Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-wzgmz Total loading time: 1.182 Render date: 2022-06-29T18:34:20.328Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 June 2016

Dario Maestripieri
Affiliation:
Institute for Mind and Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. dario@uchicago.eduhttp://primate.uchicago.edu/dario-maestripieri.html
Andrea Henry
Affiliation:
Institute for Mind and Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. andreahenry@uchicago.eduhttp://primate.uchicago.edu
Nora Nickels
Affiliation:
Institute for Mind and Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. nnickels@uchicago.eduhttp://primate.uchicago.edu

Abstract

Financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive adults have been documented in the labor market, in social transactions in everyday life, and in studies involving experimental economic games. According to the taste-based discrimination model developed by economists, attractiveness-related financial and prosocial biases are the result of preferences or prejudices similar to those displayed toward members of a particular sex, racial, ethnic, or religious group. Other explanations proposed by economists and social psychologists maintain that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that attractive adults are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. Evidence that stereotypes about attractive people are causally related to financial or prosocial biases toward them is weak or nonexistent. Consistent with evolutionary explanations, biases in favor of attractive women appear to be more consistent or stronger than those in favor of attractive men, and biases are more consistently reported in interactions between opposite-sex than same-sex individuals. Evolutionary explanations also account for increased prosocial behavior in situations in which attractive individuals are simply bystanders. Finally, evolutionary explanations are consistent with the psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes that occur when individuals are exposed to potential mates, which facilitate the expression of courtship behavior and increase the probability of occurrence of mating. Therefore, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mating motives play a more important role in driving financial and prosocial biases toward attractive adults than previously recognized.

Type
Target Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adams, G. (1977) Physical attractiveness research: Toward a developmental social psychology of beauty. Human Development 20:217–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agthe, M., Spörrle, M., Frey, D. & Maner, J. K. (2014) Looking up versus looking down: Attractiveness-based organizational biases are moderated by social comparison direction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 44:4045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agthe, M., Spörrle, M., Frey, D., Walper, S. & Maner, J. K. (2013) When romance and rivalry awaken: Attractiveness-based social judgment biases emerge at adolescence. Human Nature 24(2):182–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Agthe, M., Spöerrle, M. & Maner, J. K. (2010) Don't hate me because I'm beautiful: Anti-attractiveness bias in organizational evaluation and decision making. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 46(6):1151–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agthe, M., Spöerrle, M. & Maner, J. K. (2011) Does being attractive always help? Positive and negative effects of attractiveness on social decision making. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37(8):1042–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aharon, I., Etcoff, N., Ariely, D., Chabris, C. F., O'Connor, E. & Breiter, H. C. (2001) Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence. Neuron 32:537–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andreoni, J. & Petrie, R. (2008) Beauty, gender and stereotypes: Evidence from laboratory experiments. Journal of Economic Psychology 29:7393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Babad, E. Y., Inbar, J. & Rosenthal, R. (1982) Teachers' judgment of students' potential as a function of teachers' susceptibility to biasing information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42:541–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baert, S. & Decuypere, L. (2014) Better sexy than flexy? A lab experiment assessing the impact of perceived attractiveness and personality traits on hiring decisions. Applied Economic Letters 21:597601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balliet, D., Li, N. P., Macfarlan, S. J. & Van Vugt, M. (2011) Sex differences in cooperation: A meta-analytic review of social dilemmas. Psychological Bulletin 137:881909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barber, N. (1995) The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness: Sexual selection and human morphology. Ethology and Sociobiology 16:395424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barclay, P. (2010) Altruism as a courtship display: Some effects of third-party generosity on audience perceptions. British Journal of Psychology 101:123–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bardack, N. R. & McAndrew, F. T. (1985) The influence of physical attractiveness and manner of dress on success in a simulated personnel decision. Journal of Social Psychology 125:777–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bargh, J. & Chartrand, T. (1999) The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist 54:462–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barocas, R. & Black, H. K. (1974) Referral rate and physical attractiveness in third-grade children. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39:731–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, G. (1957) The economics of discrimination. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Benson, P. L., Karabenick, S. A. & Lerner, R. M. (1976) Pretty pleases: The effects of physical attractiveness, race, and sex on receiving help. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 12:409–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berggren, N., Jordahl, H. & Poutvaara, P. (2010) The looks of a winner: Beauty and electoral success. Journal of Public Economics 94(1–2):815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berkowitz, L. & Frodi, A. (1979) Reactions to a child's mistakes as affected by her/his looks and speech. Social Psychology Quarterly 42:420–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, B. (2007) Beauty bias: Discrimination and social power. Praeger.Google Scholar
Berry, B. (2012) The power of looks: Social stratification of physical appearance. Ashgate.Google Scholar
Biddle, J. E. & Hamermesh, D. S. (1998) Beauty, productivity, and discrimination: Lawyers' looks and lucre. Journal of Labor Economics 16:172201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bos, P. A., Panksepp, J., Bluthe, R. M. & van Honk, J. (2012) Acute effects of steroid hormones and neuropeptides on human social-emotional behavior: A review of single administration studies. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 33:1735.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brase, G. L (2006) Cues of parental investment as a factor in attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behavior 27:145–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burnham, T. C. (2007) High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 274:2327–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burnham, T. C. (2013) Toward a neo-Darwinian synthesis of neoclassical and behavioral economics. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 90S:S113–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busetta, G., Fiorillo, F. & Visalli, E. (2013) Searching for a job is a beauty contest. MPRA (Munich Personal RePEc Archive) Paper No. 49382, Munich University Library. Available at: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/49392/.Google Scholar
Buss, D. M. (1989) Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buss, D. M. (2003) The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating, 4th edition. Basic Books.Google ScholarPubMed
Buss, D. M. & Schmitt, D. P. (1993) Sexual strategies theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review 100(2):204–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byrne, D., London, O. & Reeves, K. (1968) The effects of physical attractiveness, sex and attitude similarity on interpersonal attraction. Journal of Personality 36:259–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Camerer, C. (2003) Behavioral game theory: Experiments in strategic interaction. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Cann, A., Siegfried, W. D. & Pearce, L. (1981) Forced attention to specific applicant qualifications: Impact of physical attractiveness and sex of applicant biases. Personnel Psychology 34:6575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cash, T. F. & Kilcullen, R. N. (1985) The eye of the beholder: Susceptibility to sexism and beautyism in the evaluation of managerial applicants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 15:591605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chung, P. & Leung, K. (1988) Effects of performance information and physical attractiveness on managerial decisions about promotion. Journal of Social Psychology 128:791801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cipriani, G. & Zago, A. (2011) Productivity or discrimination? Beauty and the exams. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 73:428–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, R. D. & Hatfield, E. (1989) Gender differences in receptivity to sexual offers. Journal of Personality and Human Sexuality 2:3955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clifford, M. & Walster, E. (1973) The effect of attractiveness on teacher expectations. Sociology of Education 46:248–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Croson, R. & Gneezy, U. (2009) Gender differences in preferences. Journal of Economic Literature 47:127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1995) Discriminative parental solicitude and the relevance of evolutionary models to the analysis of motivational systems. In: The cognitive neurosciences, ed. Gazzaniga, M. S., pp. 1269–86. M1T Press.Google Scholar
de Kloet, E. R., Oitzl, M. S. & Joels, M. (1999) Stress and cognition. Are corticosteroids good or bad guys? Trends in Neurosciences 22:422–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeBruine, L. M., Jones, B. C., Little, A. C. & Perrett, D. I. (2008) Social perception of facial resemblance in humans. Archives of Sexual Behavior 37:6477.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dermer, M. & Thiel, D. L. (1975) When beauty may fail. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31:1168–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dion, K. K. (1973) Young children's stereotyping of facial attractiveness. Developmental Psychology 9:183–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dion, K. K. (1974) Children's physical attractiveness and sex as determinants of adult punitiveness. Developmental Psychology 10:772–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dion, K. K. (1977) The incentive value of physical attractiveness for young children. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 3:6770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dion, K. K. & Berscheid, E. (1974) Physical attractiveness and peer perception among children. Sociometry 37:112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dion, K. K., Berscheid, E. & Walster, E. (1972) What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 24:285–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dion, K. K. & Stein, S. (1978) Physical attractiveness and interpersonal influence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 14:97108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dipboye, R. L., Arvey, R. D. & Terpstra, D. E. (1977) Sex and physical attractiveness of raters and applicants as determinants of resume evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology 62:288–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dipboye, R. L., Fromkin, H. L. & Wiback, K. (1975) Relative importance of applicant sex, attractiveness, and scholastic standing in evaluation of job applicant resumes. Journal of Applied Psychology 60:3943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eagly, H., Ashmore, R. D., Makhijani, M. G. & Longo, L. C. (1991) What is beautiful is good, but…: A meta-analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype. Psychological Bulletin 110:109–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckel, C. C. (2007) People playing games: The human face of experimental economics. Southern Economic Journal 73:841–57.Google Scholar
Farrelly, D. (2011) Cooperation as a signal of genetic or phenotypic quality in female mate choice? Evidence from preferences across the menstrual cycle. British Journal of Psychology 102:406–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farrelly, D., Lazarus, J. & Roberts, G. (2007) Altruists attract. Evolutionary Psychology 5:313–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feingold, A. (1992a) Good-looking people are not what we think. Psychological Bulletin 111:304–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Felson, R. B. (1980) Physical attractiveness, grades and teachers' attributions of ability. Representative Research in Social Psychology 11:6471.Google Scholar
Felson, R. B. & Bohmstedt, G. W. (1979) Are the good beautiful or the beautiful good? The relationship between children's perceptions of ability and perceptions of physical attractiveness. Social Psychology Quarterly 42:386–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fink, B. & Penton-Voak, I. (2002) Evolutionary psychology of facial attractiveness. Current Directions in Psychological Science 11:154–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fletcher, J. (2009) Beauty vs brains: Early labor market outcomes of high school graduates. Economics Letters 105:321–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
French, M. (2002) Physical appearance and earnings: Further evidence. Applied Economics 34:569–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frieze, I. H., Olson, J. E. & Russell, J. (1991) Attractiveness and income for men and women in management. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 21:1039–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gangestad, S. W. & Scheyd, G. J. (2005) The evolution of human physical attractiveness. Annual Review of Anthropology 34:523–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gillen, B. (1981) Physical attractiveness: A determinant of two types of goodness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 7:277–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilmore, D. C., Beehr, T. A. & Love, K. G. (1986) Effects of applicant sex, applicant physical attractiveness, type of rater and type of job on interview decisions. Journal of Occupational Psychology 59:103109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glocker, M. L., Langleben, D. D., Ruparel, K., Loughead, J. W., Valdez, J. N., Griffin, M. D., Sachser, N. & Gur, R. C. (2009) Baby schema modulates the brain reward system in nulliparous women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:9115–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gneezy, U. & List, J. A. (2013) The why axis. Hidden motives and the undiscovered economics of everyday life. Public Affairs.Google Scholar
Goldberg, T. L. (1995) Altruism towards panhandler: Who gives? Human Nature 6:7989.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldey, K. L. & van Anders, S. (2011) Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women. Hormones and Behavior 59:754–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldey, K. L. & van Anders, S. (2012) Sexual thoughts: Links to testosterone and cortisol in men. Archives of Sexual Behavior 41:1461–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., Sundie, J. M., Cialdini, R. B., Miller, G. F. & Kenrick, D. T. (2007) Blatant benevolence and conspicuous consumption: When romantic motives elicit strategic costly signals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93:85102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guéguen, N. (2012) Hair color and wages: Waitresses with blond hair have more fun. Journal of Socio-Economics 41:370–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamermesh, D. S. (2006) Changing looks and changing “discrimination”: The beauty of economists. Economics Letters 93:405–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamermesh, D. S. (2011) Beauty pays: Why attractive people are more successful. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Hamermesh, D. S. & Biddle, J. E. (1994) Beauty and the labor market. American Economic Review 84(5):1174–94.Google Scholar
Hamermesh, D. S., Meng, X. & Zhang, J. (2002) Dress for success: Does primping pay? Labour Economics 9:361–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamermesh, D. S. & Parker, A. (2005) Beauty in the classroom: Instructors' pulchritude and putative pedagogical productivity. Economics of Education Review 24:369–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hancock, P. J. & DeBruine, L. M. (2003) What's a face worth: Noneconomic factors in game playing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26:162–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harper, B. (2000) Beauty, stature, and the labor market: A British cohort study. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 62:771800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haselton, M. G. & Nettle, D. (2006) The paranoid optimist: An integrative evolutionary model of cognitive biases. Personality and Social Psychology Review 10:4766.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hazlett, R. L. & Hoehn-Saric, R. (2000) Effects of perceived physical attractiveness on females' facial displays and affect. Evolution and Human Behavior 21:4957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heilman, M. E. & Saruwatari, L. R. (1979) When beauty is beastly: The effects of appearance and sex on evaluations of job applicants for managerial and nonmanagerial jobs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 23:360–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heilman, M. E. & Stopeck, M. H. (1985) Attractiveness and corporate success: Different causal attributions for males and females. Journal of Applied Psychology 70:379–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hildebrandt, K. A. & Fitzgerald, H. E. (1978) Adults' responses to infants varying in perceived cuteness. Behavioral Processes 3:159–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, S. E. & Durante, K. M. (2011) Courtship, competition, and the pursuit of attractiveness: Mating goals facilitate health-related risk taking and strategic risk suppression in women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37:383–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hosoda, M., Stone-Romero, E. F. & Coats, G. (2003) The effects of physical attractiveness on job-related outcomes: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Personnel Psychology 56:431–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hume, D. K. & Montgomerie, R. (2001) Facial attractiveness signals different aspects of “quality” in women and men. Evolution and Human Behavior 22:93112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iredale, W., Van Vugt, M. & Dunbar, R. (2008) Showing off in humans: Male generosity as a mating signal. Evolutionary Psychology 6:386–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, L. A. (1983) Gender, physical attractiveness, and sex role in occupational treatment discrimination: The influence of trait and role assumptions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 13:443–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, L. A., Hunter, J. & Hodge, C. (1995) Physical attractiveness and intellectual competence: A meta-analytic review. Social Psychology Quarterly 58:108–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jensen, N. H. (2013) Male mating signaling in social dilemma games. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 11:131–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, D. (2010) Physical appearance and wages: Do blondes have more fun? Economics Letters 108:1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahn, A., Hottes, J. & Davis, W. L. (1971) Cooperation and optimal responding in the Prisoner's Dilemma game: Effects of sex and physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 17:267–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karraker, K. (1986) Adult attention to infants in a newborn nursery. Nursing Research 35:358–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karremans, J. C., Verwijmeren, T., Pronk, T. M. & Reitsma, M. (2009) Interacting with women can impair men's cognitive functioning. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45:1041–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenealy, P., Frude, N. & Shaw, W. (1987) Influence of children's physical attractiveness on teacher expectations. Journal of Social Psychology 128:373–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenrick, D. T., Montello, D. R., Gutierres, S. E. & Trost, M. R. (1993) Effects of physical attractiveness on affect and perceptual judgments: When social comparison overrides social reinforcement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19:195–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleck, R. E., Richardson, S. A. & Ronald, C. (1974) Physical appearance cues and interpersonal attraction in children. Child Development 45:305–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kurzban, R. & Weeden, J. (2005) HurryDate: Mate preferences in action. Evolution and Human Behavior 26:227–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landry, C., Lange, A., List, J. A., Price, M. K. & Rupp, N. (2006) Toward an understanding of the economics of charity: Evidence from a field experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 121:747–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landy, D. & Sigall, H. (1974) Beauty is talent: Task evaluation as a function of the performer's physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 29:299304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langlois, J. H., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A. J., Larson, A., Hallam, M. & Smoot, M. (2000) Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin 126(3):390423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langlois, J. H., Ritter, J. M., Casey, R. J. & Sawin, D. B. (1995) Infant attractiveness predicts maternal behaviors and attitudes. Developmental Psychology 31:464–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langlois, J. H., Roggman, L. A., Casey, R. J., Ritter, J. M., Rieser-Danner, L. A. & Jenkins, V. Y. (1987) Infant preferences for attractive faces: Rudiments of a stereotype? Developmental Psychology 23:363–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latané, B. (1970) Field studies of altruistic compliance. Representative Research in Social Psychology 1:4961.Google Scholar
Law Smith, M. J., Deady, D. K., Moore, F. R., Jones, B. C., Cornwell, R. E., Stirrat, M., Lawson, J. F., Feinberg, D. R. & Perrett, D. I. (2012) Maternal tendencies in women are associated with estrogen levels and facial femininity. Hormones and Behavior 61:1216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, L., Loewenstein, G., Ariely, D., Hong, J. & Young, J. (2008) If I'm not hot, are you hot or not? Physical attractiveness evaluations and dating preferences as a function of one's own attractiveness. Psychological Science 19:669–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leigh, A. & Borland, J. (2007) Unpacking the beauty premium: Is it looks or ego? Unpublished manuscript, Australian National University.Google Scholar
Leinbach, M. D. & Fagot, B. I. (1991) Attractiveness in young children: Sex-differentiated reactions of adults. Sex Roles 25:269–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lemay, E. P., Clark, M. S. & Greenberg, A. (2010) What is beautiful is good because what is beautiful is desired: Physical attractiveness stereotyping as projection of interpersonal goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36(3):339–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lerner, R. M., Delaney, M., Hess, L. E., Jovanovic, J. & von Eye, A. (1990) Early adolescent physical attractiveness and academic competence. Journal of Early Adolescence 10:420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, K. E. & Bierly, M. (1990) Toward a profile of the female voter: Sex differences in perceived physical attractiveness and competence of political candidates. Sex Roles 22:112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, J. & Zhou, X. (2014) Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration. PLoS ONE 9(4):e94004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lippitt, R. (1941) Popularity among preschool children. Child Development 4:305–33.Google Scholar
Little, A. C., Jones, B. C. & DeBruine, L. M. (2011) Facial attractiveness: Evolutionary based research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 366(1571):1638–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lopez, H. H., Hay, A. C. & Conklin, P. H (2009) Attractive men induce testosterone and cortisol release in women. Hormones and Behavior 56:8492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lopez Boo, F., Rossi, M. A. & Urzua, S. S. (2013) The labor market return to an attractive face: Evidence from a field experiment. Economic Letters 118:170–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lucas, M. & Koff, E. (2013) How conception risk affects competition and cooperation with attractive women and men. Evolution and Human Behavior 34(1):1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luxen, M. F. & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2006) Facial attractiveness, sexual selection, and personnel selection: When evolved preferences matter. Journal of Organizational Behavior 27(2):241–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynn, M. (2009) Determinants and consequences of female attractiveness and sexiness: Realistic tests with restaurant waitresses. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38:737–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lynn, M. & Simons, T. (2000) Predictors of male and female servers' average tip earnings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30:241–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maestripieri, D., Klimczuk, A., Traficonte, D. & Wilson, M. C. (2014) A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women's loss of reproductive value. Frontiers in Psychology 5(179):16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maestripieri, D. & Pelka, S. (2002) Sex differences in interest in infants across the lifespan: A biological adaptation for parenting? Human Nature 13:327–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maner, J. K., Gailliot, M. T., Rouby, D. A. & Miller, S. L. (2007b) Can't take my eyes off you: Attentional adhesion to mates and rivals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93(3):389401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maner, J. K., Kenrick, D. T., Becker, D. V., Delton, A. W., Hofer, B., Wilbur, C. J. & Neuberg, S. L. (2003) Sexually selective cognition: Beauty captures the mind of the beholder. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85:1107–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maner, J. K., Miller, S. L., Rouby, D. A. & Gailliot, M. T. (2009b) Intrasexual vigilance: The implicit cognition of romantic rivalry. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97:7487.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marlowe, C. M., Schneider, S. L. & Nelson, C. E. (1996) Gender and attractiveness biases in hiring decisions: Are more experienced managers less biased? Journal of Applied Psychology 81:1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazzella, R. & Feingold, A. (1994) The effects of physical attractiveness, race, socioeconomic status, and gender of defendants and victims on judgments of mock jurors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 24:1315–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAndrew, F. T. & Perilloux, C. (2012) Is self-sacrificial competitive altruism primarily a male activity? Evolutionary Psychology 10:5065.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, G. F. (2000) The mating mind: How sexual selection shaped the evolution of human nature. Doubleday.Google Scholar
Mobius, M. M. & Rosenblat, T. S. (2006) Why beauty matters. American Economic Review 96(1):222–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mohr, A. & Lund, F. H. (1933) Beauty as related to intelligence and educational achievement. Journal of Social Psychology 4:235–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, D., Wigby, S., English, S., Wong, S., Szekely, T. & Harrison, F. (2013) Selflessness is sexy: Reported helping behavior increases desirability of men and women as long-term sexual partners. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morrow, P. C. (1990) Physical attractiveness and selection decision making. Journal of Management 16:4560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrow, P. C., McElroy, J. C., Stamper, B. G. & Wilson, M. A. (1990) The effects of physical attractiveness and other demographic characteristics on promotion decisions. Journal of Management 16:723–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulford, M., Orbell, J., Shatto, C. & Stockard, J. (1998) Physical attractiveness, opportunity, and success in everyday exchange. American Journal of Sociology 103:1565–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muñoz-Reyes, J. A., Pita, M., Arjona, M., Sanchez-Pages, S. & Turiegano, E. (2014) Who is the fairest of them all? The independent effect of attractiveness and self-perceived attractiveness on cooperation among women. Evolution and Human Behavior 35:118–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, M. J., Nelson, D. A. & Cheap, T. L. (1981) Rated and actual performance of high school students as a function of sex and attractiveness. Psychological Reports 48:103106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nauts, S., Metzmacher, M., Verwijmeren, T., Rommeswinkel, V. & Karremans, J. C. (2012) The mere anticipation of an interaction with a woman can impair men's cognitive performance. Archives of Sexual Behavior 41:1051–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Doherty, J., Winston, J., Critchley, H., Perrett, D., Burt, D. M. & Dolan, R. J. (2003) Beauty in a smile: The role of medial orbitofrontal cortex in facial attractiveness. Neuropsychologia 41:147–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oda, R., Shibata, A., Kiyonari, T., Takeda, M. & Matsumoto-Oda, A. (2013) Sexually dimorphic preference for altruism in the opposite sex according to recipient. British Journal of Psychology 104:577–84.Google Scholar
Olson, I. R. & Marshuetz, C. (2005) Facial attractiveness is appraised in a glance. Emotion 5:498502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Penninck, A. (2014) Attractiveness over conscientiousness: Discrimination based on perceived attractiveness and personality traits in the Flemish labor market – a correspondence test. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Ghent.Google Scholar
Pfann, G. A., Biddle, J. E., Hamermesh, D. S. & Bosman, C. M. (2000) Business success and businesses' beauty capital. Economics Letters 67:201207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, M. (2008) Fund-raising success and a solicitor's beauty capital: Do blondes raise more funds? Economics Letters 100:351–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quereshi, M. Y. & Kay, J. P. (1986) Physical attractiveness, age, and sex as determinants of reactions to resumes. Social Behavior and Personality 14:103–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raihani, N. J. & Smith, S. (2015) Competitive helping in online giving. Current Biology 25(9):1183–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ravina, E. (under review) Love & loans: The effect of beauty and personal characteristics in credit markets. Journal of Finance.Google Scholar
Raza, S. M. & Carpenter, B. N. (1987) A model of hiring decisions in real employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology 72:596603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rhodes, G. (2006) The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Annual Review of Psychology 57:199266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhodes, G., Yoshikawa, S., Clark, A., Lee, K., McKay, R. & Akamatsu, S. (2001a) Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western cultures: In search of biologically based standards of beauty. Perception 30:611–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhodes, G. & Zebrowitz, L. A. (2002) Facial attractiveness: Evolutionary, cognitive, and social perspectives. Ablex.Google Scholar
Rieser-Danner, L. A., Roggman, L. & Langlois, J. H. (1987) Infant attractiveness and perceived temperament in the prediction of attachment classifications. Infant Mental Health Journal 8:144–55.3.0.CO;2-3>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ritter, J. M., Casey, R. J. & Langlois, J. H. (1991) Adults' responses to infants varying in appearance of age and attractiveness. Child Development 62:6882.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ritts, V., Patterson, M. L. & Tubbs, M. E. (1992) Expectations, impressions, and judgments of physically attractive students: A review. Review of Educational Research 62:413–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, G. (1998) Competitive altruism: From reciprocity to the handicap principle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 265(1394):427–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ronay, R. & von Hippel, W. (2010) The presence of an attractive woman elevates testosterone and physical risk taking in young men. Social Psychological and Personality Science 1:5764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roney, J. R. (2003) Effects of visual exposure to the opposite sex: Cognitive aspects of mate attraction in human males. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 29:393404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roney, J. R., Lukaszewski, A. W. & Simmons, Z. L. (2007) Rapid endocrine responses of young men to social interactions with young women. Hormones and Behavior 52:326–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roney, J. R., Mahler, S. V. & Maestripieri, D. (2003) Behavioral and hormonal responses of men to brief interactions with women. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:365–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roney, J. R. & Simmons, Z. L. (2013) Hormonal predictors of sexual motivation in natural menstrual cycles. Hormones and Behavior 63:636–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roney, J. R., Simmons, Z. L. & Gray, P. B. (2011) Changes in estradiol predict within-women shifts in attraction to facial cues of men's testosterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology 36:742–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roney, J. R., Simmons, Z. L. & Lukaszewski, A. W. (2010) Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's hormonal responses to potential mates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 277:5763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenblat, T. S. (2008) The beauty premium: Physical attractiveness and gender in dictator games. Negotiation Journal 24(4):465–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, J. & Ferris, K. R. (1981) Interpersonal attraction and organizational outcomes: A field examination. Administrative Science Quarterly 26:617–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roszell, P., Kennedy, D. & Grabb, E. (1989) Physical attractiveness and income attainment among Canadians. Journal of Psychology 123:547–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruffle, B. J. & Shtudiner, Z. (2015) Are good-looking people more employable? Management Science 61(8):1760–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rule, N. O. & Ambadi, N. (2008) The face of success: Inferences from chief executive officers' appearance predict company profits. Psychological Science 19(2):109111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rule, N. O. & Ambadi, N. (2009) She's got the look: Inferences from female chief executive officers' faces predict their success. Sex Roles 61(9):644–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saad, G. & Gill, T. (2001) Sex differences in the ultimatum game: An evolutionary psychology perspective. Journal of Bioeconomics 3:171–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sachsida, A., Dornelles, A. C. & Mesquita, C. W. (2003) Beauty and the labor market – study one specific occupation. Unpublished manuscript, Catholic University of Brasilia.Google Scholar
Saltzman, W. & Maestripieri, D. (2011) The neuroendocrinology of primate maternal behavior. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 35:1192–204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanchez-Pages, S. & Turiegano, E. (2010) Testosterone, facial symmetry, and cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma. Physiology and Behavior 99:355–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sangrador, J. L. & Yela, C. (2000) “What is beautiful is loved”: Physical attractiveness in love relationships in a representative sample. Social Behavior and Personality 28:207–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Segal-Caspi, L., Roccas, S. & Sagiv, L. (2012) Don't judge a book by its cover, revisited: Perceived and reported traits and values of attractive women. Psychological Science 23:1112–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Senior, C. (2003) Beauty in the brain of the beholder. Neuron 38:525–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shinada, M. & Yamagishi, T. (2014) Physical attractiveness and cooperation in a prisoner's dilemma game. Evolution and Human Behavior 35:451–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, F. G., DeBruine, L. M., Jones, B. C., Krupp, D. B., Welling, L. M. & Conway, C. A. (2009) Attractiveness qualifies the effect of observation on trusting behavior in an economic game. Evolution and Human Behavior 30:393–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, G. J. (1985) Facial and full-length ratings of attractiveness related to the social interactions of young children. Sex Roles 12:287–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyder, M., Tanke, E. D. & Berscheid, E. (1977) Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35:656–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solnick, S. J. & Schweitzer, M. E. (1999) The influence of physical attractiveness and gender on ultimatum game decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 79:199215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stirrat, M. & Perrett, D. I. (2010) Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust: Male facial width and trustworthiness. Psychological Science 21:349–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stirrat, M. & Perrett, D. I. (2012) Face structure predicts cooperation: Men with wider faces are more generous to their in-group when out-group competition is salient. Psychological Science 23:718–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Takahashi, C., Yamagishi, T., Tanida, S., Kiyonari, T. & Kanazawa, S. (2006) Attractiveness and cooperation in social exchange. Evolutionary Psychology 4:315–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tessman, I. (1995) Human altruism as a courtship display. Oikos 74:157–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thornhill, R. & Gangestad, S. (1993) Human facial beauty: Averageness, symmetry and parasite resistance. Human Nature 4:237–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thornhill, R. & Gangestad, S. (2008) The evolutionary biology of human female sexuality. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Todorov, A., Mandisodza, A. N., Goren, A. & Hall, C. C. (2005) Inferences of competence from faces predict election outcomes. Science 308:1623–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tognetti, A., Berticat, C., Raymond, M. & Faurie, C. (2012) Sexual selection of human cooperative behavior: An experimental study in rural Senegal. PLoS ONE 7(9):e44403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsukiura, T. & Cabeza, R. (2011a) Remembering beauty: Roles of orbitofrontal and hippocampal regions in successful memory encoding of attractive faces. NeuroImage 54:653–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsukiura, T. & Cabeza, R. (2011b) Shared brain activity for aesthetic and moral judgments: Implications for the Beauty-is-Good stereotype. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 6:138–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Udry, J. R. & Eckland, B. K. (1984) Benefits of being attractive: Differential payoffs for men and women. Psychological Reports 54:5776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van't Wout, M. & Sanfey, A. G. (2008) Friend or foe: The effect of implicit trustworthiness judgments in social decision-making. Cognition 108(3):796803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van den Bergh, B. & Dewitte, S. (2006) Digit ratio (2D:4D) moderates the impact of sexual cues on men's decisions in ultimatum games. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 273:2091–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van den Bergh, B., Dewitte, S. & Warlop, L. (2008) Bikinis instigate generalized impatience in intertemporal choice. Journal of Consumer Research 35:8597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van der Meij, L., Buunk, A., van de Sande, J. P. & Salvador, A. (2008) The presence of a woman increases testosterone in aggressive dominant men. Hormones and Behavior 54:640–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van der Meij, L., Buunk, A. P. & Salvador, A. (2010) Contact with attractive women affects the release of cortisol in men. Hormones and Behavior 58:501505.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Vugt, M. & Iredale, W. (2013) Men behaving nicely: Public goods as peacock tails. British Journal of Psychology 104:313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaughn, B. E. & Langlois, J. H. (1983) Physical attractiveness as a correlate of peer status and social competence in preschool children. Developmental Psychology 19:461–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verhulst, B., Lodge, M. & Lavine, H. (2010) The attractiveness halo: Why some candidates are perceived more favorably than others. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 34:111–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, M. Jr. & Driskell, J. E. (1983) Beauty as status. American Journal of Sociology 89:140–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weisfeld, G. E., Bloch, S. A. & Ivers, J. W. (1983) A factor analytic study of peer-perceived dominance in adolescent boys. Adolescence 18:229–43.Google Scholar
Weisfeld, G. E., Weisfeld, C. C. & Callaghan, J. W. (1984) Peer and self perceptions in Hopi and Afro-American third- and sixth-graders. Ethos 12:6482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
West, S. G. & Brown, T. J. (1975) Physical attractiveness, the severity of the emergency and helping: A field experiment and interpersonal simulation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 11:531–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, D. W. (1978) Helping behavior and physical attractiveness. Journal of Social Psychology 104:313–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, M. & Daly, M. (2004) Do pretty women inspire men to discount the future? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 271(S4):S177–79.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, R. K. & Eckel, C. C. (2006) Judging a book by its cover: Beauty and expectations in the trust game. Political Research Quarterly 59:189202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winston, J. S., O'Doherty, J., Kilner, J. M., Perrett, D. I. & Dolan, R. J. (2007) Brain systems for assessing facial attractiveness. Neuropsychologia 45:195206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, N. (1992) The beauty myth: How images of beauty are used against women. Vintage.Google Scholar
Zaatari, D., Palestis, B. G. & Trivers, R. (2009) Fluctuating asymmetry of responders affects offers in the ultimatum game oppositely according to attractiveness or need as perceived by proposers. Ethology 115:627–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaatari, D. & Trivers, R. (2007) Fluctuating asymmetry and behavior in the ultimatum game in Jamaica. Evolution and Human Behavior 28:223–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zak, P. J., Kurzban, R., Ahmadi, S., Swerdloff, R. S., Park, J., Efremidze, L., Redwine, K., Morgan, K. & Matzner, W. (2009) Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game. PLoS ONE 4(12):e8330.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zebrowitz, L. A. & Montepare, J. M. (2008) Social psychological face perception: Why appearance matters. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2:1497–517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zebrowitz, L. A. & Rhodes, G. (2004) Sensitivity to “bad genes” and the anomalous face overgeneralization effect: Cue validity, cue utilization, and accuracy in judging intelligence and health. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 28(3):167–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zilioli, S., Caldbick, E. & Watson, N. V. (2014) Testosterone reactivity to facial display of emotions in men and women. Hormones and Behavior 65:461–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zilioli, S., Ponzi, D., Henry, A., Kubicki, K., Nickels, N., Wilson, M. C. & Maestripieri, D. (2016) Interest in babies negatively predicts testosterone responses to sexual visual stimuli among heterosexual young men. Psychological Science 27(1):114–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zilioli, S. & Watson, N. V. (2014). Transient impairment of spatial cognition in men following exposure to happy females faces: The mediating role of cortisol. Unpublished manuscrip, Simon Fraser University.Google Scholar
57
Cited by