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From gene activity to behavior (and back again)

  • Robert Lickliter (a1)


Documenting the bidirectional traffic from gene action to the external environment and its effects on behavior remains a major conceptual, empirical, and analytical challenge for developmental science. Charney has provided an instructive snapshot of where we are in meeting this challenge and, in so doing, exposes the considerable shortcomings of the traditional genomic model employed by behavior genetics.



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Gottlieb, G. (1995) Some conceptual deficiencies in “developmental” behavior genetics. Human Development 38:131–41.
Gottlieb, G. (2003) On making behavioral genetics truly developmental. Human Development 46:337–55.
Gottlieb, G. (2007) Probabilistic epigenesis. Developmental Science 10:111.
Johnston, T. D. & Edwards, L. (2002) Genes, interactions, and the development of behavior. Psychological Review 109:2634.
Lickliter, R. (2009) The fallacy of partitioning: Epigenetics' validation of the organism-environment system. Ecological Psychology 21:138–46.

From gene activity to behavior (and back again)

  • Robert Lickliter (a1)


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