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More examples of chimpanzees teaching

  • Matthew H. Scheel (a1), Heidi L. Shaw (a2) and R. Allen Gardner (a3)


Darwinism is a principle of biological continuity. This commentary argues against any claim of discontinuity between humans and other animals that must be based on absence of evidence. Instead, we offer additional examples of active teaching by chimpanzees.



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Boesch, C. (1991) Teaching among wild chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 41(3):530–32.
Edman, I. (1920) Human traits and their social significance. The Riverside Press.
Fouts, R. S., Hirsch, A. D. & Fouts, D. H. (1982) Cultural transmission of a human language in a chimpanzee mother-infant relationship. In: Child nurturance: Vol. 3. Studies of development in nonhuman primates, ed. Fitzgerald, E., Mullins, J. & Gage, P., pp. 159–93. Plenum Press.
Gardner, R. A. & Gardner, B. T. (1969) Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science 165(3894):664–72.
Grzimek, B., ed. (1977) Grzimek's encyclopedia of ethology. Van Nostrand Reinhold.
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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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