Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-n9wrp Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-19T03:39:59.888Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Social identification is generally a prerequisite for group success and does not preclude intragroup differentiation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 October 2016

S. Alexander Haslam
School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia.
Naomi Ellemers
Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands. n.ellemers@uu.nlhttp://


On the basis of research in the social identity tradition, we contend (a) that identification and differentiation are not mutually exclusive, (b) that a sequence in which identification gives way to differentiation is not necessarily associated with superior organizational outcomes, and (c) that social identification, and leadership that builds this, is generally a prerequisite for group success.

Open Peer Commentary
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Bloom, M. (1999) The performance effects of pay dispersions on individuals and organizations. Academy of Management Journal 42:2540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duffy, M. K., Scott, K. L., Shaw, J. D., Tepper, B. J. & Aquino, K. (2012) A social context model of envy and social undermining. Academy of Management Journal 55:643–66.Google Scholar
Eggins, R. A., Haslam, S. A. & Reynolds, K. J. (2002) Social identity and negotiation: Subgroup representation and superordinate consensus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28:887–99.Google Scholar
Ellemers, N. (2012) The group self. Science 336:848–52.Google Scholar
Ellemers, N., De Gilder, D. & Haslam, S. A. (2004) Motivating individuals and groups at work: A social identity perspective on leadership and group performance. Academy of Management Review 29:459–78.Google Scholar
Ellemers, N., Pagliaro, S. & Barreto, M. (2013) Morality and behavioural regulation in groups: A social identity approach. European Review of Social Psychology 24:160–93.Google Scholar
Ellemers, N., Spears, R. & Doosje, B. (1997) Sticking together or falling apart: Ingroup identification as a psychological determinant of group commitment versus individual mobility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72:617–26.Google Scholar
González, R. & Brown, R. J. (2003) Generalization of positive attitude as a function of subgroup and superordinate group identifications in intergroup contact. European Journal of Social Psychology 33:195–14.Google Scholar
Haslam, S. A. (2004) Psychology in organizations: The social identity approach, second edition. Sage.Google Scholar
Haslam, S. A. & Ellemers, N. (2005) Social identity in industrial and organizational psychology: Concepts, controversies and contributions. In: International review of industrial and organizational psychology, vol. 20, ed. Hodgkinson, G. P. & Ford, J. K., pp. 39118. Wiley.Google Scholar
Haslam, S. A. & Ellemers, N. (2011) Identity processes in organizations. In: Handbook of identity theory and research, vol. 2, ed. Vignoles, V., Schwartz, S. & Luyckx, K., pp. 715–44). Springer.Google Scholar
Haslam, S. A. Eggins, R. A. & Reynolds, K. J. (2003) The ASPIRe model: Actualizing Social and Personal Identity Resources to enhance organizational outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 76:83113.Google Scholar
Haslam, S. A., Reicher, S. D. & Platow, M. J. (2011) The new psychology of leadership: Identity, influence and power. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Peters, K. O., Haslam, S. A., Ryan, M. K. & Fonseca, M. (2012) Working with subgroup identities to build organizational identification and support for organizational strategy: A test of the ASPIRe model. Group and Organization Management 38:128–44.Google Scholar
Postmes, T. & Branscombe, N. R., eds. (2012) Rediscovering social identity: Core sources. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Reicher, S. D., Haslam, S. A. & Smith, J. R. (2012) Working towards the experimenter: Reconceptualizing obedience within the Milgram paradigm as identification-based followership. Perspectives on Psychological Science 7:315–24.Google Scholar
Rink, F. & Ellemers, N. (2007) Diversity as a basis for shared organizational identity: The norm congruity principle. British Journal of Management 18(s1):S1727.Google Scholar
Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1979) An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In: The social psychology of intergroup relations, ed. Austin, W. G. & Worchel, S., pp. 3347. Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D. & Wetherell, M. S. (1987) Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Blackwell.Google Scholar