Skip to main content
×
Home

Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence

  • Peter Richerson (a1), Ryan Baldini (a2), Adrian V. Bell (a3), Kathryn Demps (a4), Karl Frost (a5), Vicken Hillis (a6), Sarah Mathew (a7), Emily K. Newton (a8), Nicole Naar (a9), Lesley Newson (a10), Cody Ross (a11), Paul E. Smaldino (a12), Timothy M. Waring (a13) and Matthew Zefferman (a14)...
Abstract
Abstract

Human cooperation is highly unusual. We live in large groups composed mostly of non-relatives. Evolutionists have proposed a number of explanations for this pattern, including cultural group selection and extensions of more general processes such as reciprocity, kin selection, and multi-level selection acting on genes. Evolutionary processes are consilient; they affect several different empirical domains, such as patterns of behavior and the proximal drivers of that behavior. In this target article, we sketch the evidence from five domains that bear on the explanatory adequacy of cultural group selection and competing hypotheses to explain human cooperation. Does cultural transmission constitute an inheritance system that can evolve in a Darwinian fashion? Are the norms that underpin institutions among the cultural traits so transmitted? Do we observe sufficient variation at the level of groups of considerable size for group selection to be a plausible process? Do human groups compete, and do success and failure in competition depend upon cultural variation? Do we observe adaptations for cooperation in humans that most plausibly arose by cultural group selection? If the answer to one of these questions is “no,” then we must look to other hypotheses. We present evidence, including quantitative evidence, that the answer to all of the questions is “yes” and argue that we must take the cultural group selection hypothesis seriously. If culturally transmitted systems of rules (institutions) that limit individual deviance organize cooperation in human societies, then it is not clear that any extant alternative to cultural group selection can be a complete explanation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Alexander R. D. (1987) The biology of moral systems. Aldine de Gruyter.
Algan Y. & Cahuc P. (2010) Inherited trust and growth. The American Economic Review 100(5):2060–92. doi: 10.2307/41038755.
Allison A. C. (1964) Polymorphism and natural selection in human populations. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 29:137–49. doi: 10.1101/sqb.1964.029.01.018.
Aoki M. (2001) Toward a comparative institutional analysis. MIT Press.
Ashforth B. E., Harrison S. H. & Corley K. G. (2008) Identification in organizations: An examination of four fundamental questions. Journal of Management 34(3):325–74. doi: 10.1177/0149206308316059.
Atran S. (2002) In gods we trust. Oxford University Press.
Atran S. (2010) Talking to the enemy: Faith, brotherhood, and the (un)making of terrorists. HarperCollins.
Atran S. & Norenzayan A. (2005) Religion's evolutionary landscape: Counterintuition, commitment, compassion, communion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27(6):713–70. doi: 10.1017/s0140525x04000172.
Ayala F. J. (2010) The difference of being human: Morality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107(Suppl. 2):8897–901.
Barnett W. P. & McKendrick D. G. (2004) Why are some organizations more competitive than others? Evidence from a changing global market. Administrative Science Quarterly 49(4):535–71.
Barnett W. P. & Pontikes E. G. (2008) The Red Queen, success bias, and organizational inertia. Management Science 54(7):1237–51. doi: 10.1287/mnsc.1070.0808.
Batson C. D. (2011) Altruism in humans. Oxford University Press.
Baum W. M., Paciotti B., Richerson P., Lubell M. & McElreath R. (2012) Cooperation due to cultural norms, not individual reputation. Behavioural Processes 91(1):9093. doi: 10.1016/j.beproc.2012.06.001.
Baum W. M., Richerson P. J., Efferson C. M. & Paciotti B. M. (2004) An experimental model of cultural evolution including traditions of rule giving and rule following. Evolution and Human Behavior 25:305–26.
Bell A. V., Richerson P. J. & McElreath R. (2009) Culture rather than genes provides greater scope for the evolution of large-scale human prosociality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106(42):17671–74. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0903232106.
Boehm C. (1997) Impact of the human egalitarian syndrome on Darwinian selection mechanics. The American Naturalist 150(Suppl.):S100–21.
Boehm C. (2012) Moral origins: The evolution of virtue, altruism, and shame. Basic Books.
Bolton M. K. (1993) Imitation versus innovation: Lessons to be learned from the Japanese. Organizational Dynamics 21(3):3045.
Bouckaert R., Lemey P., Dunn M., Greenhill S. J., Alekseyenko A. V., Drummond A. J., Gray R. D., Suchard M. A. & Atkinson Q. D. (2012) Mapping the origins and expansion of the Indo-European language family. Science 337(6097):957–60. doi: 10.1126/science.1219669.
Bowles S. (2006) Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science 314:1569–72.
Bowles S. & Gintis H. (2011) A cooperative species: Human reciprocity and its evolution. Princeton University Press.
Boyd R., Gintis H., Bowles S. & Richerson P. J. (2003) The evolution of altruistic punishment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:3531–35.
Boyd R. & Richerson P. J. (1985) Culture and the evolutionary process. University of Chicago Press.
Boyd R. & Richerson P. J. (1992b) Punishment allows the evolution of cooperation (or anything else) in sizable groups. Ethology and Sociobiology 13(3):171–95.
Boyd R. & Richerson P. J. (2002) Group beneficial norms can spread rapidly in a structured population. Journal of Theoretical Biology 215:287–96.
Boyd R. & Richerson P. J. (2009) Voting with your feet: Payoff biased migration and the evolution of group beneficial behavior. Journal of Theoretical Biology 257(2):331–39. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2008.12.007.
Boyd R., Richerson P. J. & Henrich J. (2011) Rapid cultural adaptation can facilitate the evolution of large-scale cooperation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:431–44.
Boyer P. (2001) Religion explained: The evolutionary origins of religious thought. Basic Books.
Brewer M. B. (2007) The importance of being we: Human nature and intergroup relations. American Psychologist 62(8):728–38. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.8.728.
Brown G. & Richerson P. (2014) Applying evolutionary theory to human behaviour: Past differences and current debates. Journal of Bioeconomics 16(2):105–28. doi: 10.1007/s10818-013-9166-4.
Burkart J. M., Hrdy S. B. & Van Schaik C. P. (2009) Cooperative breeding and human cognitive evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology 18:175–86.
Byars S. G., Ewbank D., Govindaraju D. R. & Stearns S. C. (2010) Natural selection in a contemporary human population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 107:1787–92. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0906199106.
Campbell D. T. (1975) On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. American Psychologist 30(12):1103–26.
Carey S. (2009) The origin of concepts. Oxford University Press.
Cavalli-Sforza L. L. & Feldman M. W. (1981) Cultural transmission and evolution: A quantitative approach. Princeton University Press.
Cavalli-Sforza L. L., Menozzi P. & Piazza A. (1994) The history and geography of human genes. Princeton University Press.
Cavalli-Sforza L. L., Piazza A., Menozzi P. & Mountain J. (1988) Reconstruction of human evolution: Bringing together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 85(16):60026006.
Chapais B. (2008) Primeval kinship: How pair-bonding gave birth to human society. Harvard University Press.
Chiao J. Y. & Blizinsky K. D. (2010) Culture–gene coevolution of individualism–collectivism and the serotonin transporter gene. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 277(1681):529–37. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1650.
Choi J.-K. & Bowles S. (2007) The coevolution of parochial altruism and war. Science 318(5850):636–40.
Cochran G. & Harpending H. (2009) The 10,000 year explosion: How civilization accelerated human evolution. Basic Books.
Collard M., Edinborough K., Shennan S. & Thomas M. G. (2010) Radiocarbon evidence indicates that migrants introduced farming to Britain. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(4):866–70. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.11.016.
Cooper R. W. (1999) Coordination games: Complementarities and macroeconomics. Cambridge University Press.
Cosmides L. & Tooby J. (2001) Unravelling the enigma of human intelligence: Evolutionary psychology and the multimodular mind. In: The evolution of intelligence, ed. Sternberg R. J. & Kaufman J. C., pp. 145–99. Erlbaum.
Cronk L. & Leech B. H. (2013) Meeting at Grand Central: Understanding the evolutionary roots of cooperation. Princeton University Press.
Csibra G. & Gergely G. (2011) Natural pedagogy as an evolutionary adaptation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366:1149–57.
Currie T. E., Greenhill S. J., Gray R. D., Hasegawa T. & Mace R. (2010) Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the Pacific. Nature 467(7317):801804.
Currie T. E. & Mace R. (2009) Political complexity predicts the spread of ethnolinguistic groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106(18):7339–44. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0804698106.
Curtin P. D. (1984) Cross-cultural trade in world history. Cambridge University Press.
Darwin C. (1874) The descent of man and selection in relation to sex, 2nd edition. American Home Library.
Dean L. G., Kendal R. L., Schapiro S. J., Thierry B. & Laland K. N. (2012) Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture. Science 335(6072):1114–18. doi: 10.1126/science.1213969.
Delton A. W., Krasnow M. M., Cosmides L. & Tooby J. (2011) Evolution of direct reciprocity under uncertainty can explain human generosity in one-shot encounters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108(32):13335–40. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1102131108.
Derex M., Godelle B. & Raymond M. (2014) How does competition affect the transmission of information? Evolution and Human Behavior 35(2):8995. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.11.001.
Derfus P., Maggitti P., Grimm C. & Smith K. (2008) The Red Queen effect: Competitive actions and firm performance. The Academy of Management Journal 51(1):6180.
Donald M. (1991) Origins of the modern mind: Three stages in the evolution of culture and cognition. Harvard University Press.
Dunham Y., Baron A. S. & Banaji M. R. (2008) The development of implicit intergroup cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12:248–53.
Durham W. H. (1991) Coevolution: Genes, culture, and human diversity. Stanford University Press.
Durkheim E. (1912) The elementary forms of the religious life. Allen & Unwin.
Edgerton R. B. (1971) The individual in cultural adaptation: A study of four East African peoples. University of California Press.
Efferson C., Lalive R. & Fehr E. (2008) The coevolution of cultural groups and ingroup favoritism. Science 321:1844–49.
Eldakar O. T. & Wilson D. S. (2008) Selfishness as second order altruism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105(19):6982–86.
Endler J. A. (1986) Natural selection in the wild. Princeton University Press.
Evans N. & Levinson S. C. (2009) The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32(5):429–92.
Fehr E. & Gächter S. (2002) Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature 415(6868):137–40.
Fehr E. & Henrich J. (2003) Is strong reciprocity a maladaptation? On the evolutionary foundations of human altruism. In: Genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation, ed. Hammerstein P., pp. 5582. MIT Press.
Feldman M. W. & Laland K. N. (1996) Gene-culture coevolutionary theory. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11(11):453–57. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(96)10052-5
Finke R. & Stark R. (1992) The Churching of America, 1776–1990: Winners and losers in our religious economy. Rutgers University Press.
Fukuyama F. (2011) The origins of political order: From prehuman times to the French Revolution. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Gambetta D. (1993) The Sicilian Mafia: The business of private protection. Harvard University Press.
Gardner T. M. (2003) In the trenches at the talent wars: An examination of competitive interaction for human resources in the software industry. CAHRS Working Paper Series. Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations.
Gat A. (2008) War in human civilization. Oxford University Press.
Gervais W. M., Willard A. K., Norenzayan A. & Henrich J. (2011) The cultural transmission of faith: Why innate intuitions are necessary, but insufficient, to explain religious belief. Religion 41(3):389–10. doi: 10.1080/0048721x.2011.604510.
Glantz D. M. & House J. M. (1998) When Titans clashed: How the Red Army stopped Hitler. University Press of Kansas.
Graham J. & Haidt J. (2010) Beyond beliefs: Religions bind individuals into moral communities. Personality and Social Psychology Review 14(1):140–50.
Gray R. D., Drummond A. J. & Greenhill S. J. (2009) Language phylogenies reveal expansion pulses and pauses in Pacific settlement. Science 323(5913):479–83. doi: 10.1126/science.1166858.
Greif A. (2006) Institutions and the path to the modern economy: Lessons from medieval trade. Cambridge University Press.
Guglielmino C. R., Viganotti C., Hewlett B. & Cavalli-Sforza L. L. (1995) Cultural variation in Africa: Role of mechanisms of transmission and adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92(16):7585–89.
Gürerk Ö., Irlenbusch B. & Rockenbach B. (2006) The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions. Science 312(5770):108–11. doi: 10.1126/science.1123633.
Guthrie R. D. (2005) The nature of Paleolithic art. Chicago University Press.
Haak W., Balanovsky O., Sanchez J. J., Koshel S., Zaporozhchenko V., Adler C. J., Der Sarkissian C. S. I., Brandt G., Schwarz C., Nicklisch N., Dresely V., Fritsch B., Balanovska E., Villems R., Meller H., Alt K. W., Cooper A. & the Genographic Consortium (2010) Ancient DNA from European early Neolithic farmers reveals their Near Eastern affinities. PLoS Biology 8(11):e1000536. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536
Hagen E. H. & Hammerstein P. (2006) Game theory and human evolution: A critique of some recent interpretations of experimental games. Theoretical Population Biology 69(3):339–48. doi: 10.1016/j.tpb.2005.09.005.
Hämäläinen P. (2008) The Comanche empire. Yale University Press.
Hamlin J. K., Wynn K., Bloom P. & Mahajan N. (2011) How infants and toddlers react to antisocial others. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108(50):19931–36. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1110306108.
Hannan M. T. & Freeman J. (1993) Organizational ecology: Harvard University Press.
Harris P. L. (2012) Trusting what you're told: How children learn from others. Harvard University Press.
Haslam S. A. (2001) Psychology in organizations: The social identity approach. Sage.
Haunschild P. R. (1993) Interorganizational imitation: The impact of interlocks on corporate acquisition activity. Administrative Science Quarterly 38(4):564–92. doi: 10.2307/2393337
Hayes C. (1951) The ape in our house. Harper.
Henrich J. (2004) Demography and cultural evolution: Why adaptive cultural processes produced maladaptive losses in Tasmania. American Antiquity 69(2):197214.
Henrich J., Bowles S., Boyd R. T., Hopfensitz A., Richerson P. J., Sigmund K., Smith E. A., Weissing F. J. & Young H. P. (2003) Group report: The cultural and genetic evolution of human cooperation. In: Genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation, ed. Hammerstein P., pp. 445–68. MIT Press.
Henrich J., Boyd R., Bowles S., Camerer C., Fehr E. & Gintis H. (2004) Foundations of human sociality: Economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. Oxford University Press.
Henrich J., Boyd R. & Richerson P. J. (2012b) The puzzle of monogamous marriage. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367(1589):657–69. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0290.
Henrich J., Ensminger J., McElreath R., Barr A., Barrett C., Bolyanatz A., Cardenas J. C., Gurven M., Gwako E., Henrich N., Lesorogol C., Marlowe F., Tracer D. P. & Ziker J. (2010a) Markets, religion, community size, and the evolution of fairness and punishment. Science 327(5972):1480–84. doi: 10.1126/science.1182238. Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/327/5972/1480.
Henrich J., McElreath R., Barr A., Ensminger J., Barrett C., Bolyanatz A., Cardenas J. C., Gurven M., Gwako E. L., Henrich N. S., Lesorogol C., Marlowe F., Tracer D. & Ziker J. (2006) Costly punishment across human societies. Science 312(5781):1767–70. doi: 10.1126/science.1127333.
Herrmann B., Thöni C. & Gächter S. (2008) Antisocial punishment across societies. Science 319(5868):1362–67. doi: 10.1126/science.1153808.
Herrmann P. A., Legare C. H., Harris P. L. & Whitehouse H. (2013) Stick to the script: The effect of witnessing multiple actors on children's imitation. Cognition 129(3):536–43. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2013.08.010.
Hill K., Barton M. & Hurtado A. M. (2009) The emergence of human uniqueness: Characters underlying behavioral modernity. Evolutionary Anthropology 18:174–87.
Hill K. R., Walker R. S., Božičević M., Eder J., Headland T., Hewlett B., Hurtado A. M., Marlowe F., Wiessner P. & Wood B. (2011) Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure. Science 331(6022):1286–89.
Hill K. R., Wood B. M., Baggio J., Hurtado A. M. & Boyd R. T. (2014) Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: Implications for cumulative culture. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102806. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102806.
Holden C. J. (2002) Bantu language trees reflect the spread of farming across Sub-Saharan Africa: A maximum-parsimony analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 269(1493):793–99. doi: 10.2307/3067712.
Hout M., Greeley A. M. & Wilde M. J. (2001) The demographic imperative in religious change in the United States. American Journal of Sociology 107(2):468–86.
Hrdy S. B. (2009) Mothers and others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Harvard University Press.
Hugenberg K. & Bodenhausen G. V. (2004) Ambiguity in social categorization: The role of prejudice and facial affect in racial categorization. Psychological Science 15:342–45.
Hurford J. R. (2007) The origins of meaning. Oxford University Press.
Hurford J. R. (2011) The origins of grammar: Language in the light of evolution II. Oxford University Press.
Hwang V. W. & Horowitt G. (2012) The rainforest: The secret to building the next Silicon Valley. Regewald.
Iannaccone L. R. (1992) Sacrifice and stigma: Reducing free-riding in cults, communes, and other collectives. The Journal of Political Economy 100(2):271–91.
Iannaccone L. R. (1994) Why strict churches are strong. American Journal of Sociology 99(5):11801211.
Ibrahim M. (1990) Merchant capital and Islam. University of Texas Press.
Insko C. A., Gilmore R., Drenan S., Lipsitz A., Moehle D. & Thibaut J. (1983) Trade versus expropriation in open groups: A comparison of two type of social power. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44:977–99.
Itan Y., Powell A., Beaumont M. A., Burger J. & Thomas M. G. (2009) The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Computational Biology 5(8):e1000491. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000491.
Jacobs R. C. & Campbell D. T. (1961) The perpetuation of an arbitrary tradition through several generations of laboratory microculture. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 62:649–58.
Johnson D. (2005) God's punishment and public goods. Human Nature 16(4):410–46.
Jorgensen J. G. (1980) Western Indians: Comparative environments, languages, and cultures of 172 Western American Indian tribes. W. H. Freeman.
Keeley L. H. (1997) War before civilization. Oxford University Press.
Kelly R. C. (1985) The Nuer conquest: The structure and development of an expansionist system. University of Michigan Press.
Kempe M. & Mesoudi A. (2014) Experimental and theoretical models of human cultural evolution. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 5(3):317–26. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1288.
Kinzler K. D., Corriveau K. H. & Harris P. L. (2011) Children's selective trust in native-accented speakers. Developmental Science 14:106111.
Kinzler K. D., Shutts K., DeJesus J. & Spelke E. S. (2009) Accent trumps race in guiding children's social preferences. Social Cognition 27(4):623–34. doi: 10.1521/soco.2009.27.4.623
Kirschner S. & Tomasello M. (2010) Joint music making promotes prosocial behavior in 4-year-old children. Evolution and Human Behavior 31(5):354–64. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.04.004.
Klepper S. & Sleeper S. (2005) Entry by spinoffs. Management Science 51(8):12911306.
Kline M. A. (2015) How to learn about teaching: An evolutionary framework for the study of teaching in humans and other animals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38:e31. Available at: dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X14000090
Kohler H.-P., Rogers J. L. & Christensen K. (1999) Is fertility behavior in our genes? Findings from a Danish twin study. Population and Development Review 25:253–88.
Krasnow M. M., Cosmides L., Pedersen E. J. & Tooby J. (2012) What are punishment and reputation for? PLoS ONE 7(9):e45662. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045662.
Kraybill D. B. & Bowman C. F. (2001) On the backroad to heaven: Old Order Hutterites, Mennonites, Amish, and Brethren. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kurzban R. & Houser D. (2005) Experiments investigating cooperative types in humans: A complement to evolutionary theory and simulations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102(5):18031807. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0408759102.
Labov W. (2001) Principles of linguistic change: Social factors, vol. 29. Blackwell.
Lachmann M., Szamado S. & Bergstrom C. T. (2001) Cost and conflict in animal signals and human language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98(23):13189–94.
Laland K. N., Odling-Smee J. & Myles S. (2010) How culture shaped the human genome: Bringing genetics and the human sciences together. Nature Reviews Genetics 11(2):137–48.
Laland K. N., Sterelny K., Odling-Smee J., Hoppitt W. & Uller T. (2011) Cause and effect in biology revisited: Is Mayr's proximate-ultimate dichotomy still useful? Science 334(6062):1512–16. doi: 10.1126/science.1210879.
Lee R. B. (1972) !Kung spatial organization: An ecological and historical perspective. Human Ecology 1(2):125–47. doi: 10.2307/4602251.
Lehmann L., Feldman M. W. & Foster K. (2008) Cultural transmission can inhibit the evolution of altruistic helping. The American Naturalist 172:1224.
Levy G. D., Taylor M. G. & Gelman S. A. (1995) Traditional and evaluative aspects of flexibility in gender roles, social conventions, moral rules, and physical laws. Child Development 66(2):515–31.
Mace R. & Jordan F. M. (2011) Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: A review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366(1563):402–11.
Marean C. W. (2010) Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa) in context: The Cape Floral Kingdom, shellfish, and modern human origins. Journal of Human Evolution 59(3–4):425–43. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.07.011.
Mathew S. & Boyd R. (2011) Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108(28):11375–80. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1105604108.
Mathew S., Boyd R. & Van Veelen M. (2013) Human cooperation among kin and close associates may require enforcement of norms by third parties. In: Cultural evolution, ed. Richerson P. J. & Christiansen M., pp. 4560. MIT Press.
Maynard Smith J. & Szathmáry E. (1995) The major transitions in evolution. W. H. Freeman/Spectrum.
McElreath R., Boyd R. & Richerson P. (2003) Shared norms can lead to the evolution of ethnic markers. Current Anthropology 44(1):123–29.
McGovern T. (2007) Why do successful companies fail? A case study of the decline of Dunlop. Business History 49:886907. doi: 10.1080/00076790701710407.
McKay R. T., Efferson C., Whitehouse H. & Fehr E. (2011) Wrath of God: Religious primes and punishment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278(1713):1858–63. (Epub November 24, 2010). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.2125.
McNeill W. H. (1995) Keeping together in time: Dance and drill in human history. Harvard University Press.
Moffett M. W. (2013) Human identity and the evolution of societies. Human Nature 24(3):219–67. doi: 10.1007/s12110-013-9170-3.
Molleman L., van den Berg P. & Weissing F. J. (2014) Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies. Nature Communications 5:1-9, Article No. 3570. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4570. (Online publication) Available at: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140404/ncomms4570/full/ncomms4570.html.
Motta M. (2004) Competition policy: Theory and practice. Cambridge University Press.
Müller M. (1862) Lectures on the science of language, 3rd edition. Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts.
Murmann J. P. (2003) Knowledge and competitive advantage: The coevolution of firms, technology, and National institutions. Cambridge University Press.
Murphy R. F. & Murphy Y. (1986) Northern Shoshone and Bannock. In: Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, vol. 11, ed. d'Azevedo W. L., pp. 284307. Smithsonian Institution Press.
Nader L. (1969) Law in culture and society. Aldine.
Nelson R. R. & Winter S. G. (1982) An evolutionary theory of economic change. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Nettle D. (1999) Linguistic diversity. Oxford University Press.
Newmeyer F. J. (2004) Against a parameter-setting approach to typological variation. Linguistic Variation Yearbook 4(1):181–34. doi: 10.1075/livy.4.06new.
Newson L. (2013) Cultural evolution and human reproductive behavior. In: Building babies: Primate development in proximate and ultimate perspective, ed. Clancy K. B. H., Hinde K. & Rutherford J. N., pp. 481503. Springer Science.
Nivette A. E. (2011) Cross-national predictors of crime: A meta-analysis. Homicide Studies 15(2):103–31. doi: 10.1177/1088767911406397.
Norenzayan A. & Shariff A. F. (2008) The origin and evolution of religious prosociality. Science 322(5898):5862. doi: 10.1126/science.1158757
North D. C., Wallis J. J. & Weingast B. R. (2009) Violence and social orders: A conceptual framework for interpreting recorded human history. Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom E. (1990) Governing the Commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom E. (2005) Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton University Press.
Paciotti B., Hadley C., Holmes C. & Borgerhoff Mulder M. (2005) Grass-roots justice in Tanzania. American Scientist 93:5865.
Panchanathan K. & Boyd R. (2004) Indirect reciprocity can stabilize cooperation without the second-order free rider problem. Nature 432:499502.
Perreault C. (2012) The pace of cultural evolution. PLoS ONE 7(9):e45150. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045150.
Pinker S. (1994) The language instinct: How the mind creates language. Morrow.
Pinker S. (2010) The cognitive niche: Coevolution of intelligence, sociality, and language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107(Suppl. 2):8993–99. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0914630107.
Pinker S. (2012) The false allure of group selection. An Edge original essay. Available at: http://edge.org/conversation/the-false-allure-of-group-selection.
Pinker S. & Bloom P. (1990) Natural language and natural selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:707–84.
Pritchard J. K., Pickrell J. K. & Coop G. (2010) The genetics of human adaptation: Hard sweeps, soft sweeps, and polygenic adaptation. Current Biology 20(4):R208R215. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.055.
Rappaport R. (1999) Ritual and religion in the making of humanity. Cambridge University Press.
Reiter D. & Stam A. C. (2002) Democracies at war: Princeton University Press.
Richerson P. J. & Boyd R. (1998) The evolution of human ultrasociality. In: Indoctrinability, ideology, and warfare: Evolutionary perspectives, ed. Eibl-Eibesfeldt I. & Salter F. K., pp. 7195. Berghahn Books.
Richerson P. J. & Boyd R. (1999) Complex societies: The evolutionary origins of a crude superorganism. Human Nature 10(3):253–89.
Richerson P. J. & Boyd R. (2010) The Darwinian theory of cultural evolution and gene-culture coevolution. In: Evolution since Darwin: The first 150 years, ed. Bell M. A., Futuyma D. J., Eanes W. F. & Levinton J. S., pp. 561–88. Sinauer.
Richerson P. J., Boyd R. & Henrich J. (2010) Gene-culture coevolution in the age of genomics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107(Suppl. 2):8985–92.
Rogers E. M. & Shoemaker F. F. (1971) Communication of innovations: A cross-cultural approach, 2nd edition. Free Press.
Ross C. T. & Richerson P. J. (2014) New frontiers in the study of cultural and genetic evolution. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 29:103109.
Runciman W. G. (2005) Stone Age sociology. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 11(1):129–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9655.2005.00229.x.
Rushton J. P. (1989) Genetic similarity, human altruism, and group selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12(3):503–18. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00057320.
Sampson G. (2005) The “Language instinct” debate, revised edition. Continuum.
Sato T., Nonaka K., Miura T. & Peter K. (1994) Trends in cohort fertility of the Dariusleut Hutterite population. Human Biology 66(3):421–32.
Schumpeter J. A., Opie R. & Elliott J. E. (1934) The theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. Harvard University Press.
Scott W. R. (2001) Institutions and organizations: Ideas and interests, 2nd edition. Sage.
Shariff A. F., Norenzayan A. & Henrich J. (2009) The birth of high gods: How the cultural evolution of supernatural policing influenced the emergence of complex, cooperative human societies, paving the way for civilization. In: Evolution, culture, and the human brain, ed. Schaller M., Norenzayan A., Heine S. J., Yamagishi T. & Kameda T., pp. 119–36. Taylor and Francis.
Shennan S. (2001) Demography and cultural innovation: A model and its implications for the emergence of human culture. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 11(1):516.
Shutts K., Kinzler K. D., McKee C. B. & Spelke E. S. (2009) Social information guides infants' selection of foods. Journal of Cognition and Development 10(1–2):117.
Sigmund K. (2007) Punish or perish? Retaliation and collaboration among humans. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22(11):593600. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2007.06.012
Simon H. A. (1990) A mechanism for social selection and successful altruism. Science 250(4988):1665–68.
Smith E. A. (2010) Communication and collective action: Language and the evolution of human cooperation. Evolution and Human Behavior 31(4):231–45. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.03.001.
Soltis J., Boyd R. & Richerson P. J. (1995) Can group-functional behaviors evolve by cultural group selection? An empirical test. Current Anthropology 36(3):473–94.
Sosis R. & Bressler E. R. (2003) Cooperation and commune longevity: A test of the costly signaling theory of religion. Cross-Cultural Research 37:211–39.
Sosis R. & Ruffle B. (2003) Religious ritual and cooperation: Testing for a relationship on Israeli religious and secular Kibbutzim. Current Anthropology 44(5):713–22.
Stanford C. B. (1999) The hunting apes: Meat eating and the origins of human behavior. Princeton University Press.
Stark R. (1997) The rise of Christianity: How the obscure, marginal Jesus movement became the dominant religious force in the western world in a few centuries. HarperCollins.
Steffens N. K., Haslam S. A. & Reicher S. D. (2014) Up close and personal: Evidence that shared social identity is a basis for the “special” relationship that binds followers to leaders. The Leadership Quarterly 25(2):296–13. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.08.008
Steward J. H. (1955) Theory of culture change: The methodology of multilinear evolution. University of Illinois Press.
Stoll D. (1990) Is Latin America turning Protestant? The politics of evangelical growth. University of California Press.
Tennie C., Call J. & Tomasello M. (2009) Ratcheting up the ratchet: On the evolution of cumulative culture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364(1528):2405–15. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0052.
Tilly C. (1992) Coercion, capital and European states: Wiley-Blackwell.
Tishkoff S. A., Reed F. A., Ranciaro A., Voight B. F., Babbitt C. C., Silverman J. S., Powell K.,Mortensen H., Hirbo J.B., Osman M., Ibrahim M., Omar S. A., Lema G., Nyambo T. B., Ghori J., Bumpstead S., Pritchard J. K., Wray G. A. & Deloukas P. (2007) Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe. Nature Genetics 39(1):3140.
Tomasello M. (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition. Harvard University Press.
Tomasello M. & Carpenter M. (2007) Shared intentionality. Developmental Science 10(1):121–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00573.x.
Tomasello M., Carpenter M., Call J., Behne T. & Moll H. (2005) Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(5):675–91. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X05000129.
Tomasello M., Melis A. P., Tennie C., Wyman E. & Herrmann E. (2012) Two key steps in the evolution of human cooperation: The interdependence hypothesis. Current Anthropology 53(6):673–92. doi: 10.1086/668207.
Tooby J. (2014) What scientific idea is ready for retirement? Learning and culture. Edge. (Online publication). Available at: http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-idea-is-ready-for-retirement
Tooby J. & Cosmides L. (1989) Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, 1. Theoretical considerations. Ethology and Sociobiology 10(1–3):2949.
Tooby J. & Cosmides L. (1992) The psychological foundations of culture. In: The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, ed. Barkow J., Cosmides L. & Tooby J., pp. 19136. Oxford University Press.
Tostevin G. B. (2013) Seeing lithics: A middle-range theory for testing cultural transmission in the Pleistocene. Harvard University American School of Prehistoric Research and Oxbow Books.
Turchin P. (2003) Historical dynamics. Princeton University Press.
Turchin P. (2006) War and peace and war: The life cycles of imperial nations. Pi Press.
Tuprchin P. (2008) Arise “cliodynamics.Nature 454(7200):3435. doi 10.1038/454034a.
Turchin P. (2009) A theory for the formation of large empires. Journal of Global History 4:191217.
Turchin P. & Nefedov S. A. (2009) Secular cycles. Princeton University Press.
Turchin P., Whitehouse H., Francois P., Slingerland E. & Collard M. (2012) A historical database of sociocultural evolution. Cliodynamics: The Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History 3(2):271–93.
Veblen T. (1898) Why is economics not an evolutionary science? The Quarterly Journal of Economics 12(4):373–97.
Walker R. S., Wichmann S., Mailund T. & Atkisson C. J. (2012) Cultural phylogenetics of the Tupi language family in lowland South America. PLoS ONE 7(4):e35025. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035025.
Warneken F. & Tomasello M. (2009) Varieties of altruism in children and chimpanzees. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13(9):397402.
Washburn S. L. (1959) Speculations on the interrelations of the history of tools and biological evolution. Human Biology 31(1):2131.
West R. (1941) Black lamb and grey falcon. Penguin.
West S. A., El Mouden C. & Gardner A. (2011) Sixteen common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior 32(4):231–62. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.08.001.
West S. A., Griffin A. S. & Gardner A. (2007) Social semantics: Altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20(2):415–32. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2006.01258.x.
Whitehouse H. (2002) Modes of religiosity: Towards a cognitive explanation of the sociopolitical dynamics of religion. Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 14(3/4):293315.
Whiten A., McGuigan N., Marshall-Pescini S. & Hopper L. M. (2009) Emulation, imitation, over-imitation and the scope of culture for child and chimpanzee. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 364:2417–28.
Wierzbicka A. (1992) Semantics, culture, and cognition: Human concepts in culture-specific configurations. Oxford University Press.
Wilson D. S. (2002) Darwin's cathedral: Evolution, religion, and the nature of society. University of Chicago Press.
Wilson D. S. & Kniffin K. M. (1999) Multilevel selection and the social transmission of behavior. Human Nature 10(3):291310.
Wilson E. O. (2012) The social conquest of earth. W. W. Norton.
Wolfe N. D., Dunavan C. P. & Diamond J. (2007) Origins of major human infectious diseases. Nature 447(7142):279–83.
Wrangham R. (2009) Catching fire: How cooking made us human. Basic Books.
Zefferman M. R. (2014a) Direct reciprocity under uncertainty does not explain one-shot cooperation, but demonstrates the benefits of a norm psychology. Evolution and Human Behavior 35:358–67. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.04.003.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Richerson supplementary material
Table

 Word (37 KB)
37 KB
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Richerson Supplementary Material
Supplementary Information A

 Word (37 KB)
37 KB
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Richerson supplementary material
Table

 Word (37 KB)
37 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 70
Total number of PDF views: 718 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1671 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.