Skip to main content Accessibility help

Reply to reviewers: Reuse, embodied interactivity, and the emerging paradigm shift in the human neurosciences

  • Michael L. Anderson (a1)


In this reply to reviewers, I argue that, although reforming the taxonomy of psychology will lead to great insights in the cognitive sciences, it will not result in 1:1 structure-function mappings in the brain; we should expect to see a great deal of irreducible functional diversity in the brain at multiple spatial scales. I further clarify both the promise and the limitations of the analytic techniques for capturing functional diversity and interrogating the taxonomy of psychology; describe the ways in which neural reuse can help us understand human development; further explore the ways in which my proposals for integrating psychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology differ from the approach exemplified by contemporary evolutionary psychology; and lay out some new and hopefully interesting avenues for future research.



Hide All
Anderson, M. L. (2010) Neural reuse: A fundamental organizational principle of the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33(4):245–66. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X10000853.
Anderson, M. L. (2014) After phrenology: Neural reuse and the interactive brain. MIT Press.
Anderson, M. L. (2015) Beyond componential constitution in the brain: Starburst amacrine cells and enabling constraints. In: Open MIND, ed. Metzinger, T. K. & Windt, J. M.. MIND Group. doi: 10.15502/9783958570429.
Anderson, M. L. & Chemero, T. (2013) The problem with brain GUTs: Conflation of different senses of “prediction” threatens metaphysical disaster. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(3):204205.
Atmaca, S., Sebanz, N., Prinz, W. & Knoblich, G. (2008) Action co-representation: The joint SNARC effect. Social Neuroscience 3(3–4):410–20.
Barrett, L. F. & Bar, M. (2009) See it with feeling: Affective predictions during object perception. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 364(1521):1325–34.
Cisek, P. (2007) Cortical mechanisms of action selection: The affordance competition hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 362(1485):1585–99.
Cisek, P. & Kalaska, J. F. (2010) Neural mechanisms for interacting with a world full of action choices. Annual Review of Neuroscience 33:269–98.
Clark, A. (2013b) Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(3):181204. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X12000477.
Gallagher, S. & Bower, M. (2014) Making enactivism even more embodied. AVANT. Pismo Awangardy Filozoficzno-Naukowej 2:232–47.
Gładziejewski, P. (2016) Predictive coding and representationalism. Synthese 193(2):559–82. doi: 10.1007/s11229-015-0762-9.
Glenberg, A. M. & Kaschak, M. P. (2002) Grounding language in action. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 9(3):558–65.
Hohwy, J. (2013) The predictive mind. Oxford University Press.
Kaschak, M. P. & Glenberg, A. M. (2000) Constructing meaning: The role of affordances and grammatical constructions in sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language 43(3):508–29.
Marsh, K. L., Richardson, M. J. & Schmidt, R. C. (2009) Social connection through joint action and interpersonal coordination. Topics in Cognitive Science 1(2):320–39.
Penner-Wilger, M. & Anderson, M. L. (2013) The relation between finger gnosis and mathematical ability: Why redeployment of neural circuits best explains the finding. Frontiers in Psychology 4. Available at:
Richardson, D. C. & Dale, R. (2005) Looking to understand: The coupling between speakers' and listeners' eye movements and its relationship to discourse comprehension. Cognitive Science 29(6):1045–60.
Richardson, M. J., Marsh, K. L. & Baron, R. M. (2007) Judging and actualizing intrapersonal and interpersonal affordances. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 33(4):845.
Sebanz, N., Bekkering, H. & Knoblich, G. (2006) Joint action: Bodies and minds moving together. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10(2):7076.
Seth, A. K. (2015) The cybernetic Bayesian brain – From interoceptive inference to sensorimotor contingencies. In: Open MIND: 35(T), ed. Metzinger, T. & Windt, J. M.. MIND Group. doi: 10.15502/9783958570108.
Snow, J. C., Pettypiece, C. E., McAdam, T. D., McLean, A. D., Stroman, P. W., Goodale, M. A. & Culham, J. C. (2011) Bringing the real world into the fMRI scanner: Repetition effects for pictures versus real objects. Scientific Reports 1:130. doi: 10.1038/srep00130.
Sporns, O. (2011) Networks of the brain. MIT Press.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed