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Instructions for contributors

WEED TECHNOLOGY

Scope of Journal
Weed Technology is an online peer-reviewed journal. Articles will be considered that address the management of weeds in agricultural, forestry, aquatic, turf, recreational, rights-of-way, and other settings; design, efficacy, and impact of weed control tools; technology for integrated weed management; scholarship in education, extension, and outreach methods and resources; technology and product reports; and regulatory affairs. Consult the Editor for additional information. 

Types of Articles
Manuscripts must contain original material constituting logical units of subject matter and must contribute to the advancement of knowledge. Acceptance is made with the understanding that the substance of the manuscript has not been and will not be published elsewhere other than as an abstract, a thesis or dissertation, or as a preliminary report to growers or cooperators. Experimental results should be confirmed by appropriate replication in time or space. Progress reports, nonreplicated experiments, and simple observational information are not acceptable. Visual estimates of percentage weed control and of crop injury are acceptable when supported by objective measurements of response.

  1. a. Research and Education. Original articles describing research, teaching, extension, industry, consulting, regulation, surveys, and equipment are encouraged. Research articles and nontraditional reports such as surveys and new educational programs from extension and teaching are welcomed.
  2. b. Notes. Notes are short original articles on topics that do not meet the criteria for Research or Education papers, such as descriptions of newly discovered weeds, new research methods or equipment, and some surveys. Articles determined by the Editor to be limited in content and scope, but that make unique contributions, may also be published as Notes rather than full papers.
  3. c. Invited Reviews. Weed Technology also welcomes review articles that synthesize current information and appeal to a broad audience. Authors should contact the Editor to discuss the proposed article. Once received by the journal Editor, the article will be reviewed and edited as a regular submission.
  4. d. Symposium Papers. Proceedings of WSSA and other symposia may be published in Weed Technology, normally within one year of the symposium. Symposium authors must submit their manuscripts promptly for review so papers are published by a predetermined date. An associate editor will be assigned to work with the authors on paper submittal.

Authorship
All individuals listed as author or co-authors must meet the following criteria:

  1. 1. They made substantial contributions to the conception and design of experiments; acquisition of data, and/or analysis and interpretation of the data.
  2. 2. They drafted the article and/or revised it critically for important intellectual content.
  3. 3. They approved the final version of the article to be published.

Contributions by individuals who do not meet all the above criteria for authorship should be recognized in the Acknowledgments section. The corresponding author must confirm that the author list is complete, that all co-authors have agreed to be included in the author list, and that all co-authors have read and agreed to submit the manuscript. 

Publication Charges
Authors are asked to pay a portion of publication costs. These costs for Weed Technology are currently $80 for the first composed page and $65 per additional page, plus an additional processing charge of $55 per manuscript if none of the authors are WSSA members. Exceptions can be made by the Editor but must be requested when the manuscript is first submitted. There is no additional charge for publishing color figures or images included in the manuscript.

Open Access
Charges to make articles open access are $2,000 for authors who are members of the Weed Science Society of America and $2,500 for non-members.  Open Access Weed Technology journal articles are made freely available in perpetuity on Cambridge Core (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/weed-technology)and on BioOne (www.bioone.org). Authors who opt for open access do not pay regular page charges. 

Manuscript SubmissionWeed Technology should be uploaded at http://www.editorialmanager.com/wt/. Acceptable text file formats are Microsoft Word, Rich Text Format (RTF), and Text. Figures (including photographs) must be submitted as separate files from the text/tables.

For information on formatting figures and other image files for submission, see https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/authors/journals/journals-artwork-guide.

Manuscript Review
All manuscripts submitted to Weed Technology are screened for plagiarized content using iThenticate software and are reviewed for suitability by the journal Editor before being assigned to an Associate Editor. The Associate Editor coordinates review of the manuscript for content and presentation by two or more anonymous reviewers, and communicates with the corresponding author concerning manuscript revisions. Final acceptance or rejection is the prerogative of the Editor.

Manuscript Style
For a detailed guide, see Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 8th ed., Council of Science Editors (2014) http://www.scientificstyleandformat.org.
See also published articles in recent issues of Weed Technology as guides to proper style.

Manuscript Format
Double-space everything, including pages with tables, figure legends, footnotes, and literature citations. Include line numbers in your manuscript: lines should be numbered consecutively throughout the entire document. Indent paragraphs.

Manuscript Sections and Headings
Place each main section heading centered on its own line in bold and capitalize the first letter of all major words. Main section headings will generally be: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Acknowledgments, and References. Omit a summary or conclusion section. Center each main section head two double-spaced lines below the previous section unless otherwise indicated below; use boldface type and capitalize the first letter of major words. Text begins one double-spaced line below each heading.

Begin subsection headings at the left-hand margin: do not indent subheadings or sub-subheadings. Capitalize the first word and each major word following, type in boldface, and end with a period. Begin the first sentence on the same line. If sub-subsection headings are used, begin at the left-hand margin, capitalize the first word and all major words, italicize, and end with a period. Begin the first sentence on the same line. Use fourth-level headings (level following sub-subheadings) sparingly. If used, paragraph indent, capitalize only the first word (and proper nouns that are normally capitalized), italicize, and end with a period. Begin the first sentence on the same line. Avoid use of nonspecific headings such as General, Field, Greenhouse, etc.

Manuscript Order
Manuscripts should be in the following order: for running footer, Title (no separate title page), Author(s), Abstract, Nomenclature, Key Words, Introduction (begin on a new page), Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Acknowledgments, References (begin on a new page), Tables (begin on a new page), and Figure Legends (begin on a new page). Figures, including photos, should each be a separate file, and not included with the text.

Title
The title page includes a short title for the running footer that is not to exceed 30 characters and spaces. The full title, centered and typed in bold with the first letter of all major words capitalized, should be no more than 200 characters and spaces and should include words useful in computer searches. Use the WSSA-approved common name for weeds followed by the scientific name (without authority) in parentheses. If there is no WSSA-approved common name, use only the scientific name. Use only the common name of crops. Use only common name or code numbers of herbicides.

Authors
Place the names of the authors with first initials only capitalized, and with “and” before the last author centered two lines below the title. Provide the full name of each author (first, middle initial [optional], and last) and include a numbered superscript for each author. In the footnote, give the affiliation(s) of the authors and full institutional job titles at the time the study was conducted, followed by the institutional address(es). Spell out names of institutions in full. Inclusion of current addresses (if different) is optional, and they should be listed at the end. Addresses of U.S. authors should include the two-letter postal abbreviation for the state and the ZIP code. E-mail and full mailing address of the corresponding author should be included. ORCID numbers are encouraged (https://orcid.org) and can be included parenthetically after the job title. 

  1. An example of an author listing and address footnote follows:
  2. Vipan Kumar,1 Joel Felix,2 Don Morishita,3 and Prashant Jha4

1Postdoctoral Research Associate, Montana State University, Southern Agricultural Research Center, Huntley, MT, USA; 2Associate Professor, Oregon State University, Malheur Agricultural Experiment Station, Ontario, OR, USA; 3Professor, University of Idaho, Kimberly Research and Extension Center, Kimberly, ID, USA; and 4Associate Professor, Montana State University, Southern Agricultural Research Center, Huntley, MT, USA.

Author for correspondence: Prashant Jha, Associate Professor, Montana State University, Southern Agricultural Research Center, 748 Railroad Highway, Huntley, MT 59037. (E-mail: pjha@montana.edu) 

Abstract
Place the abstract on the same page as the title and authors. The text of the abstract should not exceed 300 words. It must be written as a single paragraph and should provide an objective and informative digest of the significant content of the paper, not simply a description of the contents. Representative quantitative data from the results often make the abstract more informative. Use only common names in the body of the abstract for herbicides, plants, animals, and microorganisms. Do not include tables, graphs, long lists of names, references to literature, or footnotes. At the first mention of the herbicide rate, express the rate either on the acid equivalent (ae) basis or active ingredient (ai) basis. Omit trade names for herbicides, other pesticides, and surfactants or other adjuvants in the abstract.

Nomenclature
Immediately after the abstract, type “Nomenclature” followed by a colon and use boldface type. Then repeat each common name appearing in the title and abstract. Only include weeds and crops in the Nomenclature that are mentioned in the Abstract. For herbicides, use ISO-approved common names or other designations. Give full chemical names for herbicides, other pesticides, or safeners that have no ISO-approved common names. For plants use the common name followed by the Latin binomial and classifier; Bayer codes may be included for weeds, but are not required. For other organisms, use the common name followed by the binomial and the authority. The preferred order is herbicides, weeds, and crops, alphabetized within each group.

Example: Nomenclature: Glyphosate; 2,4-D; cheat, Bromus secalinus L. BROSE; wild oat, Avena fatua L. AVEFA; corn, Zea mays L. Note the use of commas and semicolons. A database of WSSA approved common and Latin names of common weed species, including Bayer codes, can be found at http://wssa.net/weed/composite-list-of-weeds/. A list of ISO-approved common and chemical names of herbicides is available at the Compendium of   Common Pesticide Names:(http://www.alanwood.net/pesticides/index.html).

Key Words
Immediately after the nomenclature, type the phrase “Key words” at the left margin. Use boldface type, followed by a colon. List words, word pairs, or phrases (usually not more than five words) not included in the title or nomenclature that further describe the content of the manuscript. List only specific words or phrases that will be useful in indexes and literature database searches. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of this list, except for proper names. Place a comma after each word or phrase and a period after the last word.

Introduction
Begin the introduction on a new page.

Materials and Method
Sources of the material should be shown in parentheses following the first mention. Provide a brief description of the item, model number (if applicable), and the source. The company’s address (full mailing address or just city and state/country) may also be included, although it is not required. For example: “During a single year, large plots were treated with glyphosate (Roundup WeatherMax®, 540 g ai L-1, Monsanto Canada, 900 One Research Road, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, R3T 6E3).” Commercially available software packages (e.g., SAS/STAT) should be cited in this way and not in the references. Freely available software described in the peer-reviewed literature (e.g., R) should be referenced by citing the relevant article in the text and in the references section.

In cases where five or more herbicides are mentioned, they should be listed in a table providing the following details: herbicide common and trade names; herbicide formulation (if necessary); herbicide rate(s) in active ingredient or acid equivalent; name of respective herbicide manufacturer; and herbicide manufacturer city, state, and website. Long herbicide treatment lists in the text are discouraged; herbicide treatments and rates will be easily discerned in the table. Use one sentence in the Materials and Methods and/or other appropriate locations within the manuscript to refer readers to the table. Likewise, when it is necessary to describe more than one experiment with five or more herbicides, the information can be listed in the same table or in an additional table.

Authors are encouraged to include latitude and longitude coordinates for field locations. After each location name they should specify the coordinates in parentheses: e.g., “Vegetable Crop Research Farm in Champaign, Illinois (40.08°N, 88.26°W).”

Results and Discussion
These are combined as one section. A separate concluding section is not required, but authors may wish to conclude the Results and Discussion section with an untitled summary.

Acknowledgements
WSSA requires that authors disclose sources of all funding received to support the research described in the manuscript. Funding sources should be appropriately described and recognized in the Acknowledgements section, accompanied by declaration of any potential conflicts of interest. If no conflicts of interest are noted, then the following statement should be included: “No conflicts of interest have been declared.” Where no specific funding has been provided for research, please provide the following statement: "This research received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors." Acknowledgement of individuals who contributed to the research, but who do not meet the criteria for authorship listed above in the Authorship section, is at the discretion of the authors. Consult a recent issue of Weed Technology for examples.

References
Beginning on a separate page, type “References” in bold, centered. Begin the first entry two lines below the heading. The first line of each entry should be flush left; subsequent lines should be paragraph indented. Double-space the entire section (with no extra spaces between entries). List citations alphabetically by author. Each citation should include the names of all authors, year of publication, complete title, publication, volume number, and inclusive pages, in that sequence. Journal names should be abbreviated as shown in the most recent issue of BIOSIS Serial Sources, published by Biological Abstracts, Inc., and recent issues of Weed Technology. Initials should follow the last name of each author, with no comma after the last name and no periods or spaces between initials. For references to a specific portion of a book or similar publication, cite those pages rather than the total pages of the book. See example below.

Unpublished texts are not permitted in the References section. Please cite submitted or unpublished articles parenthetically in the text as personal communications: e.g., (KM Novosel, personal communication). Theses and dissertations may appear in References. Do not cite or footnote abstracts more than 3 years old unless the information contained is of vital importance and has not been reported elsewhere.

Citation examples:

Journal:
Pline WA, Wilcut JW, Duke SO, Edmisten KL, Wells RFP (2007) Tolerance and accumulation of shikimic acid in response to glyphosate applications in glyphosate-resistant and nonglyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). J Agric Food Chem 50:506–512

Wardell DA, Parkinson D (1990) Influence of the herbicide glyphosate on soil microbial community structure. Plant Soil 21:187–204

Citation of material published online, including articles published online but not yet assigned to a journal issue, should include the DOI (digital object identifier). Citations from online journals should also include volume and page numbers if available. Example: Clouse JW, Adhikary D, Page JT, Ramaraj T, Deyholos MK, Udall JA, Fairbanks DJ, Jellen EN, Maughan PJ (2016) The amaranth genome: genome, transcriptome, and physical map assembly. Plant Genome 9, 10.3835/plantgenome2015.07.0062.

Book:
Ahrens WH, ed (1994) Herbicide Handbook. 7th ed. Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America. Pp 224–226

Kyle DJ, Osmond CB, Arntzen CJ, eds (1987) Photoinhibition. 4th edn, Volume 2. New York: Elsevier. 315 p

Wiese AF, Kyle, DJ (1985) Weed Control in Limited Tillage Systems. 2nd edn. Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America. Pp 78–96

Article in book:
Baver LD, Gardner WH (1972) Flow in stratified soil systems. Pages 343–345 in Baver LD, ed. Soil Physics. New York: Academic Press

Frankland B (1981) Germination in shade. Pages 187–204 in Smith HL,Taylor GHM, eds. Plants and the Daylight Spectrum. London: Academic Press

Proceedings:
Forcella F, Buhler DD (1994) Dynamic environmental regulation of secondary dormancy in summer annual weeds. Pages 3–7 in Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Plant Dormancy. Corvallis, OR: Weed Science Society of America

Report or government publication:
Taylor AG (1992) Pre-compliance Date Testing for Pesticides in Illinois' Surface Water Supplies. Springfield, IL: State of Illinois Environmental Protection Agency Rep 026. 6 p

[USDA] US Department of Agriculture (1994) Kentucky Agricultural Statistics 1993– 1994. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, p 101

Anonymous (1995) 1994–1995 Nebraska Agricultural Statistics. Nebraska Agricultural Statistics Service. 164 p

Thesis or dissertation:
Nieto-Hatem J (1963) Seed Dormancy in Setaria lutescens. Ph.D dissertation. Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 81 p

Patent:
Harred JF, inventor; Dow Chemical Company, assignee (1972) April 4. Epoxidation process. US patent 3,654,317

Package labels and inserts:
Anonymous (1996) Assure® II herbicide product label. DuPont Publication No. H-59334. Wilmington, DE: DuPont. 9 p

Website:
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (1999) Market and Industry Services Branch, Horticulture and Special Crops Division. http://www.Agr.ca/misb/spcrops/bean_e.html. Accessed: January 29, 2001

Anonymous (2001) Project Summary Comparative Genomics of Domestication Traits in Lettuce and Sunflower. http://veghome.ucdavis.edu/faculty/michelmore/projectsummary.htm. Accessed August 23, 2001

In-Text Citations. Literature citations in the text should use the author and year system. Literature citations should be enclosed in parentheses. Authors are directed to consult the CSE Manual. A brief summary of the citation method is shown below. Entries are in alphabetical, then chronological order.

One author: Jones (1995) or (Jones 1995)

Two authors: James and Smith (1994) or (James and Smith 1994)

Three or more authors: Jones et al. (1994) or (Jones et al. 1994)

Two or more citations: James and Smith (1994), Jones (1995) or  (James and Smith 1994; Jones 1995)

Multiple citations by one author: Jones (1989, 1994a, 1994b) or (Jones 1989, 1994a, 1994b)

Multiple citations by different authors: (James and Smith 1989; Jones et al. 1993; Smith 1991)

No comma is required to separate name and year, but multiple citations by the same author should be separated by commas as shown above. Multiple citations by different authors are separated by a semicolon. When referring to the authors of a paper with more than two authors, use the first author’s name, followed by et al. Unpublished data and personal communications are cited parenthetically in the text using this form: (JTC Renner, unpublished data) and (KM Novosel, personal communication). All citations must be listed in the References (except unpublished data and personal communications), and all listed references must be cited. 

Tables
Type each table on a separate page following the References section. First reference to tables included primarily to present results should be in the Results and Discussion section, and tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals in the sequence of first reference in the text. Begin at the left margin with the word “Table” and its associated number followed by a period. Begin the title on the same line.  Use the full scientific name (without authority) for weeds and other non-crop species in the table title. Do not indent after the first line, double-space everything, and leave a space between values and letters used to indicate significant differences. Redefine all abbreviations used in the table, even if the definition has already been given in the text. All text within each table should be in lowercase letters, except for the first word of a phrase or sentence, proper nouns that should have initial capitals, and Bayer codes. Column headings should relate to data or information in the body of the table, not just to other information in column headings, as in this example (note separation of thousands by a comma):


Avoid the use of exponents in column headings. If a weed name must be abbreviated in column headings, use only the Bayer code. When reporting data for a number of years or locations, group the data in adjacent columns under each factor measured. This facilitates comparison for repeatability of responses. The unit of measurement for a column of figures should be abbreviated and placed at the top of the column. Do not place the unit of measurement in parentheses. Footnotes to tables should be designated with superscript lowercase letters at the highest appropriate level within the table, except probability values, which should use asterisks. For sample layouts, see published tables in a recent issue of Weed Technology.

Figures
Experimental data may be presented in graphic or tabular form, but the same data will not be published in both forms. Data points should be included with plotted curves. Equations must be given with predicted curves or in figure legends. Legends for the axes of graphs must follow the “Parameter (unit)” format; e.g., Time (h). Capitalize only the first word of each axis label. If an explanation of symbols is required, include the key in the figure. Scale bars included in photomicrographs should be placed directly on the image.

Number all figures, including photographs, consecutively with arabic numerals in the sequence of first reference in the text. Figures should be cited in the text as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. Type the list of figure legends on a separate page. Begin the legend at the left margin, type the word “Figure” and its number, and place a period after it. Begin the first sentence on the same line. Do not indent after the first line. Double-space everything. Do not give the scientific name of a weed or crop if it has already been given in the text. Redefine all abbreviations used in the figure even if the definition has already been given in the text.

For details of image formatting and acceptable file types, see https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/authors/journals/journals-artwork-guide.

Supplementary Material. Additional material too extensive for publication in a journal issue can be submitted as supplementary material to be available online. This material may include (but is not limited to) data, tables, figures, appendices, video, or program code. Supplemental files can be uploaded in Editorial Manager along with the manuscript and should be no larger than 5 megabytes in order to assure accessibility to readers.

Detailed Instructions

Abbreviations. Acceptable abbreviations for frequently used terms or phrases that need not be defined: 

A

absorbance

ae

acid equivalent

ai

active ingredient

ANOVA

analysis of variance

Bq

Bequerel

C

Celsius

CEC

cation exchange capacity

cm

centimeter

d

day

diam

diameter

dicot

dicotyledon

DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid

g

gram

g (italics)

acceleration due to gravity

h

hour

ha

hectare

ht

height

kg

kilogram

km

kilometer

kPa

kilopascal

L

liter

LD50

dose lethal to 50% of test organisms

LSD

least significant difference

m

meter

M

molar

min

minute

ml

milliliter

mm

millimeter

mM

millimolar

mmol

millimole

mo

month

mol

mole

monocot

monocotyledon

N

normal

nm

nanometer

NS

not significant

Pa

pascal

POST

postemergence

PPI

preplant incorporated

ppmv

parts per million by volume

ppmw

parts per million by weight

PRE

preemergence

rpm

revolutions per minute

RNA

ribonucleic acid

s

second

SD

standard deviation

SE

standard error

SNP

single nucleotide polymorphism

µl

microliter

µM

micromolar

µmol

micromole

UV

ultraviolet

vol

volume

wk

week

wt

weight

yr

year

Other abbreviations should be introduced in parentheses immediately after the first use of the term: e.g., days after treatment (DAT), thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Avoid excessive use of acronyms.

Adjuvant Names. Consult Young B, F Whitford and J Matthews (2016) Compendium of Herbicide Adjuvants, 13th ed. (available at https://edustore.purdue.edu) for correct terminology.  Otherwise, use the most complete chemical description of the adjuvant. 

Enzymes. Use the nomenclature and numbering system recommended by the Committee on Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes of the International Union of Biochemistry (http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/). 

Equations. Center display equations on a separate line, number sequentially starting with 1, and place the number in square brackets at the right-hand margin. Example:

Y= mx + b[1]

Equations must be included in figures with predicted curves or put in the figure legend. Refer to equations in the text, tables, or figures by number: Equation 1 or (Equation 1).

Herbicide and other Pesticide Names. At the first mention in the text of a herbicide or other pesticide, give its common name or other designation. A list of ISO-approved common and chemical names of herbicides is available at the Compendium of Common Pesticide Names (http://www.alanwood.net/pesticides/index.html). The full chemical name is required for any herbicide, other pesticide, growth regulator, or safener that does not have an ISO-approved common name. A chemical referred to by a code designation must be followed by its full chemical name enclosed by parentheses, brackets, or braces, unless already included in “Nomenclature.” Use only the common name or other designation thereafter. Do not repeat in the text chemical names that have been given in “Nomenclature.” If the particular commercial formulation of a herbicide used affects results, identify the formulation in parentheses.

When the common name of the herbicide refers to the parent acid, the salt or ester portion of the active ingredient should be identified at first mention. Example: the methyl ester of diclofop or the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate. Use the approved common name in the remainder of the paper unless there is a need to distinguish between the active ingredient and the parent acid in the text. In such cases, a modifier can be added to the common name (e.g., 2,4-D-amine), and can be used in the text to identify the active ingredient. Recent issues of Weed Technology can be used to determine appropriate modifiers. When rates of acid herbicides are expressed as weight per volume or weight per area, indicate at first mention whether weight refers to the acid equivalent (ae) or the active ingredient (ai), (kg ae ha-1 or kg ai ha-1).

Measurements and Units. Use exponents rather than a slash (/) or dot (·) in reporting units of measure. e.g., kg ha-1 and µmol m–2 s-1, not kg/ha or µmol · m–2 · s -1. Report all measurements in SI units or SI-derived units (see CSE Manual). Do not use quintals or metric tons. Describe lighting conditions as irradiance (W m-2) of photosynthetically active radiation or as photosynthetic photon flux density (µmol m–2 s-1). Leave a space between units in a series. Use nanometers (nm) to designate wavelength, and give spectrophotometric readings in absorbance units (A) rather than optical density (OD). In laboratory studies, express concentration of acids and bases in normality (N) and of herbicide and salt solutions in molarity (M) rather than ppm. Express pressure in kPa (kilopascals) rather than kg cm-2 or bars. Express radioactivity in Bq (Bequerels). Use kg rather than Mg (megagrams). Use L or ml rather than cc for measurements of volume. Express the makeup of solid systems as in the following: sand and peat (1:1 by wt). Words are preferred when units of measure are not involved; e.g., use buds per rhizome and tillers per plant. In field or laboratory studies, indicate whether ppm and percentages are on a w/w or v/v basis. Do not use w/v as a ratio. Use only the weight/volume units; e.g., 100 g L-1, rather than 1:9 (w/v). Express the makeup of solvent systems as follows: methyl alcohol, water, and kerosene (1:2:1 by vol).

Numbers. Use Arabic numerals for all numbers with two or more digits and for all measurements such as time, weight, length, area, quantity, concentration, or temperature, with the following exceptions. Spell out a number if it is the first word in a sentence or if it is less than 10 and not a measurement, except in a series in which one number has two or more digits. Do not use a hyphen for the preposition “to” or × for the preposition “by,” except in tables and figures. Write 100 by 20 rather than 100×20 and 1 to 3 rather than 1–3. Separate thousands with a comma (1,000, 10,000, 100,000). Omit nonsignificant numbers. Herbicide dosages and injury levels usually are not known more accurately than to the nearest 10%. Yields, enzyme levels, and photosynthetic rates often are not known more accurately than to the nearest 1% (10% of LSD or a similar statistic). Therefore, report a herbicide rate as 0.9 kg ha-1 rather than 0.89 kg ha-1 and a grain yield as 590 kg ha-1) 593 kg ha-1.

Plant and Animal Names. At the first mention in the text of a plant or animal that is not included in the nomenclature, give its common name followed by the approved scientific name enclosed in parentheses or in brackets when parentheses occur within the binomial. Give the genus, species, and author or authors for the binomial. Underline or italicize the genus and species. Enclose the cultivated variety of a crop plant, if known, in single quotation marks at first mention; thereafter, omit the quotation marks. Example: Corn (Zea mays L. ‘Dixie 18'), but later Dixie 18 corn or just corn if only one cultivated variety is used. Do not repeat scientific names in the text that have been given in Nomenclature. For cultivar names that are registered trade names, insert the registered trademark (®) after the name. Refer to http://wssa.net/weed/composite-list-of-weeds/for approved scientific names, common names, and Bayer codes of weeds. Bayer codes are optional and should be used only for plant species included in the study; do not use Bayer codes for weeds mentioned only in literature citations. After the first mention, use only common names. Describe animals and microorganisms in the same way at first mention. For the scientific and common names of crops, refer to Important Crops of the World and their Weeds, 2nd ed., 1992 (Business Group, Crop Prot. Bayer AG, Germany), or Standardized Plant Names, 2nd Edition, prepared for the Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature and the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants whenever a more recent, authoritative taxonomic reference is not available.

Soil Terminology. Include the soil series with textural classification and the subgroup name, using the terminology of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Services publication, Soil Taxonomy, 1988 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.). For soils outside the United States, use the local official terminology.

Statistical Analyses. Experimental results should be confirmed by appropriate replication in time or space. Progress reports, nonreplicated experiments, and simple observational information are not acceptable. Data should be analyzed statistically, and results of the analyses should be included in the tables or figures where the data are presented. Authors are encouraged to refer to Onofri et al. (2010) Current statistical issues in Weed Research. Weed Res 50:5−24; and to Ritz et al. (2015) Research methods in weed science: statistics. Weed Sci 63(sp1):166−187.

All estimated values (e.g., model parameters, means, differences) should be presented together with an appropriate measure of variability in text, tables, and graphs. Multiple comparison tests (LSD and Duncan's multiple range) may be used when appropriate, but not on structured data such as quantitative series of treatments (e.g., herbicide rates in stepwise increments) or factorial treatments. The least significant difference (LSD) is appropriate for paired multiple comparison procedures. In quantitative series, the correct procedure is use of regression or other curve-fitting techniques that can be included in an analysis of variance (ANOVA). An assumption with ANOVA is that variances are homogeneous, but this is unlikely for proportions, percentages, or values differing by orders of magnitude. In such cases, transformations of the raw data must be used if ANOVA is to be valid. For regression, R should be used to delineate multivariate coefficient of variation, r for bivariate correlation coefficients, and R2 for the coefficient of determination. Clearly identify all statistical procedures used, including methods of analysis, numbers of replicates and subsamples, transformations used, and statistical tests performed. Give literature citations for statistical analyses.

Trade Names. Use trade names sparingly and only if necessary to describe materials or methods. If a trade name is necessary, use it with the generic name in the text and include, where appropriate, the symbol ®. The capitalized trade name along with the name and address of the manufacturer or supplier, if not widely known, should be shown in parentheses immediately following the first mention. Submissions including five or more herbicides should be listed in a table: see the Materials and Methods section for details.