Skip to main content
Understanding Trauma
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 15
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lauffenburger, Sandra Kay 2017. Demonized body, demonized feelings: languaging the affective body. Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, p. 1.

    Isakson, Brian L. Legerski, John-Paul and Layne, Christopher M. 2017. Adapting and Implementing Evidence-Based Interventions for Trauma-Exposed Refugee Youth and Families. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol. 45, Issue. 4, p. 245.

    Yarris, Kristin E. Stasiun, Jillian C. Musigdilok, Visanee V. and Win, Cho C. 2017. Generation, Displacement, and Deservedness among Karen Refugees in California. International Migration, Vol. 53, Issue. 3, p. 111.

    Mattar, Sandra and Vogel, Eric B. 2017. The Quality of the Evidence: Qualitative Research in Trauma Psychology. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, Vol. 10, Issue. 2, p. 363.

    Heslin, Kevin C. Singzon, Trudy K. Farmer, Melissa Dobalian, Aram Tsao, Jennie and Hamilton, Alison B. 2017. Therapy or threat? Inadvertent exposure to alcohol and illicit drug cues in the neighbourhoods of sober living homes. Health & Social Care in the Community, Vol. 21, Issue. 5, p. 500.

    Collura, Gino L. and Lende, Daniel H. 2017. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND NEUROANTHROPOLOGY: STOPPING PTSD BEFORE IT BEGINS. Annals of Anthropological Practice, Vol. 36, Issue. 1, p. 131.

    2017. The Encyclopedia of Psychological Trauma.

    2017. The Encyclopedia of Psychological Trauma.

    Hárdi, Lilla and Kroó, Adrienn 2017. The Trauma of Torture and the Rehabilitation of Torture Survivors. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Vol. 219, Issue. 3, p. 133.

    Kirmayer, Laurence J. 2017. Defining and Delimiting Trauma-Related Dissociation: A View from Cultural Psychiatry. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, Vol. 12, Issue. 4, p. 465.

    Marlowe, Jay and Adamson, Carole 2017. Teaching Trauma: Critically Engaging a Troublesome Term. Social Work Education, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 623.

    Pheasant-Kelly, Fran 2017. The ecstasy of chaos: Mediations of 9/11, terrorism and traumatic memory inThe Dark Knight. Journal of War & Culture Studies, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 235.

    KIDRON, CAROL A. 2017. Embracing the lived memory of genocide: Holocaust survivor and descendant renegade memory work at the House of Being. American Ethnologist, Vol. 37, Issue. 3, p. 429.

    Solomon, Olga 2017. Sense and the Senses: Anthropology and the Study of Autism. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 39, Issue. 1, p. 241.

    Hay, M. Cameron 2017. Anxiety, Remembering, and Agency: Biocultural Insights for Understanding Sasaks' Responses to Illness. Ethos, Vol. 37, Issue. 1, p. 1.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Understanding Trauma
    • Online ISBN: 9780511500008
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This book analyzes the individual and collective experience of and response to trauma from a wide range of perspectives including basic neuroscience, clinical science, and cultural anthropology. Each perspective presents critical and creative challenges to the other. The first section reviews the effects of early life stress on the development of neural systems and vulnerability to persistent effects of trauma. The second section of the book reviews a wide range of clinical approaches to the treatment of the effects of trauma. The final section of the book presents cultural analyses of personal, social, and political responses to massive trauma and genocidal events in a variety of societies. This work goes well beyond the neurobiological models of conditioned fear and clinical syndrome of post-traumatic stress disorder to examine how massive traumatic events affect the whole fabric of a society, calling forth collective responses of resilience and moral transformation.


    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

F. H. Frankel (1994). The concept of flashbacks in historical perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42(4), 321–336.

J. F. Kihlstrom (2005). Dissociative disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 227–253.

R. J. Blanchard , & D. C. Blanchard (1989). Antipredator defensive behaviors in a visible burrow system. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 103(1), 70–82.

R. E. Eberly , A. R. Harkness , & B. E. Engdahl (1991). An adaptational view of trauma response as illustrated by the prisoner of war experience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 4(3), 363–380.

M. S. Fanselow (1994). Neural organization of the defensive behavior system responsible for fear. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1(4), 429–438.

M. S. Fanselow , L. S. Lester , & F. J. Helmstetter (1988). Changes in feeding and foraging patterns as an antipredator defensive strategy: A laboratory simulation using aversive stimulation in a closed economy. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 50(3), 361–374.

I. Hageman , H. S. Andersen , & M. B. Jorgensen (2001). Post-traumatic stress disorder: A review of psychobiology and pharmacotherapy. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 104(6), 411–422.

P. M. Plotsky , & M. J. Meaney (1993). Early, postnatal experience alters hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (corticotropin-releasing factor) mRNA, median eminence corticotropin-releasing factor content and stress-induced release in adult rats. Molecular Brain Research, 18(3), 195–200.

R. M. Sapolsky (2000). Stress hormones: Good and bad. Neurobiology of Disease, 7(5), 540–542.

S. D. Suarez , & G. G. Gallup (1981). An ethological analysis of open-field testing in chickens. Animal Learning & Behavior, 9, 153–163.

L. W. Swanson , P. E. Sawchenko , J. Rivier ,& W. W. Vale (1983). Organization of ovine corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells and fibers in the rat brain: An immunohistochemical study. Neuroendocrinology, 36(3), 165–186.

J. J. B. Ayres , P. Berger-Gross , E. A. Kohler , W. J. Mahoney , & S. Stone (1979).Some orderly nonmonotonicities in the trial-by-trial acquisition of conditioned suppression: Inhibition with reinforcement? Animal Learning & Behavior, 7, 174–180.

M. E. Bouton (2004). Context and behavioral processes in extinction. Learning & Memory, 11, 485–494.

M. E. Bouton , & R. C. Bolles (1979a). Contextual control of the extinction of conditioned fear. Learning and Motivation, 10, 445–466.

J. S. Brown , H. I. Kalish , & I. E. Farber (1951). Conditioned fear as revealed by magnitude of startle response to an auditory stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41, 317–327.

K. A. Corcoran , & S. Maren (2004). Factors regulating the effects of hippocampal inactivation on renewal of conditional fear after extinction. Learning & Memory, 11, 598–603.

J. B. Nelson , & M. E. Bouton (1997). The effects of a context switch following serial and simultaneous feature-negative discriminations. Learning and Motivation, 28, 56–84.

J. M. Rosas , & M. E. Bouton (1997). Renewal of a conditioned taste aversion upon return to the conditioning context after extinction in another one. Learning and Motivation, 28, 216–229.

S. M. Smith , & E. Vela (2001). Environmental context–dependent memory: A review and meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 203–220.

D. Treit , C. Pesold , & S. Rotzinger (1993). Dissociating the anti-fear effects of septal and amygdaloid lesions using two pharmacologically validated models of rat anxiety. Behavioral Neuroscience, 107, 770–785.

S. Hugues , O. Deschaux , & R. Garcia (2004).Postextinction infusion of a mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor into the medial prefrontal cortex impairs memory of the extinction of conditioned fear. Learning & Memory, 11(5), 540–543.

K. Lebron , M. R. Milad , & G. J. Quirk (2004). Delayed recall of fear extinction in rats with lesions of ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Learning & Memory, 11(5), 544–548.

M. A. Morgan , L. M. Romanski , & J. E. LeDoux (1993). Extinction of emotional learning: Contribution of medial prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience Letters, 163(1), 109–113.

M. A. Morgan , J. Schulkin , & J. E. LeDoux (2003).Ventral medial prefrontal cortex and emotional perseveration: The memory for prior extinction training. Behavioural Brain Research, 146(1–2), 121–130.

M. Baum , T. Andrus , & W. J. Jacobs (1990). Extinction of a conditioned emotional response: Massed and distributed exposures. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(1), 63–68.

D. Birch (1965). Extended training extinction effect under massed and spaced extinction trials. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 315–322.

G. L. Collingridge , S. J. Kehl , & H. McLennan (1983). Excitatory amino acids in synaptic transmission in the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway of the rat hippocampus. Journal of Physiology, 334, 33–46.

J. Hafner , & F. Milton (1977). The influence of propranolol on the exposure in vivo of agoraphobics. Psychological Medicine, 7(3), 419–425.

R. H. Shipley (1974). Extinction of conditioned fear in rats as a function of several parameters of conditioned stimulus exposure. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 87(4), 699–707.

H. S. Terrace , J. Gibbon , L. Farrell , & M. D. Baldock (1975).Temporal factors influencing the acquisition and maintenance of an autoshaped keypeck. Animal Learning & Behavior, 3(1), 53–62.

H. A. Westra , & S. H. Stewart (1998).Cognitive behavioural therapy and pharmacotherapy: Complementary or contradictory approaches to the treatment of anxiety? Clinical Psychology Reviews, 18(3), 307–340.

V. P. Bakshi , S. E. Shelton , & N. H. Kalin (2000). Neurobiological correlates of defensive behaviors. Progress in Brain Research, 122, 105–115.

A. Bechara , D. Tranel , H. Damasio , R. Adolphs , C. Rockland , & A. R. Damasio (1995). Double dissociation of conditioning and declarative knowledge relative to the amygdala and hippocampus in humans. Science, 269(5227), 1115–1118.

C. Caldji , B. Tannenbaum , S. Sharma , D. Francis , P. M. Plotsky , & M. J. Meaney (1998). Maternal care during infancy regulates the development of neural systems mediating the expression of fearfulness in the rat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(9), 5335–5340.

V. H. Denenberg (1964). Critical periods, stimulus input, and emotional reactivity: A theory of infantile stimulation. Psychological Review, 71, 335–351.

A. S. Fleming (1988). Factors influencing maternal responsiveness in humans: Usefulness of an animal model. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 13, 189–212.

P. Glue , S. Wilson , N. Coupland , D. Ball , & D. Nutt (1995). The relationship between benzodiazepine receptor sensitivity and neuroticism. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 9, 33–45.

V. Lemaire , C. Aurousseau , M. Moal , & D. N. Abrous (1999). Behavioural trait of reactivity to novelty is related to hippocampal neurogenesis. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 4006–4014.

J. W. Smythe , D. Murphy , & B. Costall (1996). Benzodiazepine receptor stimulation blocks scopolamine-induced learning impairments in a water maze task. Brain Research Bulletin, 41(5), 299–304.

J. M. Stern (1997). Offspring-induced nurturance: Animal-human parallels. Developmental Psychobiology, 31(1), 19–37.

T. Y. Zhang , P. Chretien , M. J. Meaney , & A. Gratton (2005). Influence of naturally occurring variations in maternal care on prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle and the medial prefrontal cortical dopamine response to stress in adult rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 25(6), 1493–1502.

J. D. Bremner (2003b). Long-term effects of childhood abuse on brain and neurobiology. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12(2), 271–292.

J. D. Bremner , E. Vermetten , M. Vythilingam , N. Afzal , C. Schmahl , B. Elzinga , & D. Charney (2004). Neural correlates of the classic color and emotional stroop in women with abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 55(6), 612–620.

B. M. Elzinga , & J. D. Bremner (2002). Are the neural substrates of memory the final common pathway in PTSD? Journal of Affective Disorders, 70, 1–17.

R. A. Lanius , P. C. Williamson , M. Densmore , K. Boksman , M. A. Gupta , R. W. Neufeld . (2001). Neural correlates of traumatic memories in posttraumatic stress disorder: A functional MRI investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1920–1922.

P. J. Lucassen , E. Fuchs , & B. Czeh (2004). Antidepressant treatment with tianeptine reduces apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and temporal cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 161–166.

R. K. Pitman , S. P. Orr , D. F. Forgus , J. B. Jong , & J. M. Claiborn (1987). Psychophysiologic assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder imagery in Vietnam combat veterans. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 970–975.

R. H. Roth , S. Y. Tam , Y. Ida , J. X. Yang , & A. Y. Deutch (1988). Stress and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 537, 138–147.

C. G. Schmahl , B. M. Elzinga , & J. D. Bremner (2002). Individual differences in psychophysiological reactivity in adults with childhood abuse. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 9, 271–276.

C. G. Schmahl , B. M. Elzinga , E. Vermetten , C. Sanislow , T. H. McGlashan , & J. D. Bremner (2003). Neural correlates of memories of abandonment in women with and without borderline personality disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 42–51.

L. M. Shin , P. S. Shin , S. Heckers , T. S. Krangel , M. L. Macklin , S. P. Orr et al. (2004). Hippocampal function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Hippocampus, 14(3), 292–300.

E. Tulving , S. Kapur , F. I. M. Craik , M. Moscovitch , & S. Houle (1994). Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: Positron emission tomography findings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91, 2016–2020.

J. J. Vasterling , L. M. Duke , K. Brailey , J. I. Constans , A. N. Allain Jr., & P. B. Sutker (2002). Attention, learning, and memory performances and intellectual resources in Vietnam veterans: PTSD and no disorder comparisons. Neuropsychology, 16, 5–14.

H. K. Armenian , A. K. Melkonian , & A. P. Hovanesian (1998). Long term mortality and morbidity related to degree of damage following the 1998 earthquake in Armenia. American Journal of Epidemiology, 148, 1077–1084.

A. I. Basbaum , & H. L. Fields (1978). Endogenous pain control mechanisms: Review and hypothesis. Annals of Neurology, 4, 451–462.

I. J. Cook , A. Eeden , & S. M. Collins (1987). Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have greater pain tolerance than normal subjects. Gastroenterology, 93, 727–733.

F. Creed (1999). The relationship between psychosocial parameters and outcome in the irritable bowel syndrome. American Journal of Medicine, 107, 74S–80S.

D. A. Drossman , N. J. Talley , J. Leserman , K. W. Olden , & M. A. Barreiro (1995). Sexual and physical abuse and gastrointestinal illness: Review and recommendations. Annals of Internal Medicine, 123, 782–794.

T. C. Eley , & R. Plomin (1997). Genetic analysis of emotionality. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7, 279–284.

A. V. Emmanuel , & M. A. Kamm (1999). Laser Doppler measurement of rectal mucosal blood flow. Gut, 45, 64–69.

M. Heitkemper , R. L. Burr , M. Jarrett , V. Hertig , M. K. Lustyk , & E. F. Bond (1998). Evidence for autonomic nervous system imbalance in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 43, 2093–2098.

L. Jacobson , & R. Sapolsky (1991). The role of the hippocampus in feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Endocrine Reviews, 12, 118–134.

N. H. Kalin (1993).The neurobiology of fear. Scientific American, 268, 94–101.

J. Kaufman , P. M. Plotsky , C. B. Nemeroff , & D. S. Charney (2000). Effects of early adverse experiences on brain structure and function: Clinical implications. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 778–790.

R. Kimerling , & K. S. Calhoun (1994). Somatic symptoms, social support, and treatment seeking among sexual assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 333–340.

M. P. Koss , W. J. Woodruff , & P. G. Koss (1990). Relation of criminal victimization to health perceptions among women medical patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 147–152.

B. C. Lowman , D. A. Drossman , E. M. Cramer , & D. C. McKee (1987). Recollection of childhood events in adults with irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 9, 324–330.

J. McCauley , D. E. Kern , K. Kolodner , L. Dill , A. F. Schroeder , H. K. DeChant , et al. (1997). Clinical characteristics of women with a history of childhood abuse: Unhealed wounds. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 1362–1368.

H. Mertz , V. Morgan , G. Tanner , D. Pickens , R. Price , Y. Shyr , et al. (2000). Regional cerebral activation in irritable bowel syndrome and control subjects with painful and nonpainful rectal distension. Gastroenterology, 118, 842–848.

B. D. Naliboff , S. W. G. Derbyshire , J. Munakata , S. Berman , M. Mandelkern , L. Chang , et al. (2000).Evidence for decreased activation of central fear circuits by expected aversive visceral stimuli in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Gastroenterology, 118, A137.

F. Porreca , M. H. Ossipov , & G. F. Gebhart (2002). Chronic pain and medullary descending facilitation. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 319–325.

R. M. Sapolsky , L. C. Krey , & B. S. McEwen (1984). Glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons are involved in terminating the adrenocortical stress response. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 81, 6174–6177.

E. M. Sternberg , G. P. Chrousos , & P. W. Gold (1992). The stress response and the regulation of inflammatory disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 117, 854–866.

S. E. Taylor , L. C. Klein , B. P. Lewis , T. L. Gruenewald , R. A. R. Gurung , & J. A. Updegraff (2000). Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychological Review, 107, 411–429.

P. Welgan , H. Meshkinpour , & M. Beeler (1988). Effect of anger on colon motor and myoelectric activity in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 94, 1150–1156.

D. A. Williams , S. C. Brown , D. J. Clauw , & R. M. Gendreau (2003).Self-reported symptoms before and after September 11 in patients with fibromyalgia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 1637–1638.

G. M. Asnis , S. R. Kohn , M. Henderson , & N. L. Brown (2004). SSRIs versus non-SSRIs in post-traumatic stress disorder: An update with recommendations. Drugs, 64, 383–404.

E. B. Blanchard , E. J. Hickling , T. Devineni , C. H. Veazey , T. E. Galovski , E., Mundy et al. (2003). A controlled evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy for post–traumatic stress in motor vehicle accident survivors. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 79–96.

E. B. Foa , E. A. Hembree , S. P. Cahill , S. A. Rauch , D. S. Riggs , N. C. Feeny , & E. Yadin (2005). Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for PTSD with and without cognitive restructuring: Outcome at academic and community clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 953–964.

E. B. Foa , & M. J. Kozak (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20–35.

E. A. Hembree , & E. B. Foa (2003). Interventions for trauma-related emotional disturbances in adult victims of crime. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 189–201.

E. A. Hembree , E. B. Foa , N. M. Dorfan , G. P. Street , J. Kowalski , & X. Tu (2003). Do patients drop out prematurely from exposure therapy for PTSD? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 555–562.

M. Kokai , S. Fuj ii, N. Shinfuku , & G. Edwards (2004). Natural disaster and mental health in Asia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 58, 110–116.

F. H. Norris , A. D. Murphy , C. K. Baker , J. L. Perilla , F. G. Rodriguez , & J. de J. Rodriguez (2003). Epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexico. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 646–656.

P. A. Resick , P. Nishith , T. L. Weaver , M. C. Astin , & C. A. Feuer (2002). A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 867–879.

C. R. Brewin , T. Dalgleish , & S. Joseph (1996). A dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Review, 103(4), 670–686.

B. S. McEwen (2000). Allostasis and allostatic load: Implications for neuropsychopharmacology. Neuropsychopharmacology, 22(2), 108–124.

A. Y. Shalev , T. Sahar , S. Freedman , T. Peri , N. Glick , D. Brandes , et al. (1998). A prospective study of heart rate response following trauma and the subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(6), 553–559.

A. Browne , & D. Finkelhor (1986).Impact of child abuse: A review of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66–77.

P. Cole , & F. W. Putnam (1992).Effect of incest on self and social functioning: A developmental psychopathology perspective. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 174–184.

H. Steiner , I. G. Garcia , & Z. Matthews (1997).Posttraumatic stress disorder in incarcerated juvenile delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(3), 357–365.

L. A. Teplin , K. M. Abram , G. M. McClelland , M. K. Dulcan , & A. A. Mericle (2002).Psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(12), 1133–1143.

D. Silove , V. Manicavasagar , K. Baker , M. Mausiri , M. Soares , F. Carvalho , et al. (2004). Indices of social risk among first attenders of an emergency mental health service in post-conflict East Timor: An exploratory investigation. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38(11–12), 929–932.

D. Silove , I. Sinnerbrink , A. Field , V. Manicavasagar , & Z. Steel (1997). Anxiety, depression and PTSD in asylum-seekers: Associations with pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 351–357.

C. Rousseau , A. Singh , L. Lacroix , D. Bagilishya , & T. Measham (2004). Creative expression workshops for immigrant and refugee – Clinical perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(2), 235–238.

G. Armelagos , A. Goodman , & K. Jacobs (1991). The origins of agriculture: Population growth during a period of declining health. Population and Environment, 13, 9–22.

W. B. Cannon (1927). The James-Lange theory of emotions: A critical examination and an alternative theory. American Journal of Psychology, 39, 106–124.

A. Caspi , K. Sugden , T. E. Moffitt , A. Taylor , I. W. Craig , H. Harrington , et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301(5631), 386–389.

G. P. Chrousos (1998). Stressors, stress, and neuroendocrine integration of the adaptive response. The 1997 Hans Selye Memorial Lecture. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 851, 311–335.

K. Erickson , W. Drevets , & J. Schulkin (2003). Glucocorticoid regulation of diverse cognitive functions in normal and pathological emotional states. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 27(3), 233–246.

K. S. Kendler , J. W. Kuhn , J. Vittum , C. A. Prescott , & B. Riley (2005). The interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression: A replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(5), 529–535.

M. J. Konner , & M. J. Shostak (1987). Timing and management of birth among the!Kung: Biocultural interaction in reproductive adaptation. Cultural Anthropology, 2, 11–28.

L. Marshall (1981). The medicine dance of the!Kung bushmen. Africa, 39, 347–381.

Y. Neria , Z. Solomon , K. Ginzburg , & R. Dekel (2000). Sensation seeking, wartime performance, and long-term adjustment among Israeli war veterans. Personality & Individual Differences, 29(5), 921–932.

O' J. B. Sullivan (1991). Diabetes mellitus after GDM. Diabetes, 40(Suppl. 2), 131–135.

E. J. Ozer , S. R. Best , T. L. Lipsey , & D. S. Weiss (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129(1), 52–73.

D. L. Rosenhan (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250–258.

G. Villarreal , D. A. Hamilton , H. Petropoulos , I. Driscoll , L. M. Rowland , J. A. Griego , et al. (2002). Reduced hippocampal volume and total white matter volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 52(2), 119–125.

S. Wessely , & M. Deahl (2003). Psychological debriefing is a waste of time. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 12–14.

W. H. Williams , J. J. Evans , B. A. Wilson , & P. Needham (2002). Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after severe traumatic brain injury in a representative community sample. Brain Injury, 16(8), 673–679.

D. H. Zald (2003). The human amygdala and the emotional evaluation of sensory stimuli. Brain Research Reviews, 41(1), 88–123.

Kirmayer, L. J., Corin, E., & Jarvis, G. E. (2004). Inside knowledge: Cultural constructions of insight in psychosis. In X. F. Amador & A. S. David (Eds.), Insight in psychosis (2nd ed., pp. 197–229). New York: Oxford University Press.

D. Silove , Z. Steel , & C. Watters (2000). Policies of deterrence and the mental health of asylum seekers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(5), 604–611.

G. BenEzer (2002). The Ethiopian Jewish exodus: Narratives of the migration journey to Israel 1977–1985. New York: Routledge.

D. Hinton , S. Hinton , K. Um , A. Chea , & S. Sak (2002). The Khmer “weak heart” syndrome: Fear of death from palpitations. Transcultural Psychiatry, 39, 323–344.

D. Hinton , K. Um , & P. Ba (2001c). Kyol goeu (‘wind overload’) part II: Prevalence, characteristics, and mechanisms of Kyol goeu and near-kyol goeu episodes of Khmer patients attending a psychiatric clinic. Transcultural Psychiatry, 38, 433–460.

A. Aron (1992). Testimonio, a bridge between psychotherapy and sociotherapy. Women & Therapy, 13(3), 173–189.

P. Haidet , & D. A. Paterniti (2003). “Building” a history rather than “taking” one: A perspective on information sharing during the medical interview. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163(10), 1134–1140.

D. P. McAdams , R. Josselson , & A. Lieblich (2006). Identity and story: Creating self in narrative. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

J. C. Alexander (2004). Cultural trauma and collective identity. Berkeley: University of California Press.

P. Brown , S. Zavestoski , S. McCormick , M. Linder , J. Mandelbaum , & T. Luebke (2001). A gulf of difference: Disputes over Gulf Warrelated illnesses. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 42(3), 235–257.

Y. Danieli (Ed.). (1998). International handbook of multigenerational legacies of trauma. New York: Plenum Press.

B. C. Frueh , J. D. Elhai , A. L. Grubaugh , J. Monnier , T. B. Kashdan , J. A. Sauvageot , et al. (2005). Documented combat exposure of unconditioned stimulus veterans seeking treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 467–472.

I. Hacking (1991). The making and molding of child abuse. Critical Inquiry, 17, 253–288.

A. L. Hinton (2002). Annihilating difference: The anthropology of genocide. Berkeley: University of California Press.

M. Kenny (1999). A place for memory: The interface between individual and collective memory. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41(3), 420–437.

Kirmayer, L. J. (1996). Confusion of the senses: Implications of ethnocultural variations in somatoform and dissociative disorders for PTSD. In A. J. Marsella , M. J. Friedman , E. T. Gerrity , & R. M. Scurfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of post-traumatic stress disorders: Issues, research and clinical applications (pp. 131–164). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

J. F. Lipinski Jr., & H. G. Pope Jr. (1994). Do “flashbacks” represent obsessional imagery? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 35(4), 245–247.

R. J. McNally , & S. A. Clancy (2005). Sleep paralysis, sexual abuse, and space alien abduction. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42(1), 113–122.

H. Merckelbach , P. Muris , R. Horselenberg , & E. Rassin (1998). Traumatic intrusions as ‘worse case scenarios.’ Behavior Research and Therapy, 36, 1075–1079.

M. D. Newcomb , & T. F. Locke (2001). Intergenerational cycle of maltreatment: A popular concept obscured by methodological limitations. Child Abuse and Neglect, 25(9), 1219–1240.

A. Ong (1995). Making the biopolitical subject: Cambodian immigrants, refugee medicine and cultural citizenship in California. Social Science & Medicine, 40(9), 1243–1257.

F. E. Raitt , & M. S. Zeedyk (2003). False memory syndrome: Undermining the credibility of complainants in sexual offences. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 26(5), 453–471.

D. Summerfield (1999). A critique of seven assumptions behind psychological trauma programmes in war-affected areas. Social Science & Medicine, 48(10), 1449–1462.

B. A. Kolk (1994). The body keeps the score: Memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic stress. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 1(5), 253–265.

S. Weine , Y. Danieli , D. Silove , M. Ommeren , J. A. Fairbank , & J. Saul (2002). Guidelines for international training in mental health and psychosocial interventions for trauma exposed populations in clinical and community settings. Psychiatry, 65(2), 156–164.

A. Young (2002). The self-traumatized perpetrator as a “transient mental illness.” Evolution Psychiatrique, 67, 630–650.

S. Zavestoski , P. Brown , S. McCormick , B. Mayer , M. D'Ottavi , & J. C. Lucove (2004). Patient activism and the struggle for diagnosis: Gulf War illnesses and other medically unexplained physical symptoms in the unconditioned stimulus. Social Science & Medicine, 58(1), 161–175.

F. A. Antoni (1986). Hypothalamic control of adrenocorticotropin secretion: Advances since the discovery of 41-residue corticotropin-releasing factor. Endocrine Reviews, 7(4), 351–378.

R. C. Bolles (1970). Species specific defense reactions and avoidance learning. Psychological Review, 77, 32–48.

O. Bonne , C. Grillon , M. Vythilingam , A. Neumeister , & D. S. Charney (2004). Adaptive and maladaptive psychobiological responses to severe psychological stress: Implications for the discovery of novel pharmacotherapy. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 28(1), 65–94.

A. W. Bruijnzeel , R. Stam , J. C. Compaan , & V. M. Wiegant (2001). Stress-induced sensitization of corticotropin-releasing hormone-ir but not P-cAMP-response-element–binding protein-ir responsivity in the rat central nervous system. Brain Research, 908(2), 187–196.

D. S. Charney (2004). Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: Implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(2), 195–216.

M. Christopher (2004). A broader view of trauma: A biopsychosocial-evolutionary view of the role of the traumatic stress response in the emergence of pathology and/or growth. Clinical Psychology Reviews, 24(1), 75–98.

M. I. Cordero , C. Venero , N. D. Kruyt , & C. Sandi (2003). Prior exposure to a single stress session facilitates subsequent contextual fear conditioning in rats. Evidence for a role of corticosterone. Hormones and Behavior, 44(4), 338–345.

M. S. Fanselow (1986). Conditioned fear-induced opiate analgesia: A competing motivational state theory of stress-analgesia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 467, 40–54.

M. S. Fanselow , & R. C. Bolles (1979). Naloxone and shock-elicited freezing in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 93(4), 736–744.

M. S. Fanselow , & G. D. Gale (2003). The amygdala, fear, and memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 985, 125–134.

M. S. Fanselow , & J. E. LeDoux (1999). Why we think plasticity underlying Pavlovian fear conditioning occurs in the basolateral amygdala. Neuron, 23(2), 229–232.

M. Fendt ,& M. S. Fanselow (1999). The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of conditioned fear. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 23(5), 743–760.

T. S. Gray (1993). Amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor pathways. Role in autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses to stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 697, 53–60.

T. S. Gray , M. E. Carney , & D. J. Magnuson (1989). Direct projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: Possible role in stress-induced adrenocorticotropin release. Neuroendocrinology, 50(4), 433–446.

J. P. Herman , H. Figueiredo , N. K. Mueller , Y. Ulrich-Lai , M. M. Ostrander , D. C., Choi . (2003). Central mechanisms of stress integration: Hierarchical circuitry controlling hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical responsiveness. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 24(3), 151–180.

M. M. Holmes , & L. A. M. Galea (2002). Defensive behavior and hippocampal cell proliferation: Differential modulation by naltrexone during stress. Behavioral Neuroscience, 116(1), 160–168.

C. E. Izard (1992). Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. Psychological Review, 99(3), 561–565.

E. O. Johnson , T. C. Kamilaris , G. P. Chrousos , & P. W. Gold (1992). Mechanisms of stress: A dynamic overview of hormonal and behavioral homeostasis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 16(2), 115–130.

J. E. LeDoux (1995). Emotion: Clues from the brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 209–235.

L. S. Lester , & M. S. Fanselow (1985). Exposure to a cat produces opioid analgesia in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 99(4), 756–759.

V. Das (Ed.). (2001). Remaking a world: Violence, social suffering, and recovery. Berkeley: University of California Press.

I. Gold , & D. Stoljar (1999). A neuron doctrine in the philosophy of neuroscience. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 22, 809–830.

T. Greenhalgh (1999). Narrative based medicine: Narrative based medicine in an evidence based world. British Medical Journal, 318(7179), 323–325.

P. Henningsen , & L. J. Kirmayer (2000). Mind beyond the net: Implications of cognitive neuroscience for cultural psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatry, 37(4), 467–494.

D. Hollan (1997). The relevance of person-centered ethnography to cross-cultural psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34(2), 219–234.

B. Hurwitz , T. Greenhalgh , & V. Skultans (2004). Narrative research in health and illness. Malden, MA: BMJ Books.

J. H. Kaas (2005). From mice to men: The evolution of the large, complex human brain. Journal of Bioscience, 30(2), 155–165.

K. Mainzer (2004). Thinking in complexity: Tthe computational dynamics of matter, mind, and mankind. New York: Springer.

M. J. Meaney , & M. Szyf (2005). Maternal care as a model for experience-dependent chromatin plasticity? Trends in Neuroscience, 28(9), 456–463.

S. Oyama (2000). Evolution's eye: A systems view of the biology-culture divide. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

S. Schimmel (2002). Wounds not healed by time: The power of repentance and forgiveness. New York: Oxford University Press.

G. Strawson (2004). Against narrativity. Ratio, 17(4), 428–452.

S. J. Suomi (2003). Gene-environment interactions and the neurobiology of social conflict. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1008, 132–139.

A. Young (1995). Reasons and causes for post-traumatic stress disorder. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 32(3), 287–298.

G. Gale , S. Anagnostaras , B. Godsil , S. Mitchell , T. Nozawa , J. Sage , et al.(2004). Role of the basolateral amygdala in the storage of fear memories across the adult lifetime of rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 3810–1815.

J. C. Gewirtz , & M. Davis (1997).Second-order fear conditioning prevented by blocking N-methyl d-aspartate (receptors) receptors in amygdala. Nature, 388(6641), 471–474.

P. Goelet , V. F. Castellucci , S. Schacher , & E. R. Kandel (1986). The long and the short of long-term memory – a molecular framework. Nature, 322(6078), 419–422.

L. R. Hartley , S. Ungapen , I. Davie , & D. J. Spencer (1983). The effect of beta adrenergic blocking drugs on speakers' performance and memory. British Journal Psychiatry, 142, 512–517.

L. Humphreys (1940). Distributed practice in the development of the conditioned eyelid reaction. Journal of General Psychology, 22, 379–385.

D. Johnston , S. Williams , D. Jaffe , & R. Gray (1992). N-methyl d-aspartate (receptors)-receptor-independent long-term potentiation. Annual Review of Physiology, 54, 489–505.

J. J. Kim , J. P. DeCola , J. Landeira-Fernandez , & M. S. Fanselow (1991).N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist APV blocks acquisition but not expression of fear conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 105(1), 126–133.

J. H. Kogan , P. W. Frankland , J. A. Blendy , J. Coblentz , Z. Marowitz , G. Schutz , et al. (1997). Spaced training induces normal long-term memory in cAMP-response-element–binding protein mutant mice. Current Biology, 7(1), 1–11.

J. Lehmann , F. Colpaert , & H. Canton (1991).Glutamate and glycine co-activate while polyamines merely modulate the N-methyl d-aspartate (receptors) receptor complex. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 15(2), 183–190.

G. Malleret , U. Haditsch , D. Genoux , M. W. Jones , T. V. Bliss , A. M. Vanhoose , et al. (2001).Inducible and reversible enhancement of learning, memory, and long-term potentiation by genetic inhibition of calcineurin. Cell, 104(5), 675–686.

G. Marsicano , C. T. Wotjak , S. C. Azad , T. Bisogno , G. Rammes , M. G. Cascio , et al.(2002). The endogenous cannabinoid system controls extinction of aversive memories. Nature, 418(6897), 530–534.

P. J. Martasian , N. F. Smith , S. A. Neill , & T. S. Rieg (1992).Retention of massed vs distributed response-prevention treatments in rats and a revised training procedure. Psychological Reports, 70(2), 339–355.

M. J. Miserendino , C. B. Sananes , K. R. Melia , & M. Davis (1990). Blocking of acquisition but not expression of conditioned fear-potentiated startle by N-methyl d-aspartate (receptors) antagonists in the amygdala. Nature, 345(6277), 716–718.

R. G. Morris , E. Anderson , G. S. Lynch , & M. Baudry (1986).Selective impairment of learning and blockade of long-term potentiation by an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, AP5. Nature, 319(6056), 774–776.

K. M. Myers , K. J. Ressler , & M. Davis (2006). Different mechanisms of fear extinction dependent on length of time since fear acquisition. Learning & Memory, 13(2), 216–223.

M. Newman , & J. G. Reves (1993).Pro: Midazolam is the sedative of choice to supplement narcotic anesthesia. Journal of Cardiothorac and Vascular Anesthesia, 7(5), 615–619.

R. A. Nicoll , & R. C. Malenka (1999).Expression mechanisms underlying N-methyl d-aspartate (receptors) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 868, 515–525.

I. D. Oler , & M. Baum (1968). Facilitated extinction of an avoidance response through shortening of the inter-trial interval. Psychonomic Science, 11, 323–324.

R. Ponnusamy , H. A. Nissim , & M. Barad (2005). Systemic blockade of D2-like dopamine receptors facilitates extinction of conditioned fear in mice. Learning & Memory, 12(4), 399–406.

K. J. Ressler , B. O. Rothbaum , L. Tannenbaum , P. Anderson , K. Graap , E. Zimand . (2004). Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: Use of d-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61 (11), 1136–1144.

B. Reynolds (1945). Extinction of trace conditioned responses as a function of the spacing of trials during the acquisition and extinction series. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35, 81–95.

R. Schiff , N. Smith , & J. Prochaska (1972).Extinction of avoidance in rats as a function of duration and number of blocked trials. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 81, 356–359.

V. F. Sheffield (1949). Extinction as a function of partial reinforcement and distribution of practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39, 511–526.

W. C. Stanley (1952). Extinction as a function of the spacing of extinction trials. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 249–261.

U. Staubli , O. Thibault , M. DiLorenzo , & G. Lynch (1989). Antagonism of N-methyl d-aspartate (receptors) receptors impairs acquisition but not retention of olfactory memory. Behavioral Neuroscience, 103(1), 54–60.

M. Tanaka , M. Yoshida , H. Emoto , & H. Ishii (2000). Noradrenaline systems in the hypothalamus, amygdala and locus coeruleus are involved in the provocation of anxiety: Basic studies. European Journal of Pharmacology, 405(1–3), 397–406.

T. Tully , T. Preat , S. C. Boynton , & Vecchio, M. Del (1994). Genetic dissection of consolidated memory in Drosophila. Cell, 79(1), 35–47.

R. F. Westbrook , F. J. Smith , & D. J. Charnock (1985). The extinction of an aversion: Role of the interval between non-reinforced presentations of the averted stimulus. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 37B, 255–273.

A. F. T. Arnsten (2001). Stress impairs prefrontal cortical function in rats and monkeys: Role of dopamine D1 and norepinephrine α-1 receptor mechanisms. Progress in Brain Research, 126, 183–192.

W. G. Brake , T. Y. Zhang , J. Diorio , M. J. Meaney , & A. Gratton (2004). Influence of early postnatal rearing conditions on mesocorticolimbic dopamine and behavioral responses to psychostimulants and stress in adult rats. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 1863–1874.

T. W. Bredy , J. Diorio , R. Grant , & M. J. Meaney (2003). Maternal care influences hippocampal neuron survival in the rat. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 2903–2909.

T. W. Bredy , R. A. Humpartzoomian , D. P. Cain , & M. J. Meaney (2003). Partial reversal of the effect of maternal care on cognitive function through environmental enrichment. Neuroscience, 118, 571–576.

T. W. Bredy , T.-Y. Zhang , R. J. Grant , J. Diorio , & M. J. Meaney (2004). Peripubertal environmental enrichment reverses the effects of maternal care on hippocampal development and glutamate receptor subunit expression. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 1355–1362.

N. Breslau , R. C. Kessler , H. D. Chilcoat , L. R. Schultz , G. C. Davis , & P. Andreski (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: The 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(7), 626–632.

L. Cahill , & J. L. McGaugh (1998). Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 21(7), 294–299.

C. Caldji , J. Diorio , H. Anisman , & M. J. Meaney (2004). Maternal behavior regulates benzodiazepine/gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor subunit expression in brain regions associated with fear in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29(7), 1344–1352.

C. Caldji , J. Diorio , & M. J. Meaney (2003). Variations in maternal care alter gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor subunit expression in brain regions associated with fear. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28(11), 1950–1959.

C. Caldji , D. Francis , S. Sharma , P. M. Plotsky , & M. J. Meaney (2000). The effects of rearing environment on the development of gamma-aminobutyric acidA and central benzodiazepine receptor levels and novelty-induced fearfulness in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology, 22(3), 219–229.

F. A. Champagne , D. Francis , A. Mar , & M. J. Meaney (2003). Variations in maternal care in the rat as a mediating influence for the effects of environment on development. Physiology & Behavior, 79, 359–371.

S. Chourbaji , R. Hellweg , D. Brandis , B. Zorner , C. Zacher , U. E. Lang . (2004). Mice with reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression show decreased choline acetyltransferase activity, but regular brain monoamine levels and unaltered emotional behavior. Molecular Brain Research, 121(1–2), 28–36.

J. Cilia , C. Reavill , J. J. Hagan , & D. N. Jones (2001). Long-term evaluation of isolation-rearing induced prepulse inhibition deficits in rats. Psychopharmacology, 156, 327–337.

F. Crestani , M. Lorez , K. Baer , C. Essrich , D. Benke , J. Laurent , et al. (1999). Decreased gamma-aminobutyric acidA-receptor clustering results in enhanced anxiety and a bias for threat cues. Nature Neuroscience, 2(9), 833–839.

B. A. Ellenbroek , S. Budde , & A. R. Cools (1996). Prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition: The role of dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience, 75(2), 535–542.

B. A. Ellenbroek , P. T. Kroonenberg , & A. R. Cools (1998). The effects of an early stressful life event on sensorimotor gating in adult rats. Schizophrenia Research, 30, 251–260.

R. M. Escorihuela (1992). Infantile stimulation and the role of benzodiazepine receptor system in adult acquisition of two-way avoidance behavior. Psychopharmacology, 106, 282–284.

V. J. Felitti , R. F. Anda , D. Nordenberg , D. F. Williamson , A. M. Spitz , V. Edwards , et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245–258.

A. S. Fleming (1999). The neurobiology of mother–infant interactions: Experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 673–685.

D. D. Francis , J. Diorio , D. Liu , & M. J. Meaney (1999). Nongenomic transmission across generations of maternal behavior and stress responses in the rat. Science, 286, 1155–1158.

E. Fries , N. Moragues , C. Caldji , D. H. Hellhammer , & M. J. Meaney (2004). Preliminary evidence of altered sensitivity to benzodiazepines as a function of maternal care in the rat. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 320–323.

T. Furmark , H. Fischer , G. Wik , M. Larsson , & M. Fredrikson (1997). The amygdala and individual differences in human fear conditioning. Neuroreport, 8(18), 3957–3960.

J. M. Fuster (1997). Network memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 20, 451–459.

M. A. Geyer , K. Krebs-Thomson , D. L. Braff , & N. R. Swerdlow (2001). Pharmacological studies of prepulse inhibition models of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia: A decade in review. Psychopharmacology, 156, 117–154.

M. A. Geyer , N. R. Swerdlow , R. S. Mansbach , & D. L. Braff (1990). Startle response models of sensorimotor gating and habituation deficits in schizophrenia. Brain Research Bulletin, 25, 485–498.

A. W. Goddard , G. F. Mason , M. Appel , D. L. Rothman , R. Gueorguieva , & K. L. Behar (2004). Impaired gamma-aminobutyric acid neuronal response to acute benzodiazepine administration in panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(12), 2186–2193.

J. A. Gogos , M. Morgan , V. Luine , M. Santha , S. Ogawa , D. Pfaff , & M. Karaviorgou (1998). Catechol-O-methyltransferase-deficient mice exhibit sexually dimorphic changes in catecholamine levels and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(17), 9991–9996.

J. M. Gorman , J. M. Kent , G. M. Sullivan , & J. D. Coplan (2000). Neuroanatomical hypothesis of panic disorder, revised. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(4), 493–505.

U. Gunther , J. Benson , D. Benke , J. M. Fritschy , G. Reyes , F. Knoflach . (1995). Benzodiazepine-insensitive mice generated by targeted disruption of the gamma 2 subunit of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(17), 7749–7753.

R. Habib , A. R. McIntosh , M. A. Wheeler , & E. Tulving (2003). Memory encoding and hippocampally-based novelty/familiarity discrimination networks. Neuropsychologia, 41, 271–279.

C. Heim , D. J. Newport , S. Heit , Y. P. Graham , M. Wilcox , R. Bonsall , et al. (2000). Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(5), 592–597.

B. Jablonski , M. Kossut , & J. Skangiel-Kramska (1996). Transient increase of AMPA and N-methyl d-aspartate (receptors) receptor binding in the barrel cortex of mice after tactile stimulation. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 66, 36–43.

K. S. LaBar , J. C. Gatenby , J. C. Gore , J. E. LeDoux , & E. A. Phelps (1998). Human amygdala activation during conditioned fear acquisition and extinction: A mixed-trial fMRI study. Neuron, 20(5), 937–945.

M. H. Lee , & D. I. Williams (1975). Long term changes in nest condition and pup grouping following handling of rat litters. Developmental Psychobiology, 8(1), 91–95.

R. C. Summit (1983). The child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. Child Abuse & Neglect, 7(2), 177–193.

M. H. Teicher , S. L. Andersen , A. Polcari , C. M. Anderson , C. P. Navalta , & D. M. Kim (2003). The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 27(1–2), 33–44.

B. A. Kolk (2003). The neurobiology of childhood trauma and abuse. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, 293–317.

B. A. Kolk , S. Roth , D. Pelcovitz , S. Sunday , & J. Spinazzola (2005). Disorders of extreme stress: The empirical foundation of a complex adaptation to trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 389–401.

C. S. Widom ,& M. G. Maxfield (1996). A prospective examination of risk for violence among abused and neglected children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794, 224–237.

S. N. Wilson , B. A. Kolk , J. Burbridge , R. Fisler , & R. Kradin (1999). Phenotype of blood lymphocytes in PTSD suggests chronic immune activation. Psychosomatics, 40, 222–225.

C. Zlotnick , A. L. Zakriski , M. T. Shea , E. Costello , A. Begin , T. Pearlstein , et al. (1996). The long-term sequelae of sexual abuse: Support for a complex posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(2), 195–205.

Basoglu, M., Jaranson, J., Mollica, R., & Kastrup, M. (2001). Torture and mental health: A researcher overview. In E. Gerrity , T. Keane , & F. Tuma (Eds.), The mental health consequences of torture (pp. 35–65). New York: Plenum.

J. T. Jong , & I. H. Komproe (2002). Closing the gap between psychiatric epidemiology and mental health in post-conflict situations. Lancet, 359(9320), 1793–1794.

J. T. Jong , I. H. Komproe , Ommeren, M. Van , Masri, M. El , M. Araya , N. Khaled , et al. (2001). Lifetime events and posttraumatic stress disorder in 4 postconflict settings. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(5), 555–562.

K. Jong , M. Mulhern , N. Ford , S. Kam , & R. Kleber (2000). The trauma of war in Sierra Leone. Lancet, 355(9220), 2067–2068.

C. Galletly , C. R. Clark , A. C. McFarlane , & D. L. Weber (2001). Working memory in posttraumatic stress disorder – an event-related potential study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(2), 295–309.

J. Modvig , J. Pagaduan-Lopez , J. Rodenburg , C. M. Salud , R. V. Cabigon , & C. I. Panelo (2000). Torture and trauma in post-conflict East Timor. Lancet, 356(9243), 1763.

R. F. Mollica , K. Donelan , S. Tor , J. Lavelle , C. Elias , M. Frankel , et al. (1993). The effect of trauma and confinement on functional health and mental health status of Cambodians living in Thailand-Cambodia border camps. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270(5), 581–586.

R. F. Mollica , K. McInnes , T. Pham , Fawzi, M. C. Smith , E. Murphy , & L. Lin (1998). The dose-effect relationships between torture and psychiatric symptoms in Vietnamese ex-political detainees and a comparison group. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186(9), 543–553.

R. F. Mollica , K. McInnes , N. Sarajlic , J. Lavelle , I. Sarajlic , & M. P. Massagli (1999). Disability associated with psychiatric comorbidity and health status in Bosnian refugees living in Croatia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(5), 433–439.

S. Momartin , D. Silove , V. Manicavasagar , & Z. Steel (2003). Dimensions of trauma associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness, severity and functional impairment: A study of Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Social Science & Medicine, 57(5), 775–781.

S. Momartin , D. Silove , V. Manicavasagar , & Z. Steel (2004). Comorbidity of PTSD and depression: Associations with trauma exposure, symptom severity and functional impairment in Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80(2–3), 231–238.

Raphael, B., & Wilson, J. (2000). Introduction and overview: Key issues in the conceptualization of debriefing. In B. Raphael & J. Wilson (Eds.), Psychological debriefing theory, practice and evidence (pp. 1–17). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

D. Silove (1999b). Health and human rights of the East Timorese. Lancet, 353(9169), 2067.

D. Silove (2002). The asylum debacle in Australia: A challenge for psychiatry. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36(3), 290–296.

D. Silove , M. Coello , K. Tang , J. Aroche , M. Soares , R. Lingam , et al. (2002). Towards a researcher-advocacy model for asylum seekers: A pilot study amongst East Timorese living in Australia. Transcultural Psychiatry, 39(4), 452–468.

D. Silove , S., Ekblad & R. Mollica (2000). The rights of the severely mentally ill in post-conflict societies. Lancet, 355(9214), 1548–1549.

Z. Steel , S. Momartin , C. Bateman , A. Hafshejani , D. M. Silove , N. Everson , et al. (2004). Psychiatric status of asylum seeker families held for a protracted period in a remote detention centre in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 28(6), 527–536.

Z. Steel , D. Silove , T. Phan , & A. Bauman (2002). Long-term effect of psychological trauma on the mental health of Vietnamese refugees resettled in Australia: A population-based study. Lancet, 360(9339), 1056–1062.

S. W. Turner , C. Bowie , G. Dunn , L. Shapo , & W. Yule (2003). Mental health of Kosovan Albanian refugees in the UK. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 444–448.

R. Yehuda (2002). Post-traumatic stress disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 346(2), 108–114.

A. B. Zwi , & D. Silove (2002). Hearing the voices: Mental health services in East Timor. Lancet, 360(Suppl.), s45–46.

J. K. Boehnlein (1987). Clinical relevance of grief and mourning among Cambodian refugees. Social Science& Medicine, 25(7), 765–772.

J. Bowker (1970). Problems of suffering in religions of the world. New York: Cambridge University Press.

L. G. Calhoun , A. Cann , R. G. Tedeschi ,& J. McMillan (2000). A correlational test of the relationship between posttraumatic growth, religion, and cognitive processing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(3), 521–527.

K. M. Connor , J. R. Davidson ,& L. C. Lee (2003). Spirituality, resilience, and anger in survivors of violent trauma: A community survey. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16(5), 487–494.

M. Eisenbruch (1984). Cross-cultural aspects of bereavement.II: Ethnic and cultural variations in the development of bereavement practices. Culture Medicine and Psychiatry, 8(4), 315–347.

S. Elbedour , A. Baker , N. Shalhoub-Kevorkian , M. Irwin ,& R. H. Belmaker (1999). Psychological responses in family members after the Hebron massacre. Depression and Anxiety, 9(1), 27–31.

H. R. Khouzam ,& P. Kissmeyer (1997). Antidepressant treatment, posttraumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, and spiritual awakening. Journal ofTraumatic Stress, 10(4), 691–696.

A. Kleinman , L. Eisenberg ,& B. Good (1978). Culture, illness, and care: Clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Annals of Internal Medicine, 88(2), 251–258.

AACAP Official Action. (1997). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(10), 177S–192S.

P. M. Ferren (1999). Comparing perceived self-efficacy among adolescent Bosnian and Croatian refugees with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12(3), 405–420.

J. D. Kinzie , W. H. Sack , R. H. Angell , G. Clarke , & B. Rath (1989). A three-year follow-up of Cambodian young people traumatized as children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 501–504.

J. A. Lyons (1991). Strategies for assessing the potential for positive adjustment following trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 4(1), 93–111.

M. S. Macksoud , & J. L. Aber (1996). The war experiences and psychosocial development of children in Lebanon. Child Development, 67, 70–88.

R. Mollica (2001). The trauma story: A phenomenological approach to the traumatic life experiences of refugee survivors. Psychiatry, 64(1), 60–63.

J. W. Pennebaker (1985). Traumatic experience and psychosomatic disease: Exploring the roles of behavioural inhibition, obsession, and confiding. Canadian Psychology, 26(2), 82–95.

C. Rousseau (1999). Playing around with a story. Transcultural Psychiatry, 36(4), 447–450.

C. Rousseau , E. Aldea , Viger M. Rojas , & P. Foxen (2005). After the NGO's departure: Changing memory strategies of young Mayan refugees who returned to Guatemala as a community. Anthropology & Medicine, 12(1), 3–21.

S. Wessely (2005). Victimhood and resilience. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(6), 548–550.

S. Wessely , C. Unwin , M. Hotopf , L. Hull , K. Ismail , V. Nicolaou , et al. (2003). Stability of recall of military hazards over time. Evidence from the Persian Gulf War of 1991. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 314–322.

R. Yehuda (2002a). Current status of cortisol findings in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 25(2), 341–368, vii.

E. A. Young , & N. Breslau (2004). Cortisol and catecholamines in posttraumatic stress disorder: An epidemiologic community study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(4), 394–401.

P. R. Zelazo , & M. J. Komer (1971). Infant smiling to nonsocial stimuli and the recognition hypothesis. Child Development, 42, 1327–1339.

C. Zlotnick , B. F. Rodriguez , R. B. Weisberg , S. E. Bruce , M. A. Spencer , L. Culpepper , et al. (2004). Chronicity in posttraumatic stress disorder and predictors of the course of posttraumatic stress disorder among primary care patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(2), 153–159.

M. Zuckerman (1984). Sensation seeking: A comparative approach to a human trait. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 413–471.

M. Zuckerman (1990). The psychophysiology of sensation seeking. Journal of Personality, 58, 313–345.

M. Zuckerman , M. S. Buchsbaum ,& D. L. Murphy (1980). Sensation seeking and its biological correlates. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 187–214.

M. Zuckerman , & D. M. Kuhlman (2000). Personality and risk-taking: Common biosocial factors. Journal of Personality, 68(6), 999–1029.

J. Berger (1997). Trauma and literary theory. Contemporary Literature, 38, 569–582.

R. J. Bernstein (1998). Freud and the legacy of Moses. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

J. Crouthamel (2002). War neurosis versus savings psychosis: Working-class politics and psychological trauma in Weimar Germany. Journal of Contemporary History, 37, 163–182.

G. Eval (2004). Identity and trauma: Two forms of will to memory. History and Memory, 16, 5–36.

K. C. Hyams , F. S. Wignall , & R. Roswell (1996). War syndromes and their evaluation: From the U.S. Civil War to the Persian Gulf War. Annals of Internal Medicine, 125(5), 398–405.

E. Jones , R. Hodgins-Vermaas , H. McCartney , B. Everitt , C. Beech , D., Poynter et al. (2002). Post-combat syndromes from the Boer War to the Gulf War: A cluster analysis of their nature and attribution. British Medical Journal, 324(7333), 321–324.

E. Jones , I. Palmer , & S. Wessely (2002). War pensions (1900–1945): Changing models of psychological understanding. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 374–379.

E. Jones , R. H. Vermaas , H. McCartney , C. Beech , I. Palmer , K., Hyams et al. (2003). Flashbacks and post-traumatic stress disorder: The genesis of a 20th-century diagnosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 158–163.

E. Jones , & S. Wessely (2001). Psychiatric battle casualties: An intra- and interwar comparison. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 242–247.

W. Kansteiner (2002). Finding meaning in memory: A methodological critique of collective memory studies. History and Theory, 41, 179–197.

D. Kaufmann (1999). Science as cultural practice: Psychiatry in the First World War and Weimar Germany. Journal of Contemporary History, 34, 125–144.

N. P. E. Kellermann (2001). Transmission of Holocaust trauma: An integrative view. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 64, 256–267.

A. Killen (2003). From shock to schreck: Psychiatrists, telephone operators and traumatic neurosis in Germany, 1900–26. Journal of Contemporary History, 38, 201–220.

K. E. Klein (2000). On the emergence of memory in historical discourse. Representations, 69, 127–150.

R. Leys (2000). Trauma: A genealogy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

S. Mächler (2001b). Wilkomirski the victim: Individual remembering as social interaction and public event. History and Memory, 13, 59–95.

M. S. Micale , & P. F. Lerner (Eds.). (2001). Traumatic pasts: History, psychiatry, and trauma in the modern age, 1870–1930. New York: Cambridge University Press.

R. Yehuda , J. Schmeidler , M. Wainberg , K. Binder-Brynes , & T. Duvdevani (1998). Vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(9), 1163–1171.

I. Zertal (2000). From the people's hall to the Wailing Wall: A study in memory, fear, and war. Representations, 69, 96–126.

Daniel, E. V. (2002). The refugee: A discourse on displacement. In J. MacClancy (Ed.), Exotic no more: Anthropology on the front lines (pp. 270–286). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

A. D. DeSantis (2001). Caught between two worlds: Bakhtin's dialogism in the exile experience. Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(1), 1–19.

G. Fauconnier (1997). Mappings in thought and language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

N. Glick-Schiller , & G. Fouron (1990). “Everywhere we go, we are in danger”: Ti Manno and the emergence of a Haitian transnational identity. American Ethnologist, 17(2), 329–347.

L. J. Kirmayer (1994). Improvisation and authority in illness meaning. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 18(2), 183–214.

L. J. Kirmayer (2002). The refugee's predicament. L'Évolution Psychiatrique, 67, 724–742.

L. J. Kirmayer (2003). Failures of imagination: The refugee's narrative in psychiatry. Anthropology & Medicine, 10(2), 167–185.

S. Pickering (2001). Common sense and original deviancy: News discourses and asylum seekers in Australia. Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(2), 169–186.

A. Portes (1999). Conclusion: Towards a new world – The origins and effects of transnational activities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2), 463–477.

C. Rousseau , F. Crépeau , P. Foxen , & F. Houle (2002). The complexity of determining refugeehood: A multidisciplinary analysis of the decision-making process of the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board. Journal of Refugee Studies, 15(1), 43–70.

D. Silove (1999). The psychosocial effects of torture, mass human rights violations, and refugee trauma. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187(4), 200–207.

R. Wilde (2001). The refugee convention at 50: Forced migration policy at the turn of the century. Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(2), 135–150.

R. Bellah (1964). Religionevolution. American Sociological Review, 29, 358–374.

B. Aretxaga (2003). Maddening states. Annual Review ofAnthropology, 32, 393–410.

J. Breslau (2004). Cultures of trauma: Anthropological views of posttraumaticstress disorder in international health. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 28, 113–126.

P. Connerton (1989). How societies remember. New York: Cambridge UniversityPress.

L. Connor (1990). Séances and spirits of the dead: Context and idiom insymbolic healing. Oceania, 60, 345–359.

L. French (2004). Commentary. Culture, Medicine andPsychiatry, 28, 211–220.

Greenhouse, C. J. (2002). Introduction: Alteredstate, altered lives. In C. J. Greenhouse , E. Mertz , & K. B. Warren (Eds.), Ethnography in unstableplaces: Everyday lives in contexts of dramatic political change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

C. S. Gross (2004). Struggling with imaginaries of trauma and trust: The refugeeexperience in Switzerland. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 28, 151–167.

C. Han (2004). The work of indebtedness: The traumatic present of latecapitalist Chile. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 28(2), 169–187.

E. C. James (2004). The political economy of “trauma” in Haiti in thedemocratic era of insecurity. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 28, 127–149.

R. Lemelson (2003). Obsessive-compulsive disorder in Bali: The culturalshaping of a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. Transcultural Psychiatry, 40(3), 377–408.

P. McGorry (1995). Working with survivors of torture and trauma: The VictorianFoundation for Survivors perspective. Australian and New Zealand Journal ofPsychiatry 19(3), 463–472.

T. D. O'Nell (2000). “Cominghome” among Northern Plains Vietnam veterans: Psychological transformations in pragmaticperspective. Ethos, 27(4), 441–465.

V. Sanford (2003). Buried secrets: Truth and human rightsin Guatemala. New York: PalgraveMacMillan.

J. T. Siegel (1998a). A new criminal type in Jakarta: Counter-revolution today. Durham, NC: Duke UniversityPress.

J. T. Siegel (1998b). Early thoughts on the violence of May 13 and 14 inJakarta. Indonesia, 66, 75–108.

C. Watters (2001). Emerging paradigms in the mental health care ofrefugees. Social Science & Medicine, 52, 1709–1718.

C. Zarowsky (2004). Writing trauma: Emotion, ethnography, and the politics ofsuffering among Somali returnees in Ethiopia. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 28, 189–209.

M. Eisenbruch (1992). The ritual space of patients and traditional healers in Cambodia. Bulletin de l'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, 79(2), 1–35.

D. Hinton , K. Um , & P. Ba (2001a). A unique panic-disorder presentation among Khmer refugees: The sore-neck syndrome. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 25(3), 297–316.

D. Hinton , K. Um , & P. Ba (2001b). Kyol goeu (‘wind overload’) part I: A cultural syndrome of orthostatic panic among Khmer refugees. Transcultural Psychiatry, 38, 403–432.

C. Sargent , J. Marcucci , & E. Elliston (1983). Tiger bones, fire and wine: Maternity care in a Kampuchean refugee community. Medical Anthropology, 7(4), 67–79.

L. Atlani , & C. Rousseau (2000). The politics of culture in humanitarian aid to refugees having experienced sexual violence. Transcultural Psychiatry, 37(3), 435–449.

J. ;K. Boehnlein , & J. ;D. Kinzie (1995). Refugee trauma. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 32(3), 223–252.

P. ;J. Bracken , J. ;E. Giller , & D. Summerfield (1995). Psychological responses to war and atrocity: The limitations of current concepts. Social Science & Medicine, 40(8), 1073–1082.

J. Breslau (2000). Globalizing disaster trauma: Psychiatry, science, and culture after the Kobe earthquake. Ethos, 28(2), 174–197.

M. Eisenbruch (1991). From post-traumatic stress disorder to cultural bereavement: Diagnosis of Southeast Asian refugees. Social Science & Medicine, 33(6), 673– 680.

A. ;D. Gaines (1992). From Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-I to III-R; Voices of self, mastery and the other: A cultural constructivist reading of U.S. psychiatric classification. Social Science & Medicine, 35(1), 3–24.

D. Groleau , & L. ;J. Kirmayer (2004). Sociosomatic theory in Vietnamese immigrants' narratives of distress. Anthropology & Medicine, 11(2), 117–133.

C. ;A. Kidron (2005). Surviving a distant past: A case study of the cultural construction of trauma descendant identity. Ethos, 31(4), 513–544.

L. ;J. Kirmayer (2005). Culture, context and experience in psychiatric diagnosis. Psychopathology, 38(4), 192–196.

S. López , & P. ;J. Guarnaccia (2000). Cultural psychopathology: Uncovering the social world of mental illness. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 571–598.

S. ;L. Lustig , S. ;M. Weine , G. ;N. Saxe , & W. ;R. Beardslee (2004). Testimonial psychotherapy for adolescent refugees: A case series. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41(1), 31–45.

H. Merckelbach , & M. Jelicic (2004). Dissociative symptoms are related to endorsement of vague trauma items. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45(1), 70–75.

S. Wieringa (2003). The birth of the New Order State in Indonesia: Sexual politics and nationalism. Journal of Women's History, 15(1), 70–91.

S. Maren (2001). Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 897–931.

S. Maren (2003). The amygdala, synaptic plasticity, and fear memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 985, 106–113.

S. Maren ,& M. S. Fanselow (1996). The amygdala and fear conditioning: Has the nut been cracked? Neuron, 16(2), 237–240.

A. Mathews (1990). Why worry? The cognitive function of anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(6), 455–468.

A. Munck , P. M. Guyre , & N. J. Holbrook (1984). Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions. Endocrine Reviews, 5(1), 25–44.

J. P. Pinel , & D. Treit (1978). Burying as a defensive response in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 92(4), 708–712.

A. Poling , J. Cleary , & M. Monaghan (1981). Burying by rats in response to aversive and nonaversive stimuli. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 35(1), 31–44.

A. M. Rasmussen , & D. S. Charney (1997). Animal models of relevance to PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 332–351.

V. Rau , J. P. DeCola , & M. S. Fanselow (2005). Stress-induced enhancement of fear learning: An animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(8), 1207–1223.

J. B. Rosen , & J. Schulkin (1998). From normal fear to pathological anxiety. Psychological Reviews, 105(2), 325–350.

M. Sakanaka , T. Shibasaki , & K. Lederis (1986). Distribution and efferent projections of corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity in the rat amygdaloid complex. Brain Research, 382(2), 213–238.

W. Vale , J. Spiess , C. Rivier , & J. Rivier (1981). Characterization of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin and beta-endorphin. Science, 213(4514), 1394–1397.

R. Yehuda (1997). Sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in posttraumatic stress disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 57–75.

R. C. Bolles , & M. S. Fanselow (1980). A perceptual-defensive-recuperative model of fear and pain. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 3, 291–323.

M. E. Bouton (1988). Context and ambiguity in the extinction of emotional learning: Implications for exposure therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26, 137–149.

M. E. Bouton (1993). Context, time, and memory retrieval in the interference paradigms of Pavlovian learning. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 80–99.

M. E. Bouton (2002). Context, ambiguity, and unlearning: Sources of relapse after behavioral extinction. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 976–986.

M. E. Bouton , F. A. Kenney , & C. Rosengard (1990). State-dependent fear extinction with two benzodiazepine tranquilizers. Behavioral Neuroscience, 104, 44–55.

M. E. Bouton , S. Mineka , & D. H. Barlow (2001). A modern learning theory perspective on the etiology of panic disorder. Psychological Review, 108, 4–32.

M. E. Bouton , & C. A. Peck (1989). Context effects on conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement in an appetitive conditioning preparation. Animal Learning & Behavior, 17, 188–198.

M. E. Bouton , & C. A. Peck (1992). Recovery in cross-motivational transfer (counterconditioning). Animal Learning & Behavior, 20, 313–321.

M. E. Bouton , & S. T. Ricker (1994). Renewal of extinguished responding in a second context. Animal Learning & Behavior, 22, 317–324.

M. E. Bouton , & D. Swartzentruber (1991). Sources of relapse after extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 123–140.

D. C. Brooks (2000). Recent and remote extinction cues reduce spontaneous recovery. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53B, 25–58.

D. C. Brooks , B. Hale , J. B. Nelson , & M. E. Bouton (1995).Reinstatement after counterconditioning. Animal Learning & Behavior, 23, 383–390.

B. N. Collins , & T. H. Brandon (2002). Effects of extinction context and retrieval cues on alcohol cue reactivity among nonalcoholic drinkers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 390–397.

W. E. Cullinan , J. P. Herman , & S. J. Watson (1993). Ventral subicular interaction with the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: Evidence for a relay in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 332, 1–20.

C. L. Cunningham (1979). Alcohol as a cue for extinction: State dependency produced by conditioned inhibition. Animal Learning & Behavior, 7, 45–52.

M. Davis , & C. Shi (1999).The extended amygdala: Are the central nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis differentially involved in fear versus anxiety? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, 281–291.

M. Davis , D. L. Walker , & Y. Lee (1997).Roles for the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in fear and anxiety measured with the acoustic startle reflex. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 305–331.

M. Domjan (1994). Formulation of a behavior system for sexual conditioning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 421–428.

M. S. Fanselow (2000). Contextual fear, gestalt memories, and the hippocampus. Behavioural Brain Research, 110, 73–81.

D. D. Francis , & M. J. Meaney (1999). Maternal care and the development of stress response. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9, 128–134.

R. J. Frohardt , F. A. Guarraci , & M. E. Bouton (2000). The effects of neurotoxic hippocampal lesions on two effects of context after fear extinction. Behavioral Neuroscience, 114, 227–240.

J. M. Hitchcock , & M. Davis (1991). Efferent pathway of the amygdala involved in conditioned fear as measured with the fear-potentiated startle paradigm. Behavioral Neuroscience, 105, 826–842.

J. J. Kim , & M. S. Fanselow (1992). Modality specific retrograde amnesia of fear. Science, 256, 675–677.

D. Liu , B. Tannenbum , C. Caldji , D. Francis , A. Freedman , S., Sharma . (1997). Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. Science, 277, 1659–1662.

S. B. McHugh , R. M. J. Deacon , J. N. P. Rawlins , & D. M. Bannerman (2004). Amygdala and ventral hippocampus contribute differentially to mechanisms of fear and anxiety. Behavioral Neuroscience, 118, 63–78.

J. L. Mystkowski , M. G. Craske , & A. M. Echiverri (2002). Treatment context and return of fear in spider phobia. Behavior Therapy, 33, 399–416.

J. L. Mystkowski , M. G. Craske , A. M. Echiverri , & J. S. Labus (2006). Mental reinstatement of context and return of fear in spider-fearful participants. Behavior Therapy, 37, 49–60.

C. A. Peck , & M. E. Bouton (1990). Context and performance in aversive-to-appetitive and appetitive-to-aversive transfer. Learning and Motivation, 21, 1–31.

R. G. Phillips , & J. E. LeDoux (1992). Differential contribution of amygdala and hippocampus to cued and contextual fear conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 106, 274–285.

R. A. Rescorla , & R. L. Solomon (1967).Two-process learning theory: Relationships between Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental learning. Psychological Review, 74, 151–182.

G. M. Sullivan , J. Apergis , D. E. A. Bush , L. R. Johnson , M. Hou , & J. E. LeDoux (2004). Lesions in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis disrupt corticosterone and freezing responses elicited by a contextual but not a specific cue-conditioned fear stimulus. Neuroscience, 128, 7–14.

N. Sun , L. Roberts , & M. D. Cassell (1991). Rat central amygdaloid nucleus projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Brain Research Bulletin, 27, 651–662.

P. Toren , L. Wolmer , R. Weizman , O. Magal-Vardi , & N. Laor (2002).Retraumatization of Israeli civilians during a reactivation of the Gulf War threat. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190, 43–45.

D. H. VanDerCar , & N. Schneiderman (1967). Interstimulus interval functions in different response systems during classical discrimination conditioning of rabbits. Psychonomic Science, 9, 9–10.

M. Vigorito , & J. J. B. Ayres (1987).Effect of naloxone on conditioned suppression in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 101, 576–586.

A. Wilson , D. C. Brooks , & M. E. Bouton (1995). The role of the rat hippocampal system in several effects of context in extinction. Behavioral Neuroscience, 109, 828–836.

R. Yehuda , E. L. Giller , S. M. Southwick , M. T. Lowy , & J. W. Mason (1991).Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysfunction in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 30, 1031–1048.

R. Yehuda , J. A. Golier , S. L. Halligan , M. Meaney , & L. M. Bierer (2004). The adrenocorticotropic hormone response to dexamethasone in PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1397–1403.

A. Pertovaara (1993).Antinociception induced by alpha-2-adrenoceptor agonists, with special emphasis on medetomidine studies. Progress in Neurobiology, 40, 691–709.

P. M. Plotsky , E. T. Cunningham , & E. P. Widmaier (1989). Catecholaminergic modulation of corticotropin-releasing factor and dexamethason secretion. Endocrine Reviews, 10, 437–458.

A. J. Reche , & C. A. T. Buffington (1998).Increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the locus coeruleus of cats with interstitial cystitis. Journal of Urology, 159, 1045–1048.

R. L. Reppetti , S. E. Taylor , & T. E. Seeman (2002). Risky families: Family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 330–366.

M. E. Rimsza , R. A. Berg , & C. Locke (1988). Sexual abuse: Somatic and emotional reactions. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 201–208.

L. G. Russak , & G. E. Schwartz (1997). Feelings of parental care predict health status in midlife: A 35-year follow-up of the Harvard Mastery of Stress Study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 1–11.

I. C. Scarinci , J. McDonald-Haile , L. A. Bradley , & J. E. Richter (1994). Altered pain perception and psychosocial features among women with gastrointestinal disorders and history of abuse: A preliminary model. American Journal of Medicine, 97, 108–118.

B. Schei (1991). Sexual factors in pelvic pain: A study of women living in physically abusive relationships and of randomly selected controls. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 12, 99–108.

G. W. Smith , J. M. Aubry , F. Dellu , A. Contarino , L. M. Bilezikjian , L. H. Gold , R. Chen , Y. Marchuk , C. Hauser , C. A. Bentley , P. E. Sawchenko , G. F. Koob , W. Vale , & K. F. Lee (1998). Corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1-deficient mice display decreased anxiety, impaired stress response, and aberrant neuroendocrine development. Neuron, 20, 1093–1102.

L. A. Stables , R. P. Kennan , & J. C. Gore (1998). Asymmetric spin-echo imaging of magnetically inhomogeneous systems: Theory, experiment, and numerical studies. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 40, 432–442.

R. Stam , L. M. A. Akkermans , & V. M. Wiegant (1997). Trauma and the gut: Interactions between stressful experience and intestinal function. Gut, 40, 704–709.

C. A. Stratakis , & G. P. Chrousos (1995).Neuroendocrinology and pathophysiology of the stress system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 771, 1–18.

L. W. Swanson , & H. G. J. M. Kuypers (1980).The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus: Cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and organization of projections to the pituitary, dorsal vagal complex, and spinal cord as demonstrated by retrograde fluorescence double-labeling methods. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 194, 555–570.

Y. Taché , V. Martinez , M. Million , & J. Rivier (1999).Corticotropin-releasing factor and the brain-gut motor response to stress. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 13, 18A–25A.

N. J. Talley , P. M. Boyce , & M. Jones (1998). Is the association between irritable bowel syndrome and abuse explained by neuroticism? A population based study. Gut, 42, 47–53.

N. J. Talley , S. L. Fett , A. R. Zinsmeister , & L. J. Melton III. (1994). Gastrointestinal tract symptoms and self-reported abuse: A population-based study. Gastroenterology, 107, 1040–1049.

S. Tan , K. Tillisch , & E. A. Mayer (2004). Functional somatic syndromes: Emerging biomedical models and traditional Chinese medicine. Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine, 1, 35–40.

T. C. Toomey , J. T. Hernandez , D. F. Gittelman , & J. F. Hulka (1993). Relationship of sexual and physical abuse to pain and psychological assessment variables in chronic pelvic pain patients. Pain, 53, 105–109.

G. Triadafilopoulos , R. W. Simms , & D. L. Goldenberg (1991). Bowel dysfunction in fibromyalgia syndrome. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 36, 59–64.

R. J. Valentino , R. R. Miselis , & L. A. Pavcovich (1999). Pontine regulation of pelvic viscera: Pharmacological target for pelvic visceral dysfunction. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 20, 253–260.

D. Veale , G. Kavanagh , J. F. Fielding , & O. Fitzgerald (1991). Primary fibromyalgia and the irritable bowel syndrome: Different expressions of a common pathogenetic process. British Journal of Rheumatology, 30, 220–222.

G. N. Verne , M. E. Robinson , & D. D. Price (2001). Hypersensitivity to visceral and cutaneous pain in the irritable bowel syndrome. Pain, 93, 7–14.

A. Waigandt , D. L. Wallace , L. Phelps , & D. A. Miller (1990).The impact of sexual assault on physical health status. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3, 93–102.

E. A. Walker , W. J. Katon , J. Hansom , J. Harrop-Griffiths , L. Holm , M. L. Jones , et al. (1992).Medical and psychiatric symptoms in women with childhood sexual abuse. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 658–664.

F. Wei , R. Dubner , & K. Ren (1999).Nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis and nucleus raphe magnus in the brain stem exert opposite effects on behavioral hyperalgesia and spinal Fos protein expression after peripheral inflammation. Pain, 80, 127–141.

P. Welgan , H. Meshkinpour , & F. Hoehler (1985). The effect of stress on colon motor and electrical activity in irritable bowel syndrome. Psychosomatic Medicine, 47, 139–149.

L. S. Wissow (1995).Child abuse and neglect. New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 1425–1431.

R. Yehuda , D. Boisonaeau , J. W. Mason , & E. L. Giller (1993).Relationship between lymphocyte glucocorticoid receptor number and urinary free cortisol excretion in mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 34, 18–25.

L. Amaya-Jackson , J. R. Davidson , D. C. Hughes , M. Swartz , V. Reynolds , L. K., George et al. (1999). Functional impairment and utilization of services associated with posttraumatic stress in the community. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 709–724.

C. B. Becker , C. Zayfert , & E. Anderson (2004). A survey of psychologists' attitudes towards and utilization of exposure therapy for PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 277–292.

G. J. Devilly , & E. B. Foa (2001). The investigation of exposure and cognitive therapy: Comment on Tarrier et al. (1999). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 114–116.

G. J. Devilly , & S. H. Spence (1999). The relative efficacy and treatment distress of EMDR and a cognitive-behavior trauma treatment protocol in the amelioration of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 131–157.

Foa, E. B., & Cahill, S. P. (2006). Psychosocial treatments for PTSD: An overview. In Y. Neria , R. Gross , R. Marshall , & E. Susser (Eds.), 9/11: Public health in the wake of terrorist attacks (pp. 457–474). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

E. B. Foa , C. V. Dancu , E. A. Hembree , L. H. Jaycox , E. A. Meadows , & G. P. Street (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 194–200.

E. B. Foa , A. Ehlers , D. M. Clark , D. F. Tolin , & S. M. Orsillo (1999). The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 11, 303–314.

E. B. Foa , & S. A. M. Rauch (2004). Cognitive changes during prolonged exposure versus prolonged exposure and cognitive restructuring in female assault. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 879–884.

E. B. Foa , B. O. Rothbaum , & J. M. Furr (2003). Augmenting exposure therapy with other cognitive behavioral therapy procedures. Psychiatric Annals, 33, 47–53.

E. B. Foa , B. O. Rothbaum , D. S. Riggs , & T. B. Murdock (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 715–723.

E. B. Foa , G. Steketee , & B. Rothbaum (1989). Behavioral/cognitive conceptualizations of post-traumatic stress disorder. Behavior Therapy, 20, 155–176.

E. B. Foa , L. A. Zoellner , N. C. Feeny , E. A. Hembree , & J. Alvarez-Conrad (2002). Does imaginal exposure exacerbate PTSD symptoms? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1022–1028.

J. R. Freedy , H. S. Resnick , D. G. Kilpatrick , B. S. Dansky , & R. P. Tidwell (1994). The psychological adjustment of recent crime victims in the criminal justice system. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 450–468.

K. Gillespie , M. Duffy , A. Hackmann , & D. M. Clark (2002). Community based cognitive therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Omagh bomb. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 345–357.

T. J. Lai , C. M. Chang , K. M. Connor , L. C. Lee , & J. R. Davidson (2004). Full and partial PTSD among earthquake survivors in rural Taiwan. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38, 313–322.

I. Marks , K. Lovell , H. Noshirvani , M. Livanou , & S. Thrasher (1998). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 317–325.

R. D. Marshall , & E. J. Suh (2003). Contextualizing trauma: Using evidence-based treatments in a multicultural community after 9/11. Psychiatry Quarterly, 74, 401–420.

P. Ouimette , R. Cronkite , B. R Henson ., K. Gima , & R. H. Moos (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder and health status among female and male medical patients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 1–9.

N. Paunovic , & L. G. Ost (2001). Cognitive-behavior therapy vs. exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD in refugees. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 1183–1197.

P. A. Resick , & M. K. Schnicke (1992). Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 748–756.

N. Tarrier , H. Pilgrim , C. Sommerfield , B. Faragher , M. Reynolds , E. Graham , et al.(1999). A randomized trial of cognitive therapy and imaginal exposure in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 13–18.

Thiel H. Bocanegra , & E. Brickman (2004). Mental health impact of the World Trade Center attacks on displaced Chinese workers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 55–62.

S. Taylor , D. S. Thordarson , L. Maxfield , I. C. Federoff , K. Lovell , & J. Ogrodniczuk (2003). Efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, relaxation training, and EMDR. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 330–338.

D. F. Zatzick , C. R. Marmar , D. S. Weiss , W. S. Browner , T. J. Metzler , J. M., Golding et al. (1997). Posttraumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1690–1695.

L. A. Zoellner , N. C. Feeny , B. Cochran , & L. Pruitt (2003). Treatment choice for PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 879–886.

J. K. Boehnlein , J. D. Kinzie , U. Sekiya , C. Riley , K. Pou , & B. Rosborough (2004). A ten-year treatment outcome study of traumatized Cambodian refugees. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(10), 658–663.

D. David , C. Woodward , J. Esquenazi , & T. A. Mellman (2004). Comparison of comorbid physical illnesses among veterans with PTSD and veterans with alcohol dependence. Psychiatric Services, 55(1), 82–85.

J. D. Kinzie , & J. K. Boehnlein (1989). Post-traumatic psychosis among Cambodian refugees. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2(2), 185–198.

J. D. Kinzie , J. K. Boehnlein , C. Riley , & L. Sparr (2002). The effects of September 11 on traumatized refugees: Reactivation of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190(7), 437–441.

C. R. Brewin , B. Andrews , & J. D. Valentine (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psycholology, 68(5), 748–766.

R. A. Bryant , A. G. Harvey , R. M. Guthrie , & M. L. Moulds (2000). A prospective study of psychophysiological arousal, acute stress disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(2), 341–344.

A. Ehlers , & R. Steihl (1995). Maintenance of intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder: A cognitive approach. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 217–249.

S. A. Freedman , D. Brandes , T. Peri , & A. Shalev (1999). Predictors of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. A prospective study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 353–359.

S. Galea , J. Ahern , H. Resnick , D. Kilpatrick , M. Bucuvalas , J. Gold , et al. (2002). Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City. New England Journal of Medicine, 346(13), 982–987.

J. Goldberg , W. R. True , S. A. Eisen , & W. G. Henderson (1990). A twin study of the effects of the Vietnam War on posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(9), 1227–1232.

D. O. Hebb (1946). On the nature of fear. Psychological Review, 53, 259–276.

N. K. Humphrey , & G. R. Keeble (1974). The reaction of monkeys to “fearsome” pictures. Nature, 251(5475), 500–502.

D. W. King , L. A. King , D. M. Gudanowski , & D. L. Vreven (1995). Alternative representations of war zone stressors: Relationships to posttraumatic stress disorder in male and female Vietnam veterans. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(1), 184–195.

L. A. King , D. W. King , D. M. Salgado , & A. Y. Shalev (2003). Contemporary longitudinal methods for the study of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. CNS Spectrum, 8(9), 686–692.

I. Liberzon , J. C. Britton , & K. L. Phan (2003). Neural correlates of traumatic recall in posttraumatic stress disorder. Stress, 6(3), 151–156.

R. J. McNally (2004). Is traumatic amnesia nothing but psychiatric folklore? Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 33(2), 97–101; discussion 102–104, 109–111.

R. J. McNally , S. P. Kaspi , B. C. Riemann , & S. B. Zeitlin (1990). Selective processing of threat cues in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99(4), 398–402.

M. J. Meaney , J. B. Mitchell , D. H. Aitken , S. Bhatnagar , S. R. Bodnoff , L. J. Iny , et al. (1991). The effects of neonatal handling on the development of the adrenocortical response to stress: Implications for neuropathology and cognitive deficits in later life. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 16(1–3), 85–103.

R. K. Pitman , K. M. Sanders , R. M. Zusman , A. R. Healy , F. Cheema , N. B. Lasko , et al. (2002). Pilot study of secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with propranolol. Biological Psychiatry, 51(2), 189–192.

B. O. Rothbaum , E. B. Foa , D. S. Riggs , T. Murdock , & W. Walsch (1992). A prospective examination of post-traumatic stress disorder in rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 455–475.

T. Sahar , A. Y. Shalev , & S. W. Porges (2001). Vagal modulation of responses to mental challenge in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 49(7), 637–643.

M. A. Schuster , B. D. Stein , L. Jaycox , R. L. Collins , G. N. Marshall , M. N., Elliott et al. (2001). A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(20), 1507–1512.

A. Y. Shalev , & S. Freedman (2005). PTSD following terrorist attacks: A prospective evaluation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(6), 1188–1191.

A. Y. Shalev , S. Freedman , T. Peri , D. Brandes , T. Sahar , S. P. Orr , et al. (1998). Prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(5), 630–637.

A. Y. Shalev , S. Schreiber , & T. Galai (1993). Early psychiatric responses to traumatic injury. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 441–450.

A. Y. Shalev , R. Tuval , S. Frenkiel-Fishman , H. Hadar , & S. Eth (2006). Psychological responses to continuous terror: A study of two communities in Israel. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 667–673.

M. Sierra , & G. E. Berrios (1999). Flashbulb memories and other repetitive images: A psychiatric perspective. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 40, 115–125.

W. R. True , J. Rice , S. A. Eisen , A. C. Heath , J. Goldberg , M. J. Lyons , et al. (1993). A twin study of genetic and environmental contributions to liability for posttraumatic stress symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50(4), 257–264.

R. Acierno , H. S. Resnick , D. G. Kilpatrick , B. E. Saunders , & C. L. Best (1999).Risk factors for rape, physical assault, and posttraumatic stress disorder in women: Examination of differential multivariate relationships. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13(6), 541–563.

P. T. Ackerman , J. E. O. Newton , W. B. McPherson , J. G. Jones , & R. A. Dykman (1998).Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric diagnoses in three groups of abused children (sexual, physical, and both). Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(8), 759–774.

N. J. C. Andreasen , & A. S. Norris (1972). Long-term adjustment and adaptation mechanisms in severely burned adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 154, 352–362.

K. C. Basile , I. Arias , S. Desai , & M. P. Thompson (2004). The differential association of intimate partner physical, sexual, psychological, and stalking violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a nationally representative sample of women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(5), 413–421.

N. Breslau , G. C. Davis , P. Andreski , E. L. Peterson ,& L. R. Schultz (1997).Sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(11), 1044–1048.

J. Briere (1988). The long-term clinical correlates of childhood sexual victimization. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 528, 327–334.

M. Cloitre , L. Cohen , H. Han , & R. Edelman (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder and extent of trauma exposure as correlates of medical problems and perceived health among women with childhood abuse. Women and Health, 34, 1–17.

M. Cloitre , K. Tardiff , P. M. Marzuk , A. C. Leon , & L. Portera (2001). Consequences of childhood abuse among male psychiatric inpatients: Dual roles as victims and perpetrators. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(1), 47–61.

P. M. Crittenden (1992). Treatment of anxious attachment in infancy and early childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 575–602.

R. E. Culp , J. Heide , & M. T. Richardson (1987).Maltreated children's developmental scores: Treatment versus nontreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 11(1), 29–34.

S. R. Dube , R. F. Anda , V. J. Felitti , D. P. Chapman , D. F. Williamson , & W. H. Giles (2001). Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: Findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(24), 3089–3096.

D. Finkelhor , G. Hotaling , I. A. Lewis , & C. Smith (1989). Sexual abuse and its relationship to later sexual satisfaction, marital status, religion, and attitudes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 279–399.

D. Finkelhor , G. Hotaling , I. A. Lewis , & C. Smith (1990). Sexual abuse in a national survey of adult men and women: Prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14(1), 19–28.

D. J. Higgins ,& M. P. McCabe (2003).Maltreatment and family dysfunction in childhood and the subsequent adjustment of children and adults. Journal of Family Violence, 18(2), 107–120.

R. C. Kessler , A. Sonnega , E. Bromet , M. Hughes , & C. B. Nelson (1995).Posttraumatic stress disorder in the national comorbidity survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060.

D. G. Kilpatrick , R. Acierno , B. E. Saunders , H. S. Resnick , C. L. Best , & P. P. Schnurr (2000). Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: Data from a national sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 19–30.

D. G. Kilpatrick , K. J. Ruggeiro , R. Acierno , B. E. Saunders , H. S. Resnick , & C. L. Best (2003).Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence and comorbidity: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 692–700.

L. J. Kiser , J. Heston , P. A. Millsap , & D. C. Pruitt (1991). Physical and sexual abuse in childhood: Relationship with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 776–783.

R. D. Macy , L. Behar , R. Paulson , J. Delman , L. Schmid , & S. F. Smith (2004). Community-based, acute posttraumatic stress management: A description and evaluation of a psychosocial-intervention continuum. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12(4), 217–228.

G. Margolin , & E. B. Gordis (2000).The effects of family and community violence on children. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 445–479.

F. Putnam , & P. K. Trickett (1997).The psychobiological effects of sexual abuse, a longitudinal study. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 150–159.

R. S. Pynoos , C. J. Frederick , K. Nader , W. Arroyo , A. Steinberg , S. Eth , et al. (1987).Life threat and posttraumatic stress in school age children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 1057–1063.

E. Romano , & Luca, R. V. De (1997). Exploring the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual perpetration. Journal of Family Violence, 12(1), 85–99.

M. Sack , J. W. Hopper , & F. Lamprecht (2004).Low respiratory sinus arrhythmia and prolonged psychophysiological arousal in posttraumatic stress disorder: Heart rate dynamics and individual differences in arousal regulation. Biological Psychiatry, 55(3), 284–290.

M. S. Scheeringa , C. H. Zeanah , M. J. Drell , & J. Larrieu (1995). Two approaches to the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder in infancy and early childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(2), 191–200.

M. S. Scheeringa , C. H. Zeanah , L. Meyers ,& F. W. Putnam (2003).New findings on alternative criteria for PTSD in preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(5), 561–570.

K. Schneider-Rosen , & D. Cicchetti (1984). The relationship between affect and cognition in maltreated infants: Quality of attachment and the development of visual self-recognition. Child Development, 55, 648–658.

A. Streeck-Fischer , & B. A. Kolk (2000). Down will come baby, cradle and all: Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of chronic trauma on child development. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34(6), 903–918.

R. F. Krueger (1999). The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(10), 921–926.

R. B. Lee , & I. DeVore (Eds.). (1976). Kalahari hunter-gatherers: Studies of the!Kung San and their neighbors. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

B. J. Liddell , K. J. Brown , A. H. Kemp , M. J. Barton , P. Das , A. Peduto , et al. (2005). A direct brainstem-amygdala-cortical “alarm” system for subliminal signals of fear. Neuroimage, 24(1), 235–243.

M. W. Lindahl (2004). A new development in PTSD and the law: The case of Fairfax County v. Mottram. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(6), 543–546.

R. J. L. Lindauer , E.-J. Vlieger , M. Jalink , M. Olff , I. V. E. Carlier , C. B. L. M. Majoie , et al. (2004). Smaller hippocampal volume in Dutch police officers with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 56(5), 356–363.

E. F. Loftus (1993). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist, 48(5), 518–537.

E. F. Loftus (2003). Make-believe memories. American Psychologist, 58(11), 867–873.

L. Marshall (1976a). The!Kung of Nyae Nyae. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

C. P. Martin-Krumm , P. G. Sarrazin , C. Peterson ,& J.-P. Famose (2003). Explanatory style and resilience after sports failure. Personality & Individual Differences, 35(7), 1685–1695.

A. S. Masten (2001). Ordinary magic. Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227–238.

R. A. Mayou , A. Ehlers ,& B. Bryant (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder after motor vehicle accidents: 3-year follow-up of a prospective longitudinal study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(6), 665–675.

P. R. McHugh (1995). Witches, multiple personalities, and other psychiatric artifacts. Nature Medicine, 1(2), 110–114.

P. R. McHugh , H. I. Lief , P. P. Freyd , & J. M. Fetkewicz (2004). From refusal to reconciliation: Family relationships after an accusation based on recovered memories. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(8), 525–531.

P. R. McHugh , & F. W. Putnam (1995). Resolved: Multiple personality disorder is an individually and socially created artifact. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(7), 957–962; discussion 962–953.

R. J. McNally (2003a). Psychological mechanisms in acute response to trauma. Biological Psychiatry, 53(9), 779–786.

B. E. Metzger , D. E. Bybee , N. Freinkel , R. L. Phelps , R. M. Radvany , & N. Vai srub (1985). Gestational diabetes mellitus. Correlations between the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the mother and abnormal glucose tolerance during the first year postpartum. Diabetes, 34(Suppl. 2), 111–115.

R. F. Mollica , D. C. Henderson , & S. Tor (2002). Psychiatric effects of traumatic brain injury events in Cambodian survivors of mass violence. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181(4), 339–347.

D. J. Newport , C. Heim , R. Bonsall , A. H. Miller , & C. B. Nemeroff (2004). Pituitary-adrenal responses to standard and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests in adult survivors of child abuse. Biological Psychiatry, 55(1), 10–20.

C. S. North , L. Tivis , J. C. McMillen , B. Pfefferbaum , E. L. Spitznagel , J. Cox , et al. (2002). Psychiatric disorders in rescue workers after the Oklahoma City bombing. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(5), 857–859.

A. Ohman (2005). The role of the amygdala in human fear: Automatic detection of threat. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(10), 953–958.

S. P. Orr , L. J. Metzger , N. B. Lasko , M. L. Macklin , F. B. Hu , A. Y. Shalev , et al. (2003). Physiologic responses to sudden, loud tones in monozygotic twins discordant for combat exposure: Association with posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(3), 283–288.

C. Peterson , & M. E. P. Seligman (2003). Character strengths before and after September 11. Psychological Science, 14(4), 381–384.

H. Pope , & J. Lipinski (1978). Diagnosis in schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 811.

K. Reinhard , T. M. Fink ,& J. Skiles (2003). A case of megacolon in Rio Grande valley as a possible case of Chagas disease. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 98(Suppl. 1), 165–172.

L. Roemer , B. T. Litz , S. M. Orsillo , P. J. Ehlich , & M. J. Friedman (1998). Increases in retrospective accounts of war-zone exposure over time: The role of PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(3), 597–605.

S. Rose , J. Bisson , R. Churchill , & S. Wessely (2002). Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [update of Cochrane Database Systemic Reviews, 3, CD000560; PMID: 11686967]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD000560.

S. Rose , J. Bisson , & S. Wessely (2003). A systematic review of single-session psychological interventions (‘debriefing’) following trauma. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 72(4), 176–184.

R. Rosenheck , A. Fontana , & P. Errera (1997). Inpatient treatment of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A 20-year perspective. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10(3), 407–413.

P. Roy-Byrne , L. Arguelles , M. E. Vitek , J. Goldberg , T. M. Keane , W. R. True , et al. (2004). Persistence and change of PTSD symptomatology: A longitudinal co-twin control analysis of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(9), 681–685.

M. Rutter (1998). Routes from research to clinical practice in child psychiatry: Retrospect and prospect. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(6), 805–816.

M. M. Sanchez , C. O. Ladd , & P. M. Plotsky (2001). Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: Evidence from rodent and primate models. Development and Psychopathology, 13(3), 419–449.

M. M. Sanchez , P. M. Noble , C. K. Lyon , P. M. Plotsky , M. Davis , C. B. Nemeroff , et al. (2005). Alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythm and acoustic startle response in nonhuman primates with adverse rearing. Biological Psychiatry, 57(4), 373–381.

R. M. Sapolsky (2002). Chicken, eggs and hippocampal atrophy. Nature Neuroscience, 5(11), 1111–1113.

R. M. Sapolsky , L. M. Romero , & A. U. Munck (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews, 21(1), 55–89.

P. P. Schnurr , M. J. Friedman , & N. C. Bernardy (2002). Research on posttraumatic stress disorder: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and assessment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(8), 877–889.

U. Schnyder , H. Moergeli , R. Klaghofer , & C. Buddeberg (2001). Incidence and prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in severely injured accident victims. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(4), 594–599.

F. B. Schoenfeld , C. R. Marmar , & T. C. Neylan (2004). Current concepts in pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Services, 55(5), 519–531.

H. Selye (1936). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature, 138, 32.

H. Selye (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230–231. (Original work published 1936)

B. M. Sibai , el- A. Nazer , & A. Gonzalez-Ruiz (1986). Severe preeclampsia-eclampsia in young primigravid women: Subsequent pregnancy outcome and remote prognosis. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 155(5), 1011–1016.

M. A. Smith , J. Davidson , J. C. Ritchie , H. Kudler , S. Lipper , P. Chappell , et al. (1989). The corticotropin-releasing hormone test in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 26(4), 349–355.

M. B. Stein , K. L. Jang , S. Taylor , P. A. Vernon , & W. J. Livesley (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A twin study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(10), 1675–1681.

D. Summerfield (2002). ICD and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual are contemporary cultural documents. British Medical Journal, 324(7342), 914.

R. G. Tague (1994). Maternal mortality or prolonged growth: Age at death and pelvic size in three prehistoric Amerindian populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 95(1), 27–40.

C. Tennant (2004). Psychological trauma: Psychiatry and the law in conflict. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38(5), 344–347.

H. Ursin , & B. R. Kaada (1960). Functional localization with the amygdaloid complex in the cat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurology, 12, 1–20.

M. Vaswani , F. K. Linda ,& S. Ramesh (2003). Role of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in psychiatric disorders: A comprehensive review. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 27(1), 85–102.

W. Wang , Y.-X. Wu , Z.-G. Peng , S.-W. Lu , L. Yu , G.-P. Wang , et al. (2000). Test of sensation seeking in a Chinese sample. Personality & Individual Differences, 28(1), 169–179.

E. E. Werner (1989). High-risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59(1), 72–81.

J. D. Coplan , M. W. Andrews , L. A. Rosenblum , M. J. Owens , S. Friedman , J. M. Gorman , et al. (1996). Persistent elevations of cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor in adult nonhuman primates exposed to early-life stressors: Implications for the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 1619–1623.

S. Coutinho , M. Sablad , J. Miller , H. Zhou , A. Lam , A. Bayati , et al. (2000). Neonatal maternal separation results in stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia in adult rats: A new model for irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 118, A637.

A. D. Craig (2002).How do you feel? Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 655–666.

A. D. Craig (2003).A new view of pain as a homeostatic emotion. Trends in Neurosciences, 26, 303–307.

L. J. Crofford , S. R. Pillemer , K. T. Kalogeras , J. M. Cash , D. Michelson , M. A. Kling , et al. (1994).Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis perturbations in patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 37, 1583–1592.

A. L. Curtis , L. A. Pavcovich , & R. J. Valentino (1995). Previous stress alters corticotropin-releasing factor neurotransmission in the locus coeruleus. Neuroscience, 65, 541–550.

M. Bellis , G. P. Chrousos , L. D. Dorn , L. Burke , K. Helmers , M. A. Kling , et al. (1994).Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in sexually abused girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 78, 249–255.

M. M. Delvaux (1999).Stress and visceral perception. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 13 (Suppl A), 32A–36A.

L. Diatchenko , G. D. Slade , A. G. Nackley , K. Bhalang , A. Sigurdsson , I. Belfer , et al. (2005).Genetic basis for individual variations in pain perception and the development of chronic pain condition. Human Molecular Genetics, 14, 135–143.

B. Dickhaus , E. A. Mayer , N. Firooz , J. Stains , F. Conde , T. I. Olivas , et al. (2003). Irritable bowel syndrome patients show enhanced modulation of visceral perception by auditory stress. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 98, 135–143.

B. Ditto , S. B. Miller , & R. G. Barr (1998). A one-hour active coping stressor reduces small bowel transit time in healthy young adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 7–10.

D. A. Drossman , J. Leserman , G. Nachman , Z. M. Li , H. Gluck , T. C. Toomey , et al. (1990).Sexual and physical abuse in women with functional or organic gastrointestinal disorders. Annals of Internal Medicine, 113, 828–833.

P. R. Evans , Y. T. Bak , B. Shuter , R. Hoschl , & J. E. Kellow (1997). Gastroparesis and small bowel dysmotility in irritable bowel syndrome. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 42, 2087–2093.

V. J. Felitti (1991).Long-term medical consequences of incest, rape, and molestation. Southern Medical Journal, 84, 328–331.

R. B. Fillingim , & W. Maixner (1995). Gender differences in the responses to noxious stimuli. Pain Forum, 4, 209–221.

G. Flügge (1996).Alterations in the central nervous α-adrenoceptor system under chronic psychosocial stress. Neuroscience, 75, 187–196.

E. Fuchs , & G. Fluegge (1995). Modulation of binding sites for corticotropin-releasing hormone by chronic psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 20, 33–51.

E. Fuchs , H. Uno , & G. Fluegge (1995). Chronic psychosocial stress induces morphological alterations in hippocampal pyramidal neurons of the tree shrew. Brain Research, 673, 275–282.

J. R. Glowa , E. M. Sternberg , & P. W. Gold (1992). Differential behavioral response in LEW/N and F344/N rats: Effects of corticotropin releasing hormone. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 16, 549–560.

P. W. Gold , F. K. Goodwin , & G. P. Chrousos (1988). Clinical and biochemical manifestations of depression. Relation to the neurobiology of stress (part 2). New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 348–353.

P. W. Gold , H. Gwirtsman , P. Avgerinos , L. K. Nieman , W. T. Gallucci , W. Kaye , et al. (1986). Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in anorexia nervosa. Pathophysiological mechanisms in underweight and weight-corrected patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 1335–1342.

C. Hammen , J. Davila , G. Brown , A. Ellicott , & M. Gitlin (1992). Psychiatric history and stress: Predictors of severity of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 45–52.

T. T. Haug , S. Svebak , T. Hausken , I. Wilhelmsen , A. Berstad , & H. Ursin (1994). Low vagal activity as mediating mechanism for the relationship between personality factors and gastric symptoms in functional dyspepsia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 56, 181–186.

T. Hausken , S. Svebak , I. Wilhelmsen , T. T. Haug , K. Olafsen , E. Pettersson , et al. (1993). Low vagal tone and antral dysmotility in patients with functional dyspepsia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 12–22.

C. Heim , M. J. Owens , P. M. Plotsky , & C. B. Nemeroff (1997). The role of early adverse life events in the etiology of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Focus on corticotropin-releasing factor. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 194–207.

O. W. Hill , & L. Blendis (1967). Physical and psychological evaluation of non-organic abdominal pain. Gut, 8, 221–229.

C. Irwin , S. A. Falsetti , R. B. Lydiard , J. C. Ballenger , C. D. Brock , & W. Brener (1996). Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57, 576–578.

A. Kardiner (1941). The traumatic neuroses of war. New York:Hoeber.

A. Kodama , T. Horikawa , T. Suzuki , W. Ajiki , T. Takashima , S. Harada , et al. (1999). Effect of stress on atopic dermatitis: Investigation in patients after the great Hanshin earthquake. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 104, 173–176.

F. Lamprecht , & M. Sack (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder revisited. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 222–237.

S. K. Lutgendorf , M. H. Antoni , G. Ironson , M. A. Fletcher , F. Penedo , A. Baum , et al. (1995). Physical symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome are exacerbated by the stress of Hurricane Andrew. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 310–323.

E. A. Mayer (2000a).Psychological stress and colitis. Gut, 46, 595–596.

E. A. Mayer (2000b).The neurobiology of stress and gastrointestinal disease. Gut, 47, 861–869.

E. A. Mayer , & S. M. Collins (2002). Evolving pathophysiologic models of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology, 122, 2032–2048.

M. J. Meaney , J. Diorio , D. Francis , J. Widdowson , P. LaPlante , C. Caldji , et al. (1996). Early environmental regulation of forebrain glucocorticoid receptor gene expression: Implications for adrenocortical response to stress. Developmental Neuroscience, 18, 49–72.

W. C. Menninger (1947).Psychosomatic medicine: Somatization reactions. Psychosomatic Medicine, 9, 92–97.

M. Million , L. Wang , Y. Wang , D. W. Adelson , P. Q. Yuan , C. Maillot , et al. (2006). corticotropin-releasing factor2 receptor activation prevents colorectal distension induced visceral pain and spinal ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rats. Gut, 55, 172–181.

J. Munakata , E. A. Mayer , L. Chang , M. Schmulson , M. Liu , G. Tougas , et al. (1998). Autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to recto-sigmoid stimulation. Gastroenterology, 114, 808.

C. Niederau , S. Faber , & M. Karaus (1992). Cholecystokinin's role in regulation of colonic motility in health and in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 102, 1889–1898.

F. H. Norris , K. Z. Kaniasty , & D. A. Scheer (1990). Use of mental health services among victims of crime: Frequency, correlates, and subsequent recovery. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 538–547.

G. Parker (1981). Parental representations of patients with anxiety neurosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 63, 33–36.

G. Pen , & J. L Moreau (2002). Disruption of prepulse inhibition of startle reflex in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: Reversal by clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone but not by haloperidol. Neuropsychopharmacology, 27(1), 1–11.

S. Levine (1994). The ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The influence of maternal factors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 746, 275–288; discussion 289–293.

D. Liu , C. Caldji , S. Sharma , P. M. Plotsky , & M. J. Meaney (2000). Influence of neonatal rearing conditions on stress-induced adrenocorticotropin responses and norepinephrine release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 12(1), 5–12.

V. Lovic , & A. S. Fleming (2004). Artificially-reared female rats show reduced prepulse inhibition and deficits in the attentional set shifting task – Reversal of effects with maternal-like licking stimulation. Behavioural Brain Research, 148(1–2), 209–219.

A. L. Malizia , V. J. Cunningham , C. J. Bell , P. F. Liddle , T. Jones , & D. J. Nutt (1998). Decreased brain gamma-aminobutyric acidA-benzodiazepine receptor binding in panic disorder: Preliminary results from a quantitative positron emission tomography study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(8), 715–720.

M. Matsumoto , C. S. Weickert , M. Akil , B. K. Lipska , T. M. Hyde , M. M. Herman et al. (2003). Catechol O-methyltransferase mRNA expression in human and rat brain: Evidence for a role in cortical neuronal function. Neuroscience, 116(1), 127–137.

T. J. McHugh , K. I. Blum , J. Z. Tsien , S. Tonegawa , & M. A. Wilson (1996). Impaired hippocampal representation of space in CA1-specific NMDAR1 knockout mice. Cell, 87(7), 1339–1349.

J. L. Menard , D. L. Champagne , & M. J. Meaney (2004). Variations of maternal care differentially influence ‘fear’ reactivity and regional patterns of cFos immunoreactivity in response to the shock-probe burying test. Neuroscience, 129(2), 297–308.

L. Minichiello , M. Korte , D. Wolfer , R. Kuhn , K. Unsicker , V. Cestari , D. Rossi-Arnaud , H. P. Lipp , T. Bonhoeffer , & R. Klein (1999). Essential role for TrkB receptors in hippocampus-mediated learning. Neuron, 24(2), 401–414.

R. G. Morris , P. Garrud , J. N. Rawlins , & J. O'Keefe (1982). Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions. Nature, 297(5868), 681–683.

B. L. Murphy , A. F. Arnsten , P. S. Goldman-Rakic , & R. H. Roth (1996). Increased dopamine turnover in the prefrontal cortex impairs spatial working memory performance in rats and monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(3), 1325–1329.

H. Oblowitz , & A. H. Robins (1983). The effect of clobazam and lorazepam on the psychomotor performance of anxious patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 16(1), 95–99.

J. C. Pruessner , F. Champagne , M. J. Meaney , & A. Dagher (2004). Dopamine release in response to a psychological stress in humans and its relationship to early life maternal care: A positron emission tomography study using [11C]raclopride. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(11), 2825–2831.

H. S. Ressnick , D. G. Kilpatrick , B. S. Dansky , B. E. Saunders , & C. L. Best (1993). Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in representative national sample of women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 984–991.

M. Roceri , W. Hendriks , G. Racagni , B. A. Ellenbroek , & M. A. Riva (2002). Early maternal deprivation reduces the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and N-methyl d-aspartate (receptors) receptor subunits in the rat hippocampus. Molecular Psychiatry, 7(6), 609–616.

P. P. Roy-Byrne , D. S. Cowley , D. J. Greenblatt , R. I. Shader , & D. Hommer (1990). Reduced benzodiazepine sensitivity in panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47(6), 534–538.

U. Rudolph , & H. Mohler (2004). Analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor function and dissection of the pharmacology of benzodiazepines and general anesthetics through mouse genetics. Annual Review of Pharmacology & Toxicology, 44, 475–498.

S. M. Schanberg , G. Evoniuk , & C. M. Kuhn (1984). Tactile and nutritional aspects of maternal care: Specific regulators of neuroendocrine function and cellular development. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology & Medicine, 175(2), 135–146.

C. J. Schatz (1990). Impulse activity and the patterning of connections during CNS development. Neuron, 5, 745–756.

J. Schulkin , B. S. McEwen , & P. W. Gold (1994). Allostasis, amygdala, and anticipatory angst. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 18(3), 385–396.

J. W. Smythe , S. Bhatnagar , D. Murphy , C. Timothy , & B. Costall (1998). The effects of intrahippocampal scopolamine infusions on anxiety in rats as measured by the black–white box test. Brain Research Bulletin, 45(1), 89–93.

J. J. Soghomonian , & D. L. Martin (1998). Two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase: Why? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 19(12), 500–505.

N. R. Swerdlow , M. A. Geyer , & D. L. Braff (2001). Neural circuit regulation of prepulse inhibition of startle in the rat: Current knowledge and future challenges. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 156(2–3), 194–215.

A. H. Swiergiel , L. K. Takahashi , & N. H. Kalin (1993). Attenutation of stress-induced behavior by antagonism of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in the central amygdala in the rat. Brain Research, 623(2), 229–234.

Y. P. Tang , H. Wang , R. Feng , M. Kyin , & J. Z. Tsien (2001). Differential effects of enrichment on learning and memory function in NR2B transgenic mice. Neuropharmacology, 41(6), 779–790.

J. L. Tweed , V. J. Schoenbach , L. K. George , & D. G. Blazer (1989). The effects of childhood parental death and divorce on six-month history of anxiety disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 823–828.

O. Udwin , S. Boyle , W. Yule , D. Bolton , & D. O'Ryan (2000). Risk factors for long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: Predictors of post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(8), 969–979.

R. J. Valentino , A. L. Curtis , M. E. Page , L. A. Pavcovich , & S. M. Florin-Lechner (1998). Activation of the locus ceruleus brain noradrenergic system during stress: Circuitry, consequences, and regulation. Advances in Pharmacology, 42, 781–784.

I. C. Weaver , N. Cervoni , F. A. Champagne , A. C. D'Alessio , S. Sharma , J. R. Seckl , et al. (2004). Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 7(8), 847–854.

I. C. Weiss , A. M. Domeney , J. L. Moreau , H. Russig , & J. Feldon (2001). Dissociation between the effects of pre-weaning and/or post-weaning social isolation on prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 121(1–2), 207–218.

I. Q. Whishaw (1998). Place learning in hippocampal rats and the path integration hypothesis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 22(2), 209–220.

G. V. Williams , & P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1995). Modulation of memory fields by dopamine D1 receptors in prefrontal cortex. Nature, 376(6541), 572–575.

J. Zhang , C. Forkstam , J. A. Engel , & L. Svensson (2000). Role of dopamine in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 149(2), 181–188.

B. Zorner , D. P. Wolfer , D. Brandis , O. Kretz , C. Zacher , R. Madani , et al. (2003). Forebrain-specific trkB-receptor knockout mice: Behaviorally more hyperactive than “depressive.” Biological Psychiatry, 54(10), 972–982.