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Beyond willpower

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 April 2021

James J. Gross
Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford,;
Angela L. Duckworth
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA19104.;


For all its popularity as a psychological construct, willpower is irremediably polysemous. A more helpful construct is self-control, defined as the self-regulation of conflicting impulses. We show how the process model of self-control provides a principled framework for examining how undesirable impulses may be weakened and desirable impulses may be strengthened.

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The target article and response article are works of the U.S. Government and are not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Duckworth, A. L., Gendler, T. S., & Gross, J. J. (2016). Situational strategies for self-control. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(1), 3555. ScholarPubMed
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