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Backwards is the way forward: Feedback in the cortical hierarchy predicts the expected future

  • Lars Muckli (a1), Lucy S. Petro (a1) and Fraser W. Smith (a1)

Clark offers a powerful description of the brain as a prediction machine, which offers progress on two distinct levels. First, on an abstract conceptual level, it provides a unifying framework for perception, action, and cognition (including subdivisions such as attention, expectation, and imagination). Second, hierarchical prediction offers progress on a concrete descriptive level for testing and constraining conceptual elements and mechanisms of predictive coding models (estimation of predictions, prediction errors, and internal models).

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L. L. Sanders , L. Muckli , W. de Millas , M. Lautenschlager , A. Heinz , N. Kathmann & P. Sterzer (2012) Detection of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research. [Epub ahead of print: April 28, 2012]. Available at:

M. W. Spratling (2008b) Reconciling predictive coding and biased competition models of cortical function. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 2(4):18.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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