cover on the ground thermal regime. Canad. Geotech. J. 19, 421–32.

R. J. Granger 1989. An examination of the concept of potential evaporation. J. Hydrol. 111, 9–19.

G. H. Hargreaves , and R. G. Allen 2003. History and evaluation of Hargreaves evapotranspiration equation. J. Irrig. Drain. Eng. 129, 53–63.

R. E. Horton 1919. Rainfall interception. MWR 47, 603–23.

D. L. Kane et al. 2001. Non-conductive heat transfer associated with frozen soils. Global Planet. Change 29, 275–92

E. T. Linacre 1977. A simple formula for estimating evapotranspiration rates in various climates, using temperature data alone. Agric Met. 18, 409–24.

J. P Lhomme . 1988. A generalized combination equation derived from a multi-layer micro-meteorological model. Boundary-Layer Met. 45, 103–15.

J. P. Lhomme 1991. The concept of canopy resistance: Historical survey and comparison of different approaches. Agric. Forest Met. 54, 227–40.

C. R Lloyd , J. H. C. Gash , and W. J. Shuttleworth 1988. The measurement and modelling of rainfall interception by Amazonian rain forest .Agric. Forest Met. 43, 277–94.

J. R. Mackay 1972. The world of underground ice. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geog. 62, 1–22.

T. A. McMahon et al. 2013. Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: A pragmatic synthesis. Hydrol. Earth System Sci. 17, 1331–63.

K. G. McNaughton 1976A. Evaporation and advection. I. Evaporation from extensive homogeneous surfaces. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 102, 181–91.

K. G. McNaughton 1976B. Evaporation and advection. II: Evaporation downwind of a boundary separating regions having different surface resistances and available energies. Quart. J. Roy.Met Soc. 102, 193–202.

W. C. Palmer , and A. V. Havens 1958. A graphical technique for determining evapotranspirayion by the Thornthwaite method. MWR 86, 123–8.

H. L. Penman 1948: Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 193, 120–45.

J. R. Philip 1957. Evaporation and moisture and heat fields in the soils. J. Met. 14, 354–66.

C. H. B. Priestley 1955. Free and forced convection in the atmosphere near the ground. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 81, 139–43.

C. H. B. Priestley R. J. Taylor 1972. On the assessment of surface heat flux and evaporation using large-scale parameters. MWR 100, 81–92.

N. E. Rider 1957. A note on the physics of air temperature. Weather 12(8), 236–66.

W. J. Shuttleworth 2007. Putting the vap into evaporation. Hydrol. Earth System Sci. 11 ,210–44.

A. S. Thom , and H. R. Oliver 1977. On Penman's equation for estimating regional evaporation. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 103, 345–57.

C. W. Thornthwaite 1948. An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geog. Rev. 38, L 55–94.

G. P. Asner , J. M. Scurlock , and J. E Hicke . 2003. Global synthesis of leaf area index observations: implications for ecological and remote sensing studies. Global Ecol. Biogeog. 12, 191–205.

M. J Best , et al. 2011. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description. Part 1. Energy and water fluxes. Geosci. Model Dev. 4, 677–99.

P. D. Blanken 2009. Designing a living snow fence for snow drift control. Arctic, Antarct., Alp. Res. 41(4), 418–25.

P. D. Blanken , and T. A. Black 2004. The canopy conductance of a boreal aspen forest, Prince Albert National Park, Canada. Hydrol. Process. 18(9), 1561–78.

P. D. Blanken , and W. R. Rouse 1995. Modelling evaporation from a high subarctic willow-birch forest. Int. J. Climatol. 15(1), 99–106.

A. J. Brenner , P. G. Jarvis , and R. J. van den Beldt 1995. Windbreak-crop interactions in the Sahel. 2. Growth response of millet in shelter. Agric. For. Met. 75, 235–62.

G. J. Collatz , J. T. Ball , C. Grivet , and J. A. Berry 1991. Physiological and environmental regulation of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and transpiration: A model that includes a laminar boundary layer. Agric. For. Meteor. 54, 107–36.

D. Courault , B. Seguin , and A. Olioso 2005. Review on estimation of evapotranspiration from remote sensing data: from empirical to numerical modeling approaches. Irrigation Drainage Systems 19, 223–49.

P. J. Curran 1983. Multispectral remote sensing for the estimation of green leaf area index. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A 309, 257–70.

C. Daly et al. 2002. A knowledge-based approach to the statistical mapping of climate . Clim. Res. 22, 99–113.

C. Daly et al. 2008. Physiographically sensitive mapping of climatological temperature and precipitation across the conterminous United States. Int. J. Climatol. 28, 2031–64.

G. N. Flerchinger , and K. E. Saxton 1989. Simultaneous heat and water model of a freezing snow-residue-soil system I. Theory and development. Trans. ASAE 32(2), 565–71.

B. C. Hewitson and R. G. Crane 1996. Climate downscaling: Techniques and application. Clim. Res. 7, 85–95.

N. Huang , L. Gu , and Z. Niu 2014. Estimating soil respiration using spatial data products: A case study in a deciduous broadleaf forest in the Midwest USA. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119. doi:10.1002/2013JD020515.

P. G. Jarvis (1976) The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 273, 593–610.

M. J. Judd et al. 1996. A wind tunnel study of turbulent flow around single and multiple windbreaks. Part 1. Velocity fields. Boundary-layer Met. 80, 127–65.

M. R. Kearney et al. 2014a. Microclimate modelling at macro scales: A test of a general microclimate model integrated with gridded continental-scale soil and weather data. Methods Ecol. Evolution 5, 273–86.

J-P. Lagouarde 1991. Use of NOAA-AVHRR data combined with an agrometeorological model for evaporation mapping. Int. J. Rem. Sens. 12, 1853–64.

Q-Zh Mu ., M-Sh. Zhao , and S. W. Running 2011. Improvements to a MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm. Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 1781–1800.

Q-Zh Mu . et al. 2009. Satellite assessment of land surface evapotranspiration for the pan-Arctic domain. Water Resour. Res. 45, W09420.

J. W. Oyler et al. 2015. Creating a topoclimatic daily air temperature dataset for the conterminous United States using homogenized station data and remotely sensed land skin temperature. Int. J. Climatol. 35, 2258–79.

A. Pitman 2003. The evolution of, and revolution in, land surface schemes designed for climate models. Int. J. Climatol. 23, 479–510.

M. R. Raupach , and. J. Finnigan J. 1988. Single-layer models of evaporation from plant canopies are incorrect but useful, whereas multilayer models are correct but useless: Discuss. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 15, 705–16.

P. J. Sellers , D. A. Randall , G. J. Collatz , J. A. Berry , C. B. Field , D. A. Dazlich , C. Zhang , G. D. Collelo , and L. Bounoua 1996. A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs. Part I. Model formulation. J. Climate 9, 676–705.

P. E Thornton ., S. W. Running , and M. A. White 1997. Generating surfaces of daily meteorological variables over large regions of complex terrain . J. Hydrol. 190, 214–51.

P. Viterbo , and C. M. Beljaars 1995. An improved land surface parameterization scheme in the ECMWF model and its validation. J. Climate 8, 2716–48.

H. Wang , and E. S. Takle 1995. A numerical simulation of boundary-layer flows near shelterbelts. Boundary Layer Met. 75, 141–73.

H. Wang , E. S. Takle , and J. Shen 2001: Shelterbelts and windbreaks: Mathematical modeling and computer simulation of turbulent flows. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 33, 549–86.

P. A. Addison , and L. C. Bliss 1980. Summer climate, microclimate, and energy budget of a polar semidesert on Kimg Christian Island, N.W.T., Canada. Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 161–70.

N. Bauer , and Z. Kenyeres 2007. Seasonal changes of microclimatic conditions in grasslands and its influence on orthopteran assemblages. Biologia 62, 742–8.

A. K. Betts , and J. H. Ball 1998. FIFE surface climate and site-average dataset: 1987–1989. J. Atmos Sci 55, 1091–1108.

P. D. Blanken 2014. The effect of winter drought on evaporation from a high-elevation wetland. J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci. 119. doi:10.1002/2014JG002648.

P.D. Blanken , W.R. Rouse , and W.M. Schertzer (2003) Enhancement of evaporation from a large northern lake by the entrainment of warm, dry air. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 4(4), 680–93.

L. Broadbent 1950. The microclimate of the potato crop. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 76, 439–54.

K. W. Brown , and N,J Rosenberg . 1971. Energy and CO2 balance of an irrigated sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) field in the Great Plains. Agron. J. 63, 207–13.

F. J. Burrows 1969. The diffusive conductivity of sugar beet and potato leaves. Agric. Met. 6, 211–26.

C. D. Canham et al. 1990. Light regimes beneath closed canopies and tree-fall gaps in temperate and tropical rainforest. Canad. J. Forest Res. 20, 620–31.

J. Chen , J. F. Franklin , and T. A. Spies 1993. Contrasting microclimates among clearcut, edge, and interior of old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Agric. Forest Met. 63, 219–37.

T. W. Crowther et al. 2015. Mapping tree density at a global scale. Nature. doi:10.1038/nature14967.

H. R. de Rocha et al. 2009. Patterns of water and heat flux across a biome gradient from tropical forest to savanna in Brazil. J. Geophys. Res. 114, G00B12. doi:10.1029/2007JG000640.

O.,T. Denmead 1969. Comparative micrometeorology of a wheat field and a forest of Pinus radiata. Agric. Met. 6, 357–72,

R. L. Desjardins et al. 1994. Airborne flux measurements of CO2 and H2O over the Hudson Bay lowland. J. Geophys. Res., Atmos. 99(D1), 1551–62.

N. Fetcher , S. F. Oberbauer , and B. R. Strain 1985. Vegetation effects on microclimate in lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica. Int. J. Biomet. 29, 145–55.

L. J Fritschen . 1966. Evapotranspiration rates of field crops determined by the Bowen ratio method. Agron. J. 58, 339–42.

S. Fraver 1994. Vegetation responses along edge-to-interior gradients in the mixed hardwood forests of the Roanoke river basin, North Carolina. Conserv. Biol. 8, 822–32.

S. Fritz et al. 2015. Mapping global cropland and field size. Global Change Biol. 21(1), 1980–92.

B.A. Gardiner , and C.P. Quine 2000. Management of forests to reduce the risk of abiotic damage – a review with particular reference to the effects of strog winds. Forest Ecology and Management, 135, (1-3), 261–277.

L. W. Gay , R. Vogt , and A. Kessler 1996. The May-October energy budget of a Scots Pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany. Theoret. Appl. Clim. 53, 79–94.

J. M. Ham , J. L. Heilman , and R. J. Lascano 1991. Soil and canopy energy balances of a row crop at partial cover. Agron. J. 83, 744–53.

R. Horton et al. 1996. Crop residue effects on surface radiation and energy balance – review. Theoret. Appl. Clim. 54, 27–37.

E. T. Kanemasu , and G. F. Arkin 1974. Radiant energy and light environment of crops. Agric. Met. 14, 211–25.

V. Kasurinen , et al. 2014. Latent heat exchange in the boreal and arctic biomes. Global Change Biol. 20(11), 3439–56. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12640.

R. S. Kinerson 1973. Fluxes of visible and net radiation within a forest canopy. J. appl. Ecol. 10, 657–60.

W. Lopushinsky 1969. Stomatal closure in conifer seedlings in response to leaf moisture stress. Bot.Gaz. 130, 258–63.

Y. Malhi et al. 2002. Energy and water dynamics of a central Amazonian rain forest, J. Geophys. Res. 107(D20), 8061.

J. H. McCaughey 1981. Impact of clearcutting of coniferous forest on the surface radiation balance. J. Appl.Ecol. 18, 815–26.

L. Misson et al. 2007. Partitioning forest carbon fluxes with overstory and understory eddy-covariance measurements: A synthesis based on FLUXNET data. Agric. For. Met. 144, 14–31.

R. E. Nielson , and P. G Jarvis . 1975. Photosynthesis in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.). VI. Response of stomata to temperature. J. appl. Ecol. 12, 879–92.

J. M. Norman , and P. G. Jarvis 1974. Photosyntesis in Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr). III. Measurements of canopy structure and interception of radiation. J. Appl. Ecol. 11, 375–98.

H. R. Oliver 1971. Wind profiles in and above a forest canopy. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 97, 548–53.

M.A. Patten and B.D. Smith-Patten 2012. Testing the microclimate hypothesis: Light environment and population trends of Neotropical birds. Biol. Conserv., 155, 85–93.

R. Pinker 1980. The microclimate of a dry tropical forest. Agric. Met. 22, 249–65

N. Ramankutty et al. 2008, Farming the planet: 1. Geographic distribution of global agricultural lands in the year 2000. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22, GB1003

A. D. Richardson et al. 2010. Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem title. Phil.Trans. Roy. Soc., B. 365(1555), 3227–46.

W. R. Rouse 1984a. Microclimate of Arctic tree line. 1. Radiation balance of tundra and forest. Water Resour. Res. 20, 57–66.

W. R. Rouse 1984b. Microclimate of Arctic tree line. 2. Soil microclimate of tundra and forest. Water Resour. Res. 20, 67–73.

B. Seyednasrollah , and M. Kumar 2014. Net radiation in a snow-covered discontinuous forest gap for a range of gap sizes and topographic configuration. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119. doi:10.1002/2014JD021809.

R. H. Shaw 1977. Secondary wind speed maxima inside plant canopies. J. Appl. Met. 16, 514–21.

J. W. Shuttleworth 1988. Evaporaion from Amazonian rainforest. Proc. Roy. Soc. B. London 233, 321–46.

J. W. Shuttleworth , and J. S. Wallace 1985. Evaporation from sparse crops – an energy combination theory. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 111, 839–55.

S. Siebert et al. 2015. A global dataset of the extent of irrigated land from 1900 to 2005. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 19, 1521–45.

K. Van Cleve et al. 1983. Taiga ecosystems in interior Alaska. Biosci. 33, 39–44.

G. L. Vourlitis et al. 2015. Variations in evapotranspiration and climate for an Amazonian semi-deciduous forest over seasonal, annual, and El Niño cycle. Int. J. Biomet. 59, 217–30.

G. Weller , and B. Holmgren 1974. The microclimates of the Arctic tundra. J. Appl. Met. 13, 854–62.

D. A. Wessel , and W. R Rouse . 1994. Modelling evaporation from wetland tundra. Bound.-Layer Met. 68, 109–30.

L. A. Wever , L. B. Flanagan , and P. J. Carlson 2002. Seasonal and interannual variation in evapotranspiration, energy balance and surface conductance in a northern temperate grassland. Agric. Forest Met. 112, 31–49

F. Worrall et al. 2015. A 19-year long energy budget of an upland peat bog, northern England. J. Hydrol. 520, 17–29.

T-T. Zhang et al. 2014. Land-atmospheric water and energy cycle of winter wheat, Loess Plateau, China. Int. J. Climatol. 34, 3044–53. doi:10.1002/joc.3891.

A. J. Arnfield 2003. Two decades of urban climate research: A review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. Int. J. Clim. 23, 1–26.

R. G. Barry 2008. Mountain weather and climate.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

J. Bennie et al. 2008. Slope, aspect and climate: Spatially explicit and implicit models of topographic microclimate in chalk grassland. Ecol. Modelling 216, 47–59.

P. D. Blanken et al. 2000. Eddy covariance measurements of evaporation from Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada ,Water Resour. Res. 36(4),1069–77.

P. D. Blanken et al. 2011. Evaporation from Lake Superior. 1. Physical controls and processes. J. Great Lakes Res. 37(4), 707–16.

M. Blumthaler , W. Ambach , and W. Rehwald 1992. Solar UV-A and UV-B radiation fluxes at two alpine stations at different altitudes. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 46, 39–44

C. B. Clements , C. D. Whiteman , and J. D. Horel 2003: Cold -air-pool structure and evolution in a mountain basin: Peter Sinks, Utah. J. Appl. Met. 42, 752–68.

D. W. Cline 1997. Effect of seasonality of snow accumulation and melt on snow surface energy exchanges at a continental alpine site. J. Appl. Met. 36, 32–51.

J. S. Deems , T. H. Painter , and D. C. Finnegan 2013. Lidar measurement of snow depth: a review. J. Glaciol. 59, 467–79.

M. Dumont et al. 2010. High-accuracy measurements of snow Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function at visible and NIR wavelengths – comparison with modelling results. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 2507–20.

C. G. Ganf 1974. Incident solar irradiance and underwater light penetration as factors controlling the chlorophyll A content of a shallow equatorial lake (Lake George, Uganda). J. Ecol. 62, 593–609.

R. J Granger ., and D. H. Male 1978. Melting of a prairie snowpack. J. Appl. Met. 17, 1833–42.

N.R. Hedstrom , and J.W. Pomeroy 1998. Accumulation of intercepted snow in the boreal forest: measurements and modelling. Hydrol. Processes 12, 1611–23.

G. T. Johnson , and I. D. Watson 1984. The determination of view-factors in urban canyons. J. Climate Appl. Met. 23, 329–35.

A. Judson , and N. J. Doesken 2000. Density of freshly fallen snow in the Central Rocky Mountains. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 81, 1577–87.

D. B. Kattel et al. 2013. Temperature lapse rate in complex mountain terrain on the southern slope of the central Himalayas. Theoret. Appl. Clim. 113, 671–82.

L. L. Loope , and T. W. Giambelluca 1998. Vulnerability of island tropical montane cloud forests to climate change, with special reference to east Maui, Hawaii. Clim. Change 39, 503–17.

C. Marty et al. 2002. Altitude dependence of surface radiation fluxes and cloud forcing in the Alps: Results from the Alpine Surface Radiation Budget network. Theoret. Appl. Climatol. 72, 137–55.

G. Mills 1997. An urban-canyon layer climate model. Theoret. Appl. Clim. 57, 229–44.

R. Muneepeerakul , A. Rinaldo , and J. Rodriguez-Iturbe 2007. Effects of river flow scaling properties on riparian width and vegetation biomass. Water Resour. Res. 43(12). doi: 10.1029/2007WR006100.

R.L. Naiman , H. Décamps and M. Pollock 1993. The role of riparian corridors in maintaining regional biodiversity. Ecol. Appl., 3, 209–12.

Y. Nakamura , and T. R. Oke 1988. Wind, temperature and stability conditions in an E-W oriented urban canyon. Atmos. Environ. 22, 2691–2700.

T. R. Oke 1981. Canyon geometry and the nocturnal urban heat island: comparison of scale model and field observations. J. Climatol. 1, 237–54.

T. R. Oke 1988a. Street design and urban canopy layer climate. Energy and Buildings 11, 103–13.

T. R. Oke 1988b. The urban energy balance. Prog. Phys. Geogr. 12, 471–508.

T. H Painter ., and J. Dozier 2004. Measurements of the hemispherical-directional reflectance of snow at fine spectral and angular resolution, J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18115. doi: 10.1029/2003JD004458.

N. Pepin 2001. Lapse rate changes in northern England. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 68, 1–16.

T. R. Rambo , and M. P. North 2008. Spatial and temporal variability of canopy microclimate in a Sierra Nevada riparian forest. Northwest Sci. 82, 259–68.D

I. Rodriguez-Iturbe et al. 2009. River networks as ecological corridors: A complex systems perspective for integrating hydrologic, geomorphologic, and ecologic dynamics. Water Resour. Res. 45, W01413. doi:10.1029/2008WR007124.

C. Rolland 2003. Spatial and seasonal variations of air temperature lapse rates in Alpine regions. J. Clim. 16, 1032–46.

W. R. Rouse et al. 2005. Role of northern lakes in a regional energy balance. J. Hydromet. 6, 291–305.

M. C. Serreze et al. 1999. Characteristics of the western United States snowpack from snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL) data. Water Resour. Res. 35(7), 2145–60.

E. Shanks 1956. Altitudinal and microclimatic relationships of soil temperature under natural vegetation. Ecology 37, 1–7.

F. Shreve 1924. Forest soil temperatures as influenced by altitude and slope exposure. Ecology 5,128–36.

C. Spence et al. 2011. Evaporation from Lake Superior. 2. Spatial distribution and variability. J. Great Lakes Res. 37(4), 717–24.

M. Sturm , J. Holmgren , and G. E. Liston 1995. A seasonal snow cover classification system for local to global app1ications. J. Climate 8, 1261–83.

R. C. Tabony 1985. Relations between minimum temperature and topography in Great Britain. J. Climatol. 5(5), 503–20.

C. Verpoorter et al. 2014. A global inventory of lakes based on high-resolution satellite imagery. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 6396–6402. doi:10.1002/2014GL060641.

S. G. Warren 1982. Optical properties of snow. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 67–89.

S. G. Warren , and W. J. Wiscombe 1980. A model for the spectral albedo of snow. II. Snow containing atmospheric aerosols. J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2734–45.

G. Wendler 1971. An estimate of the heat balance of a valley and hill station in central Alaska. J. Appl. Met. 10, 684–93.

F. Zaratti et al. 2003. Erythemally weighted UV variations at two high altitude locations. J. Geophys. Res. 108(D9), 4263, 1–6.

B. E. Ainsworth , W. L. Haskell , S. D. Herrmann , N. Meckes , D. R. Bassett Jr., C. Tudor-Locke , J. L. Greer , J. Vezina , M. C. Whitt-Glover , and A. S Leon . 2011. 2011 Compendium of physical activities: A second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1575–81.

M. Amat-Valero , M. A. Calero-Torralbo , and R. Vaclav 2014. Cavity types and microclimate: Implications for ecological, evolutionary, and conservation studies. International Journal of Biometeorology 58, 1983–94.

C. M. Blatt , C. R. Taylor , and M. B. Habal 1972. Thermal panting in dogs: The lateral nasal gland, a source of water for evaporative cooling. Science 177, 804–5.

M. Bollazzi , J. Kronenbitter , and F. Roces 2008. Soil temperature, digging behaviour, and the adaptive value of nest depth in South America species of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants. Oecologia 158, 165–75.

B. H. Brattstrom 1965. Body temperature of reptiles. American Midland Naturalist 73(2), 376–422.

J. H. Brown , J. F. Gillooly , A. P. Allen , V. M. Savage , and G. B. West 2004. Toward a metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology 85(7), 1771–89.

K. Cena , and J. A. Clarck 1972. Effect of solar radiation on temperatures of working honey bees. Nature New Biology 236, 222–3.

J. M. Chen , P. D. Blanken , T. A. Black , M. Guilbeault , and S. Chen 1997. Radiation regime and canopy architecture in a boreal aspen forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 86(1–2), 107–25.

J. P. Costannzo , M. C. F. do Amaral , A. J. Rosendale , and R. E. Lee 2013. Hibernation physiology, freezing adaptation and extreme freeze tolerance in a northern population of the wood frog. Journal of Experimental Biology 216, 3461–73.

H. N. Coulombe 1970. Physiological and physical aspects of temperature regulation in the burrowing owl Speotyto cunicularia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 35(2), 307–37.

M. Eynan , and R. Dmi'el 1993. Skin resistance to water loss in agamid lizards. Oecologia 95, 290–4.

D. M. Gates 1980. Biophysical Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag, 656 pp.

J. F. Gillooly , J. H. Brown , G. B. West , V. M. Savage , and E. L. Charnov 2001. Effects of size and temperature on metabolic rate. Science 293(5538), 2248–51.

G. Havenith , M. G. Richards , X. Wang , P. Brode , V. Candas , E. den Hartog , I. Holmer , K. Kuklane , H. Meinander , and W. Nocker 2007. Apparent latent heat of evaporation from clothing: Attenuation and “heat pipe” effects. Journal of Applied Physiology 104, 142–9.

D. O. Hessen , H. J. De Lange , and E. Van Donk 1997. UV-induced changes in phytoplankton cells and its effects on grazers. Freshwater Biology 38, 513–24.

G. A. Houseal , and B. E. Olson 1995. Cattle use of microclimates on a northern latitude winter range. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75, 501–7.

N. A. Kenny , J. S. Warland , R. D. Brown , and T. G. Gillespie 2008. Estimating the radiation absorbed by a human. International Journal of Biometeorology 52, 491–503.

L. R. Keytel , J. H. Goedecke , T. D. Noakes , H. Hiiloskorpi , R. Laukkanen , L. van der Merwe , and E. V. Lambert 2005. Prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate monitoring during submaximal exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences 23(3), 289–97.

J. Korb 2003. Thermoregulation and ventilation of termite mounds. Naturwissenschaften 90, 212–19.

J. Marder , I. Gavrieli-Levin , and P. Raber 1986. Cutaneous evaporation in heat-stressed spotted sandgrouse. The Condor 88, 99–100.

R. M. May 1988. How many species are there on Earth? Science 241, 1441–9.

S. B. Menke , J. Harte , and R. R. Dunn 2014. Changes in ant community composition caused by 20 years of experimental warming vs. 13 years of natural climate shift. Ecosphere 5(1), 1–17.

R. Osczevski , and M. Bluestein 2005. The new wind chill equivalent temperature chart. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86, 1453–8.

T. D. Penman , F. L. Lemckert , M. J. Mahony 2006. Meteorological effects on the activity of the giant burrowing frog (Heleioporus australiacus) in south-eastern Australia. Wildlife Research 33, 35–40.

C. A. Price , J. F. Gilooly , A. P. Allen , J. S. Weitz , and K. J. Niklas 2010. The metabolic theory of ecology: prospects and challenges for plant biology. New Phytologist 188(3), 696–710.

S. L. Robertson , and E. N. Smith 1982. Evaporative water loss in the spiny soft-shelled turtle Trionyx spiniferus. Physiological Zoology 55(2), 124–9.

Y. Shapiro , K. B. Pandolf , and R. F. Goldman 1982. Predicting sweat loss response to exercise, environment and clothing. European Journal of Applied Physiology 48, 83–96.

R. G. Steadman 1979. The assessment of sultriness. Part 1. A temperature-humidity index based on human physiology and clothing science. Journal of Applied Meteorology 18(7), 861–73.

G. J. Tattersall , V. Cadena , and M. C. Skinner 2006. Respiratory cooling and thermoregulatory coupling in reptiles. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 154, 302–18.

EC. Thom 1959. The discomfort index. Weatherwise 12, 59–60.

I. Tselepidaki , M. Santamouris , C. Moutris , and G. Poulopoulou 1992. Analysis of the summer discomfort index in Athens, Greece, for cooling purposes. Energy and Buildings 18, 51–6.

G. E. Walsberg , G. S. Campbell , and J. R. King 1978. Animal coat color and radiative heat gain: A re-evaluation. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 126, 211–22.

S. I. Bohnenstengel et al., 2015. Meteorology, air quality, and health in London: The ClearfLo Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 96, 779–804. doi:10.1175.

G. B Bonan . 2000. The microclimates of a suburban Colorado (USA) landscape and implications for planning and design. Landscape Urban Planning 49, 97–114.

R. D. Bornstein , and D. S Johnson . 1977. Urban – rural wind velocity differences. Atmos. Environ. 11, 597–604.

K. Fortuniak , K. Kłysik , and J. Wibig 2006. Urban–rural contrasts of meteorological parameters in Łódź. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 84, 91–101.

C. S. B. Grimmond et al. 1998. Aerodynamic roughness of urban areas derived from wind observations. Bound.-Layer Met. 89, 1–24.

C. S. B. Grimmond , and T. R Oke . 1999. Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Met. 38, 922–40.

C. S. B. Grimmond , and T. R Oke . 2002. Turbulent heat fluxes in urban areas: Observations and a Local-scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS). J. Appl. Met. 41, 792–810.

C. Gueymard 1994. Analysis of monthly average atmospheric precipitable water and turbidity in Canada and northern United States. Solar Energy 53, 57–71.

N. C. Hsu et al. 2012. Global and regional trends of aerosol optical depth over land and ocean using SeaWiFS measurements from 1997 to 2010. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 8037–53.

F. Huff , and S. Changnon Jr., 1972. Climatological assessment of urban effects on precipitation at St. Louis. J. Appl. Met. 11, 823–42.

G. Mills 2008. Luke Howard and the climate of London. Weather 63(6), 153–7.

M. A. Nelson et al. 2007. Properties of the wind field within the Oklahoma City Park Avenue Street Canyon. Part I. Mean flow and turbulence statistics. J. Appl. Met. Clim. 46, 2038–54. doi:

B. Offerle et al. 2006. Temporal variations in heat fluxes over a central European city centre. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 84, 103–15.

T. R. Oke 1982. The energetic basis of the urban heat island. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 108(455), 1–24.

T. R. Oke 1995. The heat island effect of the urban boundary layer: Characteristics, causes and effects. In J. E. Cernmak et al (eds.), Wind climate in cities. New York: Kluwer Academic, pp. 81–108.

T. R. Oke , and R. F. Fuggle 1972. Comparison of urban/rural counter- and net radiation at night. Boundary-layer Met. 2, 290–308.

T. R. Oke et al. 1991. Simulation of surface heat island under ideal conditions at night. 2. Diagnosis of causation. Boundary-Layer Met. 56, 339–58.

S. Peng et al. 2012. Surface urban heat island across 419 global big cities. Environ. Sci. Tech. 46, 696–703.

J. T. Peterson , and E. C. Flowers 1977. Interaction between air pollution and solar radiation. Solar Energy 19, 23–32.

H. C. Power 2003. The geography and climatology of aerosols. Progr. Phys. Geog. 27, 502–47.

W. R. Rouse , D. Noad , and J. McCutcheon 1973. Radiation, temperature, and atmospheric emissivities in a polluted urban atmosphere at Hamilton, Ontario. J. Appl. Met. 12, 798–807.

J. H. Seinfeld 1989. Air pollution: State of the science. Science 243, 745–52.

J. M. Shepherd 2005. A review of current investigations of urban-induced rainfall and recommendations for the future. Earth Interactions 9(12), 1–27.

I. D. Stewart 2011. A systematic review and scientific critique of methodology in modern urban heat island literature. Int. J. Climatol. 31, 200–17.

R. L. Wilby 2003. Past and projected trends in London's urban heat island. Weather 58, 251–60.

M. E. Wolf , and G. M. Hidy 1997: Aerosols and climate: Anthropogenic emissions and trends for 50 years. J. Geophys. Res. 102(D10), 11, 113–21.

C. R. Wood et al., 2010. Turbulent flow at 190 m height above London during 2006–2008: A climatology and the applicability of similarity theory. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 137, 77–96.

J. Yang , et al., 2015. Further development of the Regional Boundary Layer Model to study the impacts of greenery on the urban thermal environment. J. Appl. Met. Clim. 54, 137–52.

X. Zhang , X. Xia , and C. Xuan 2015. On the drivers of variability and trend of surface solar radiation in Beijing metropolitan area. Int. J. Climatol. 35, 452–61.

A. H. Auer , 1978. Correlation of land use and cover with meteorological anomalies. J. Appl. Met. 17, 636–43.

R. D. Bornstein 1968. Observations of the urban heat island effect in New York city. J. Appl. Met. 7, 575–82.

C. S. B. Grimmond et al. 2011 Initial results from phase 2 of the International Urban Energy Balance Model comparison. Int. J. Climatol. 31, 244–72.

G. Grosse , L. Schirrmeister , and T. J. Malthus 2006. Application of Landsat-7 satellite data and a DEM for the quantification of thermokarst-affected terrain types in the periglacial Lena–Anabar coastal lowland. Polar Res. 25, 51–67.

E. H. Hammond 1964. Analysis of properties in landform geography: An application to broadscale landform mapping. Annals Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 54, 11–19

R. M. Holmes , and J. L. Wright 1978. Measuring the effects of surface features on the atmospheric boundary layer with instrumented aircraft. J. Appl. Met. 17(8), 1163–70.

F-K. Holtmeier 2009. Mountain timberlines: Ecology, patchiness, and dynamics, 2nd ed. New York: Springer

C. Körner 2012. Alpine treelines: Functional ecology of the global high elevation tree limits.Basel: Springer.

D. H. Lenschow , and J. A. Dutton 1964. Surface temperature variations measured from an airplane over several surface types. J. Appl. Met. 3, 65–9.

R. A. MacMillan et al. 2000. A generic procedure for automatically segmenting landforms into landform elements using DEMs, heuristic rules and fuzzy logic. Fuzzy Sets Systems 113, 81–109.

V. Masson 2000. A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models. Bound.-Layer Met. 94, 357–97.

D. Morgan et al. 1977. Microclimates within an urban area. Annals, Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 67, 55–65.

L. O. Myrup 1969. A numerical model of the urban heat island. J. Appl. Met. 8, 908–18.

M. C. Peel , B. L. Finlayson , and T. A. McMahon 2007. Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol. Earth System Sci. 11, 1638–43.

J. R. Philip 1996a. One-dimensional checkerboards and blending heights. Bound.-layer Met. 77, 135–51.

J. R. Philip 1996b. Two-dimensional checkerboards and blending heights. Bound.-layer Met. 80, 1–18.

J. R. Philip 1997. Blending heights for winds oblique to checkerboards. Bound.-Layer Met. 82, 263–81.

F. B. Salisbury , and G. G. Spomer 1964. Leaf temperatures of alpine plants in the field. Planta 60, 497–505.

C. J. Steele et al. 2015. Modelling sea-breeze climatologies and interactions on coasts in the southern North Sea: implications for offshore wind energy. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 141, 1821–35.

I. D. Stewart , and T. R Oke . 2012. Local climate zones for urban temperature studies. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 93, 1879–1900.

L. W. Swift 1976. Algorithm for solar radiation on mountain slopes. Water Resour, Res., 12, 108–12.

A. J. Suggitt et al. 2011. Habitat microclimates drive fine-scale variation in extreme temperatures. Oikos 120, 1–8.

R. D. Thompson 1973. The influence of relief on local temperatures: Data from New South Wales, Australia. Weather 28, 377–82.

L. V. Alexander , et al. 2006. Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05109.

F. Anthelme , J-C Villaret , and J-J. Brun 2007. Shrub encroachment in the Alps gives rise to the convergence of sub-alpine communities on a regional scale. J. Veg. Sci. 18, 355–62.

R. D. Brown , and D. A. Robinson 2011. Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover variability and change over 1922–2010 including an assessment of uncertainty. The Cryosphere 5, 219–29.

D. E Christianssen , S. L. Markstrom , and L. E. Hay 2011. Impacts of climate change on the growing season in the United States. Earth Interactions 15(33), 1–17.

P. De Frenne 2013. Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 110(46), 18, 561–6.

S. C. Elmendorf et al., 2012. Global assessment of experimental climate warming on tundra vegetation: heterogeneity over space and time. Ecology Letters 15(2), 164–75.

D. R. Feldman et al. 2015. Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010. Nature. doi:10.1038/nature14240

E. M. Fischer , and R. Knutti 2014. Detection of spatially aggregated changes in temperature and precipitation extremes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41. doi:10.1002/2013GL058499.

K. Gavazov , T. Spiegelberger , and A. Buttler 2014. Transplantation of subalpine wood-pasture turfs along a natural climatic gradient reveals lower resistance of unwooded pastures to climate change compared to wooded ones. Oecologia 174, 1425–35.

J. Hansen et al. 2010. Global surface temperature change. Rev. Geophys. 48(4), RG 4004.

G-C. Hao et al. 2014. Soil thermal dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States from 1948 to 2008: An analysis with a process-based soil physical model and AmeriFlux data. Clim. Change 126, 135–50.

G. H. R. Henry , and U. Molau 1997. Tundra plants and climate change: The International Tundra Experiment (ITEX). Global Change Biology 3(Suppl. 1), 1–9.

J. G. Illán , D. Gutiérrez , and R. Wilson 2010. The contributions of topoclimate and land cover to species distributions and abundance: Fine-resolution tests for a mountain butterfly fauna. Global Ecol., Biogeog. 19, 159–73.

G. J. Jia , H. E. Epstein , and D. M. Walker 2009. Vegetation greening in the Canadian Arctic related to decadal warming. J. Environ. Monit. 11, 2231–8.

A. G. Jones et al., 2014. Completing the FACE of elevated CO2 research. Environment International 73, 252–8.

M. B. Kirkham 2011. Elevated carbon dioxide: Impacts on soil and plant water relations. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

J. L. Lean et al. 1997. Detection and parameterization of variations in mid- and near-ultraviolet (200–400 nm). J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D25), 29, 939–56.

G. J. McCabe , J. L. Betancourt , and S. Feng 2015. Variability in the start, end, and length of frost-free periods across the conterminous United States during the past century. Int. J. Climatol. doi: 10.1002/joc.4315

V. Mishra et al. 2015. Changes in observed climate extremes in global urban areas. Environ. Res. Lett. 10(2), 02405.

J. A. Morgan et al. 2001. Elevated CO2 enhances water relations and productivity and affects gas exchange in C-3 and C-4 grasses of the Colorado shortgrass steppe. Global Change Biology 7, 451–66.

I. H. Myers-Smith et al. 2011. Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: Dynamics, impacts, and research priorities. Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 045509.

I. Nijs et al. 1996. Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI): A new tool to study global warming effects on plants in the field. Plant, Cell Environ. 19, 495–502.

C. Parmesan , and G. Yohe 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421, 37–42.

H. Poorter , and M. L Navas . 2003. Plant growth and competition at elevated CO2: on winners, losers and functional groups. New Phytologist 157, 175–98.

C. H Robinson . et al. 1998. Plant community responses to simulated environmental change at a high Arctic polar semi-desert. Ecology 79, 856–66.

M. C. Serreze et al. 2000. Observational evidence of recent change in the northern high-latitude environment. Clim. Change 46, 159–207

N. I. Shiklomanov et al, 2010. Decadal variations of active-layer thickness in moisture-controlled landscapes, Barrow, Alaska. J. Geophys. Res., Biogeosci. 115, G4, G00I04. doi:10.1029/2009JG001248.

N. V. Smith , S. S. Saatchi , and J. T. Rangerson 2004. Trends in high northern latitude soil freeze and thaw cycles from 1988 to 2002. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 109(D12). doi: 10.1029/2003JD004472.

S. L. Smith 2010. Thermal state of permafrost. In North America – a contribution to the International Polar Year. Permafrost Periglac. Proc. 21, 117–35.

K. D. Tape , M. Sturm , and C. H. Racine 2006. The evidence for shrub expansion in Northern Alaska and the Pan-Arctic. Glob. Change Biol . 12, 686–702.

S. Wan , Y. Luo , and L. L. Wallace 2002. Changes in microclimate induced by experimental warming and clipping in tallgrass prairie. Global Change Biol. 8, 754–68.

J. W. Yan et al. 2014. Changes in the land surface energy budget in eastern China over the past three decades: Contributions of land-cover change and climate change. J. Climate 27, 9233–52.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 856 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 487 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.