Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Are groups more or less than the sum of their members? The moderating role of individual identification

  • Roy F. Baumeister (a1), Sarah E. Ainsworth (a2) and Kathleen D. Vohs (a3)

Abstract

This paper seeks to make a theoretical and empirical case for the importance of differentiated identities for group function. Research on groups has found that groups sometimes perform better and other times perform worse than the sum of their individual members. Differentiation of selves is a crucial moderator. We propose a heuristic framework that divides formation of work or task groups into two steps. One step emphasizes shared common identity and promotes emotional bonds. In the other step, which we emphasize, group members take increasingly differentiated roles that improve performance through specialization, moral responsibility, and efficiency. Pathologies of groups (e.g., social loafing, depletion of shared resources/commons dilemmas, failure to pool information, groupthink) are linked to submerging the individual self in the group. These pathologies are decreased when selves are differentiated, such as by individual rewards, individual competition, accountability, responsibility, and public identification. Differentiating individual selves contributes to many of the best outcomes of groups, such as with social facilitation, wisdom-of-crowds effects, and division of labor. Anonymous confidentiality may hamper differentiation by allowing people to blend into the group (so that selfish or lazy efforts are not punished), but it may also facilitate differentiation by enabling people to think and judge without pressure to conform. Acquiring a unique role within the group can promote belongingness by making oneself irreplaceable.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abrams, D., Wetherell, M., Cochrane, S., Hogg, M. A. & Turner, J. C. (1990) Knowing what to think by knowing who you are: Self categorization and the nature of norm formation, conformity and group polarization. British Journal of Social Psychology 29:97119.
Allport, F. H. (1924) Social psychology. Houghton Mifflin.
Asch, S. (1952) Social psychology. Prentice-Hall.
Babbage, C. (1832) On the economy of machinery and manufactures. Philosophical Magazine Series 3:208–13. doi: 10.1080/14786443208647876.
Basu, S., Dickhaut, J., Hecht, G., Towry, K. & Waymire, G. (2009) Recordkeeping alters economic history by promoting reciprocity. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:1009–14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0811967106.
Beaman, A. L., Klentz, B., Diener, E. & Svanum, S. (1979) Self-awareness and transgressions in children: Two field studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:1835–46. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.10.1835.
Beath, A., Christia, F. & Enikolopov, R. (2012) Direct democracy and resource allocation: Experimental evidence from Afghanistan (June 1, 2012) MIT Political Science Department Research Paper No. 2011–16. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1935055.
Bechtoldt, M. N., De Dreu, C. K. W., Nijstad, B. A. & Choi, H. (2010) Motivated information processing, social tuning, and group creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99:622–37. doi: 10.1037/a0019386.
Bond, C. F. (1982) Social facilitation: A self-presentational view. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42:1042–50. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.6.1042.
Bond, C. F. & Titus, L. J. (1983) Social facilitation: A meta-analysis of 241 studies. Psychological Bulletin 94:265–92. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.94.2.265.
Bond, R. & Smith, P. B. (1996) Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's (1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin 119:111–37. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.119.1.111.
Bray, R. M. & Sugarman, R. (1980) Social facilitation among interacting groups: Evidence for the evaluation-apprehension hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 6:137–42. doi: 10.1177/014616728061021.
Brewer, M. B. (1991) The social self: On being the same and different at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17:475–82. doi: 10.1177/0146167291175001.
Brewer, M. B. (2012) Optimal distinctiveness theory: Its history and development. In: Handbook of theories of social psychology, vol. 2, ed. Van Lange, P. A. M., Kruglanski, A. W. & Higgins, E. T., pp. 8198. Sage.
Brewer, M. B. & Kramer, R. M. (1986) Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50:543–49. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.50.3.543.
Brodbeck, F. C., Kerschreiter, R., Mojzisch, A., Frey, D. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2002) The dissemination of critical, unshared information in decision-making groups: The effects of pre-discussion dissent. European Journal of Social Psychology 32:3556. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.74.
Cable, D. M., Gino, F. & Staats, B. R. (2013) Breaking them in or eliciting their best? Reframing socialization around newcomers' authentic self-expression. Administrative Science Quarterly 58:136. doi: 10.1177/0001839213477098.
Cabrera, Á. & Cabrera, E. F. (2002) Knowledge-sharing dilemmas. Organization Studies 23:687710. doi: 10.1177/0170840602235001.
Camacho, L. M. & Paulus, P. B. (1995) The role of social anxiousness in group brainstorming. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68:1071–80. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.68.6.1071.
Chatman, J. A., Boisnier, A. D., Spataro, S. E., Anderson, C. & Berdahl, J. L. (2008) Being distinctive versus being conspicuous: The effects of numeric status and sex-stereotyped tasks on individual performance in groups. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 107:141–60. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2008.02.006.
Cohen, J. L. & Davis, J. H. (1973) Effects of audience status, evaluation, and time of action on performance with hidden-word problems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27:7485. doi: 10.1037/h0034447.
Darley, J. M. & Latané, B. (1968) Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 8:377–83. doi: 10.1037/h0025589.
Dawes, R. M., Van de Kragt, A. J. C. & Orbell, J. (1988) Not me or thee but we: The importance of group identity in eliciting cooperation in dilemma situations. Acta Psychologica 68:8397. doi: 10.1016/0001-6918(88)90047-9.
De Cremer, D. & Van Dijk, E. (2002) Reactions to group success and failure as a function of identification level: A test of the goal-transformation hypothesis in social dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 38:435–42.
De Cremer, D. & Van Dijk, E. (2009) Paying for sanctions in social dilemmas: The effects of endowment asymmetry and accountability. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 109:4555. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.01.004.
De Cremer, D. & van Vugt, M. (1999) Social identification effects in social dilemmas: A transformation of motives. European Journal of Social Psychology 29:871–93. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199911)29:7.
De Cremer, D., Hoogervorst, N. & Desmet, P. (2012) Procedural justice and sanctions in social dilemmas: The moderating effects of group feedback and identification. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 42:1675–93. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.00914.x.
De Cremer, D., Snyder, M. & Dewitte, S. (2001) The less I trust, the less I contribute (or not)? The effects of trust, accountability and self-monitoring in social dilemmas. European Journal of Social Psychology 31:93107. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.34.
De Cremer, D., Van Knippenberg, D., Van Dijk, E. & Van Leeuwen, E. (2008) Cooperating if one's goals are collective-based: Social identification effects in social dilemmas as a function of goal transformation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 38:1562–79. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2008.00359.x.
De Dreu, C. K. W., Nijstad, B. A. & van Knippenberg, D. (2008) Motivated information processing in group judgment and decision making. Personality and Social Psychology Review 12(1):2249. doi: 10.1177/1088868307304092.
De Dreu, C. K. W. & van Knippenberg, D. (2005) The possessive self as a barrier to conflict resolution: Effects of mere ownership, process accountability, and self-concept clarity on competitive cognitions and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89:345–57. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.89.3.345.
de Kwaadsteniet, E. W., van Dijk, E., Wit, A., De Cremer, D. & de Rooij, M. (2007) Justifying decisions in social dilemmas: Justification pressures and tacit coordination under environmental uncertainty. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 33:1648–60. doi: 10.1177/0146167207307490.
DeChurch, L. A. & Mesmer-Magnus, J. R. (2010) The cognitive underpinnings of effective teamwork: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology 95:32. doi: 10.1037/a0017328.
Deutsch, M. & Gerard, H. B. (1955) A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 51:629–36. doi: 10.1037/h0046408.
Diener, E., Fraser, S. C., Beaman, A. L. & Kelem, R. T. (1976) Effects of deindividuation variables on stealing among Halloween trick-or-treaters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33:178–83. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.33.2.178.
Esser, J. K. (1998) Alive and well after 25 years: A review of groupthink research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 73:116–41. doi: 10.1006/obhd.1998.2758.
Fehr, E. & Gächter, S. (2002) Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature 415:137–40. doi: 10.1038/415137a.
Feinberg, J. M. & Aiello, J. R. (2006) Social facilitation: A test of competing theories. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 36:1087–109. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00032.x.
Friedman, L. M. (2002) Law in America: A short history. Random House.
Fukuyama, F. (2011) The origins of political order: From prehuman times to the French Revolution. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Geen, R. G. & Gange, J. J. (1977) Drive theory of social facilitation: Twelve years of theory and research. Psychological Bulletin 84:1267–88. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.84.6.1267.
Gerber, A. S., Huber, G. A., Doherty, D. & Dowling, C. M. (2013) Is there a secret ballot? Ballot secrecy perceptions and their implications for voting behaviour. British Journal of Political Science 43:77102. doi: 10.1017/S000712341200021X.
Goldstein, N. J., Cialdini, R. B. & Griskevicius, V. (2008) A room with a viewpoint: Using social norms to motivate environmental conservation in hotels. Journal of Consumer Research 35:472–82. doi: 10.1086/586910.
Good, K. J. (1973) Social facilitation: Effects of performance anticipation, evaluation, and response competition on free associations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 28:270–75. doi: 10.1037/h0035790.
Green, M. C., Visser, P. S. & Tetlock, P. E. (2000) Coping with accountability cross-pressures: Low-effort evasive tactics and high-effort quests for complex compromises. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26:1380–91. doi: 10.1177/0146167200263006.
Greene, R. G. (1979) Effects of being observed on learning following success and failure experiments. Motivation and Emotion 3:355–71. doi: 10.1007/BF00994050.
Guerin, B. (1986) Mere presence effects in humans: A review. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 22:3877. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(86)90040-5.
Hardin, G. (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162:1243–48. doi: 10.1080/19390450903037302.
Hazelwood, D. L. & Brigham, J. C. (1998) The effects of juror anonymity on jury verdicts. Law and Human Behavior 22:695713. doi: 10.1023/A:1025711024462.
Henchy, T. & Glass, D. C. (1968) Evaluation apprehension and the social facilitation of dominant and subordinate responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10:446–54. doi: 10.1037/h0026814.
Hinsz, V. B., Tindale, R. S. & Vollrath, D. A. (1997) The emerging conceptualization of groups as information processors. Psychological Bulletin 121:4364. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.43.
Hogg, M. A., Abrams, D., Otten, S. & Hinkle, S. (2004) The social identity perspective intergroup relations, self-conception, and small groups. Small Group Research 35:246–76. doi: 10.1177/1046496404263424.
Horan, R. D., Bulte, E. & Shogren, J. F. (2005) How trade saved humanity from biological exclusion: An economic theory of Neanderthal extinction. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 58:129. doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.009.
Hubbard, G. & Kane, T. (2013) Balance: The economics of great powers from ancient Rome to modern America. Simon & Schuster.
Hüffmeier, J. & Hertel, G. (2011) When the whole is more than the sum of its parts: Group motivation gains in the wild. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47:455–59. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2010.12.004.
Hülsheger, U. R., Anderson, N. & Salgado, J. F. (2009) Team-level predictors of innovation at work: A comprehensive meta-analysis spanning three decades of research. Journal of Applied Psychology 94:1128. doi: 10.1037/a0015978.
Janis, I. L. (1972) Victims of groupthink: A psychological study of foreign policy decisions and fiascoes. Houghton Mifflin.
Janssen, O. & Huang, X. (2008) Us and me: Team identification and individual differentiation as complementary drivers of team members' citizenship and creative behaviors. Journal of Management 34:6988. doi: 10.1177/0149206307309263.
Karau, S. J. & Williams, K. D. (1993) Social loafing: A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65(4):681706.
Karau, S. J. & Williams, K. D. (1995) Social loafing: Research findings, implications, and future directions. Current Directions in Psychological Science 4:134–40. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.ep10772570.
Kerr, N. L. & Bruun, S. E. (1983) Dispensability of member effort and group motivation losses: Free-rider effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44:7894. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.78.
Kirkman, B. L. & Shapiro, D. L. (2001) The impact of cultural values on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in self-managing work teams: The mediating role of employee resistance. Academy of Management Journal 44:557–69. doi: 10.2307/3069370.
Köhler, O. (1926) Kraftleistungen bei Einzel- und Gruppenarbeit [Physical performance in individual and group work]. Industrielle Psychotechnik 3:274–82.
Kramer, R. M. & Brewer, M. B. (1984) Effects of group identity on resource use in a simulated commons dilemma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46:1044–57. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.46.5.1044.
Kravitz, D. A. & Martin, B. (1986) Ringelmann rediscovered: The original article. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50:936–41. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.50.5.936.
Lamm, H. & Trommsdorff, G. (1973) Group versus individual performance on tasks requiring ideational proficiency (brainstorming): A review. European Journal of Social Psychology 3:361–88. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2420030402.
Latané, B. & Nida, S. (1981) Ten years of research on group size and helping. Psychological Bulletin 89:308–24. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.89.2.308.
Latané, B., Williams, K. & Harkins, S. (1979) Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:822–32. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.6.822.
Le Bon, G. (1896/1960) The crowd: A study of the popular mind [La psychologie des foules]. Viking Press. (Original work published in 1896.)
Leary, M. R. & Forsyth, D. R. (1987) Attributions of responsibility for collective endeavors. In: Group processes, ed. Hendrick, C., pp. 167–88. Sage.
Lerner, J. S. & Tetlock, P. E. (1999) Accounting for the effects of accountability. Psychological Bulletin 125:255–75. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.2.255.
Lerner, J. S. & Tetlock, P. E. (2003) Bridging individual, interpersonal, and institutional approaches to judgment and decision making: The impact of accountability on cognitive bias. In: Emerging perspectives on judgment and decision research, ed. Lerner, J. S. & Tetlock, P. E., pp. 431–57. Cambridge University Press.
Levine, J. M. & Moreland, R. L. (1990) Progress in small group research. Annual Review of Psychology 41:585634. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ps.41.020190.003101.
Lewin, K. (1952) Group decision and social change. In: Readings in Social Psychology, Revised edition, ed. Swanson, G. E., Newcomb, T. N. & Hartley, E. L., pp. 459–73. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Lorinkova, N. M., Pearsall, M. J. & Sims, H. P. (2013) Examining the differential longitudinal performance of directive versus empowering leadership in teams. Academy of Management Journal 56:573–96. doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0132.
Lu, L., Yuan, Y. C. & McLeod, P. L. (2012) Twenty-five years of hidden profiles in group decision making: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review 16:5475. doi: 10.1177/1088868311417243.
Lynn, M. & Oldenquist, A. (1986) Egoistic and nonegoistic motives in social dilemmas. American Psychologist 41:529–34. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.41.5.529.
Madirolas, G. & de Polavieja, G. G. (2014) Wisdom of the confident: Using social interactions to eliminate the bias in wisdom of the crowds. Proceedings of the Collective Intelligence Conference at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 10–12, 2014, Cambridge, MA.
Mann, L., Newton, J. W. & Innes, J. M. (1982) A test between deindividuation and emergent norm theories of crowd aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42:260–72. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.2.260.
Mannix, E. & Neale, M. A. (2005) What differences make a difference? The promise and reality of diverse teams in organizations. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 6:3155. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-1006.2005.00022.x.
Martens, R. & Landers, D. M. (1972) Evaluation potential as a determinant of coaction effects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 8:347–59. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(72)90024-8.
McNeill, W. H. (1982) The pursuit of power. University of Chicago Press.
Mead, G. H. (1934) Mind, self and society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. University of Chicago Press.
Messick, D. M. & Brewer, M. B. (1983) Solving social dilemmas: A review. In: Review of personality and social psychology, vol. 4, ed. Wheeler, L. & Shaver, P., pp. 1144. Sage.
Metzinger, T. (2009) The ego tunnel: The science of the mind and the myth of the self. Basic Books.
Moffett, M. W. (2013) Human identity and the evolution of societies. Human Nature 24:219–67. doi: 10.1007/s12110-013-9170-3.
Moorman, R. H. & Blakely, G. L. (1995) Individualism-collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior 16:127–42. doi: 10.1002/job.4030160204.
Morris, D. R. (1965) The washing of the spears: The rise and fall of the Zulu nation. Simon & Schuster.
Mueller, J. S. (2012) Why individuals in larger teams perform worse. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 117:111–24. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.08.004.
Mullen, B. (1986) Atrocity as a function of lynch mob composition: A self-attention perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 12:187–97. doi: 10.1177/0146167286122005.
Mullen, B. & Copper, C. (1994) The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration. Psychological Bulletin 115:210–27. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.115.2.210.
Mullen, B., Johnson, C. & Salas, E. (1991) Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: A meta-analytic integration. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 12:323. doi: 10.1207/s15324834basp1201_1.
Nadler, A., Goldberg, M. & Jaffe, Y. (1982) Effect of self-differentiation and anonymity in group on deindividuation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42:1127–36. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.6.1127.
Nemeth, C. J. (1986) Differential contributions of majority and minority influence. Psychological Review 93:2332. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.93.1.23.
Nemeth, C. J., Personnaz, B., Personnaz, M. & Goncalo, J. A. (2004) The liberating role of conflict in group creativity: A study in two countries. European Journal of Social Psychology 34:365–74. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.210.
Olken, B. (2010) Direct democracy and local public goods: Evidence from a field experiment in Indonesia. American Political Science Review 104:243–67. doi: 10.1017/S0003055410000079.
Orbell, J. M. & Dawes, R. M. (1981) Social dilemmas. In: Progress in applied social psychology, vol. 1, ed. Stephenson, G. & Davis, J. H., pp. 3766. Wiley.
Osborn, A. F. (1953) Applied imagination. Scribner's.
Osborn, K. A., Irwin, B. C., Skogsberg, N. J. & Feltz, D. L. (2012) The Köhler effect: Motivation gains and losses in real sports groups. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology 1:242–53. doi: 10.1037/a0026887.
Penner, L. A., Dovidio, J. F., Piliavin, J. A. & Schroeder, D. A. (2005) Prosocial behavior: Multilevel perspectives. Annual Review of Psychology 56:365–92. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070141.
Petty, R. E., Harkins, S. G. & Williams, K. D. (1980) The effects of group diffusion of cognitive effort on attitudes: An information-processing view. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38:8192. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.38.1.81.
Postmes, T. & Spears, R. (1998) Deindividuation and antinormative behavior: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 123:238–59. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.123.3.238.
Prentice-Dunn, S. & Rogers, R. W. (1982) Effects of public and private self-awareness on deindividuation and aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43:503. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.43.3.503.
Rajecki, D. W., Ickes, W., Corcoran, C. & Lenerz, K. (1977) Social facilitation of human performance: Mere presence effects. The Journal of Social Psychology 102:297310. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1977.9713277.
Rapoport, A., Bornstein, G. & Erev, I. (1989) Intergroup competition for public goods: Effects of unequal resources and relative group size. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56:748–56. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.56.5.748.
Ringelmann, M. (1913b) Research on animate sources of power: The work of man. Annales de l'Institut National Agronomique, 2e serie-tome XII:140.
Rogers, R. W. & Ketchen, C. M. (1979) Effects of anonymity and arousal on aggression. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 102:1319. doi: 10.1080/00223980.1979.9915089.
Satow, K. (1975) Social approval and helping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 11:501509. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(75)90001-3.
Schachter, S. (1951) Deviation, rejection, and communication. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 46:190207. doi: 10.1037/h0062326.
Schachter, S. (1954) Interpretative and methodological problems of replicated research. Journal of Social Issues 10:5260. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1954.tb01654.x.
Scholten, L., van Knippenberg, D., Nijstad, B. A. & de Dreu, C. K. W. (2007) Motivated information processing and group decision-making: Effects of process accountability on information processing and decision quality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43:539–52. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.010.
Schopler, J., Insko, C. A., Drigotas, S. M. & Wieselquist, J. (1995) The role of identifiability in the reduction of interindividual–intergroup discontinuity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 31:553–74. doi: 10.1006/jesp.1995.1025.
Schulz-Hardt, S., Brodbeck, F. C., Mojzisch, A., Kerschreiter, R. & Frey, D. (2006) Group decision making in hidden profile situations: Dissent as a facilitator for decision quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:1080–93. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.91.6.1080.
Schwartz, S. H. & Gottlieb, A. (1976) Bystander reactions to a violent theft: Crime in Jerusalem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34:1188–99. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.34.6.1188.
Schwartz, S. H. & Gottlieb, A. (1980) Bystander anonymity and reactions to emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39:418–30. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.39.3.418.
Scott, M. B. & Lyman, S. M. (1968) Paranoia, homosexuality and game theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 9:179–87. doi: 10.2307/2948402.
Semin, G. R. & Manstead, A. S. R. (1983) The accountability of conduct: A social psychological analysis. Academic Press.
Sherif, M. (1936) The psychology of social norms. Harper.
Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., Galak, J. & Frederick, S. (2011) Intuitive biases in choice versus estimation: Implications for the wisdom of crowds. Journal of Consumer Research 38:115. doi: 10.1086/658070.
Smith, A. (1776/1991) The wealth of nations. Knopf. (Original work published in 1776.)
Spencer-Rodgers, J., Hamilton, D. L. & Sherman, S. J. (2007) The central role of entitativity in stereotypes of social categories and task groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92:369. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.3.369.
Staats, B. R. & Gino, F. (2012) Specialization and variety in repetitive tasks: Evidence from a Japanese bank. Management Science 58:1141–59. doi: 10.1287/mnsc.1110.1482.
Stasser, G. (1999) The uncertain role of unshared information in collective choice. In: Shared cognition in organizations: The management of knowledge, ed. Levine, J. M., Thompson, L. L. & Messick, D. M., pp. 4969. Erlbaum.
Stasser, G., Stewart, D. D. & Wittenbaum, G. M. (1995) Expert roles and information exchange during discussion: The importance of knowing who knows what. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 31:244–65. doi: 10.1006/jesp.1995.1012.
Stasser, G. & Titus, W. (1985) Pooling of unshared information in group decision making: Biased information sampling during discussion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48:1467–78. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.48.6.1467.
Stasser, G. & Titus, W. (1987) Effects of information load and percentage of shared information on the dissemination of unshared information during group discussion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53:8193. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.53.1.81.
Stroebe, W. & Frey, B. S. (1982) Self-interest and collective action: The economics and psychology of public goods. British Journal of Social Psychology 21:121–37. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8309.1982.tb00521.x.
Surowiecki, J. (2004) The wisdom of crowds: Why the many are smarter than the few and how collective wisdom shapes business, economies, societies, and nations. Anchor.
Swann, W. B. & Buhrmester, M. D. (2012) Self as functional fiction. Social Cognition 30:415–30. doi: 10.1521/soco.2012.30.4.415.
Szymanski, K., Garczynski, J. & Harkins, S. (2000) The contribution of the potential for evaluation to coaction effects. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 3:269–83. doi: 10.1177/1368430200033003.
Tata, J., Anthony, T., Lin, H., Newman, B., Tang, S., Millson, M. & Sivakumar, K. (1996) Proportionate group size and rejection of the deviate: Meta-analytic integration. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 11:739–52.
Tetlock, P. E. (1983) Accountability and the perseverance of first impressions. Social Psychology Quarterly 46:285–92. doi: 10.2307/3033716.
Tetlock, P. E. (1992) The impact of accountability on judgment and choice: Toward a social contingency model. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 25, ed. Zanna, M. P., pp. 331–76. Academic Press.
Tetlock, P. E., Skitka, L. & Boettger, R. (1989) Social and cognitive strategies for coping with accountability: Conformity, complexity, and bolstering. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57:632–40. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.632.
Triplett, N. (1898) The dynamogenic factors in pacemaking and competition. The American Journal of Psychology 9:507–33. doi: 10.2307/1412188.
Tuckman, B. (1965) Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin 63:384–99. doi: 10.1037/h0022100.
Turner, J. & Tajfel, H. (1982) Social identity and intergroup relations. Cambridge University Press.
Twenge, J. M. & Campbell, W. K. (2003) “Isn't it fun to get the respect that we're going to deserve?” Narcissism, social rejection, and aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 29:261–72. doi: 10.1177/0146167202239051.
Tyler, T. R. & Degoey, P. (1995) Collective restraint in social dilemmas: Procedural justice and social identification effects on support for authorities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69:482–97. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.69.3.482.
Van de Kragt, A., Orbell, J. & Dawes, R., Braver, S. & Wilson, L. (1986) Doing well and doing good as ways of resolving social dilemmas. In: Experimental social dilemmas, ed. Wilkc, H., Messick, D. & Rutte, C., pp. 177203. Verlag Peter Lang.
Van Lange, P. A. M., Liebrand, W. B. G., Messick, D. M. & Wilke, H. A. M. (1992) Introduction and literature review. In: Social dilemmas: Theoretical issues and research findings, ed. Liebrand, W. B. G., Messick, D. M. & Wilke, H. A. M., pp. 328. Pergamon Press.
Van Vugt, M. & De Cremer, D. (1999) Leadership in social dilemmas: The effects of group identification on collective actions to provide public goods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76:587. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.587.
Van Vugt, M. & Hart, C. M. (2004) Social identity as social glue: The origins of group loyalty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86:585. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.86.4.585.
VanTuinen, M. & McNeel, S. P. (1975) A test of the social facilitation theories of Cottrell and Zajonc in a coaction situation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 1:604607. doi: 10.1177/014616727500100412.
Watson, R. I. (1973) Investigation into deindividuation using a cross-cultural survey technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 25:342–45. doi: 10.1037/h0034218.
Wegner, D. M. (1986) Transactive memory: A contemporary analysis of the group mind. In: Theories of group behavior, ed. Mullen, B. & Goethals, G. R., pp. 185208. Springer-Verlag.
Weldon, E. & Gargano, G. M. (1988) Cognitive loafing: The effects of accountability and shared responsibility on cognitive effort. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 14:159–71. doi: 10.1177/0146167288141016.
Weldon, E. & Mustari, E. L. (1988) Felt dispensability in groups of coactors: The effects of shared responsibility and explicit anonymity on cognitive effort. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 41:330–51. doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(88)90033-7.
West, A. (1999) The flute factory: An empirical measurement of the effect of division of labor on productivity and production. American Economist 43:8287. 10.1177/056943459904300109.
Wildschut, T., Pinter, B., Vevea, J. L., Insko, C. A. & Schopler, J. (2003) Beyond the group mind: A quantitative review of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect. Psychological Bulletin 129:698722. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.698.
Williams, K., Harkins, S. G. & Latané, B. (1981) Identifiability as a deterrent to social loafing: Two cheering experiments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40:303–11. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.40.2.303.
Wittenbaum, G. M. & Park, E. S. (2001) The collective preference for shared information. Current Directions in Psychological Science 10:7073. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00118.
Wittenbaum, G. M. & Stasser, G. (1996) Management of information in small groups. In: What's social about social cognition?: Research on socially shared cognition in small groups, ed. Nye, J. L. & Brower, A. M., pp. 328. Sage.
Zajonc, R. B. (1965) Social facilitation. Science 149:269–74. doi: 10.1126/science.149.3681.269.
Zdaniuk, B. & Levine, J. M. (2001) Group loyalty: Impact of members' identification and contributions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 37:502509. doi: 10.1006/jesp.2000.1474.
Zimbardo, P. G. (1969) The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 17:237307.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed