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Leaving aside the narrow framing of the international courtroom, this chapter focuses on the Congolese district of Ituri, caught in the crossfire of larger national and international forces. The collapse of the sprawling Congo nation in the 1990s prompted outside intrusions from Rwanda and Uganda, spreading conflicts across the entire territory. Military stalemates stirred competing national rebel movements, with patronage relations to Congo’s eastern neighbors and to global trading networks. In the midst of country-wide conflict and regional politics, the ICC Prosecutor selected a single outlying district for his criminal investigation. While the trials would reduce complex events and causes to the actions taken by three men placed on trial, the wider matrix of forces continued to shape the overall conflicts. Under international pressure to rebuild the Congolese state, the main national factions bargained over power-sharing political transitions. The fate of local players in Ituri remained outside the national discourse, even as it drew attention from the UN and NGOs about increasing ethnic violence.
The national priority to advance early detection and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not reduced the late age of ASD diagnosis in the US over several consecutive Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) surveillance cohorts, with traditionally under-served populations accessing diagnosis later still. In this review, we explore a potential perceptual barrier to this enterprise which views ASD in terms that are contradicted by current science, and which may have its origins in the current definition of the condition and in its historical associations. To address this perceptual barrier, we propose a re-definition of ASD in early brain development terms, with a view to revisit the world of opportunities afforded by current science to optimize children's outcomes despite the risks that they are born with. This view is presented here to counter outdated notions that potentially devastating disability is determined the moment a child is born, and that these burdens are inevitable, with opportunities for improvement being constrained to only alleviation of symptoms or limited improvements in adaptive skills. The impetus for this piece is the concern that such views of complex neurodevelopmental conditions, such as ASD, can become self-fulfilling science and policy, in ways that are diametrically opposed to what we currently know, and are learning every day, of how genetic risk becomes, or not, instantiated as lifetime disabilities.
Recent constitution-making episodes in countries such as Venezuela, Bolivia, Hungary, and Iceland have highlighted the important, varied roles that courts might play during constitution-making processes undertaken from a democratic starting point. This chapter develops a typology of the functions that courts have played during these processes. In some cases, courts have played a catalytic function, spurring constitution making that otherwise might not have occurred; in others, they have played a blocking function, stopping constitution making from taking place; and in a third set of cases, they have played a shaping function, neither catalyzing nor preventing constitution making, but instead impacting the nature of the process. These functions, in turn, tend to be tied to different theories of constitution making. What emerges from this survey is that there is no single best mode of judicial intervention during constitution making; the optimal response is contextual. A key descriptive goal is to understand how political context affects the ways in which courts act; a key normative goal is to improve the fit between the nature of judicial action and the needs of a given context.
Dating back to the prerevolutionary era, public schools were designed to provide individualized education to students and serve as a precedent for efforts to differentiate instruction. The percentage of school-age children attending school increased, partly due to legal mandates requiring a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive setting for all students (Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975) and the shift to more inclusive environments for students with disabilities. The increase in the number of students attending school has resulted in a need for providing more comprehensive services to children and adolescents with myriad issues. This article addresses evidence-based behavioral interventions that may be employed in a multitier model. Specific interventions for each tier are presented, and details regarding how to incorporate and use them will be discussed.
There has been increased interest in executive function (EF), not only in relation to specific clinical disorders, but also in relation to development and school performance in children and youth who may not have a clinical disorder. EF is associated with self-regulation, effortful control, inhibition, and social-emotional status; deficits in EF may result in maladjustment. Not only predictive of behavioral outcomes, EF is associated with academic performance in both math and reading. With this increased recognition of the importance of EF, approaches to foster development of EF and address EF deficits within a multitiered system of support (MTSS) have been developed. While further research is needed, preliminary results indicate improvements in social-emotional function, behavior, and academic skills, as well as targeted EF skills. The theoretical basis and available research are reviewed, and implications for future research provided.
In this chapter, we examine the theoretical underpinnings of bullying behavior and link bullying to related but distinct forms of aggression. Bullying prevention and intervention strategies are reviewed and the connection between school climate and bullying is reinforced. Prevention and intervention programs that address improving the school climate are necessary but insufficient to effectively reduce bullying. Given that bullying and targeted violence are typically seen as distinct behaviors, the authors suggest that promoting a holistic violence prevention model should replace the individual and often independent approaches for dealing with various forms of aggression and violence. Instead, a comprehensive and coordinated system of assessment, prevention, and intervention will lead to reductions in bullying and other forms of targeted violence. This will require students, teachers, parents, and community stakeholders (i.e., law enforcement, community leaders, politicians) to work together for the holistic health of schools and communities.
Individuals with autism have up to seven times more contact with law enforcement over the course of their lifetime than their peers. To untrained justice personnel, behaviors common to autism can appear, at a minimum, suspicious and evasive, and, more seriously, as callously unlawful. For those individuals with autism with justice or juvenile justice contact, it is critical that the interventions used to prevent or treat illegal acts are designed for their specific learning needs. School systems, already charged with the delivery of autism specific services, are well positioned to implement a range of prevention and intervention supports to address illegal acts when they occur.
After 1985, the UK first assigned a ‘greater importance‘ to exchange rate objectives, without specifying any rule; then followed between early 1987 and March 1988, an unannounced policy of linking the pound to the deutschemark at the rate of 3 DM/£ was pursued. That policy, undertaken without the knowledge of the Prime Minister, eventually led to a sharp political conflict between Thatcher and Lawson. Subsequently, the exchange target was abandoned. All three phases of the new exchange rate regime were conceptually incoherent, and the lack of monetary control in the second half of the 1980s eventually produced not only rapid growth (that looked like a policy success and was termed the ‘Lawson boom‘) but also a new upsurge of inflation that increasingly concerned the Bank. Eddie George emerged not only as a key architect of Bank strategy but also as a favoured interlocutor of Margaret Thatcher. A background to the policy debates was the increased attraction, to the Treasury and to some figures in the Bank, of the European Monetary System as a way of securing the deutschemark as an anchor, and international coordination on exchange rates became more central to monetary policy management; Thatcher and George were critical of that vision.
In order for children to become engaged readers, it is important for them to develop the component reading skills that lead to long-term reading success and to find reading enjoyable. Both reading motivation and skill acquisition are central to reading development and continued growth over time. However, the relationship between these two prerequisites for becoming a lifelong reader is dynamic and bidirectional, suggesting that there are many different opportunities to intervene when children are disengaged or struggling readers. School psychologists can play a role in the prevention of and intervention in both reading and motivational challenges. This chapter includes information about how school psychologists might approach these issues using a tiered systems-of-support framework, while taking the home literacy environment into account.
Given the individual and societal consequences of teen drug use, prevention efforts have increased in order to help avoid years of the debilitating effects that substance use has on the health and lifespan development of adolescents. Prevention programming focuses on changing adolescents’ existing habits that precede occurrence or worsening of the substance use behavior, whereas cessation intervention efforts focus on disrupting behavior patterns and offering proper treatment. Providing high-quality substance use prevention programs to adolescents requires sound, evidence-based material, implementation fidelity, interactive practitioner involvement, and use of appropriate delivery channels. When implementing these programs, practitioners need to consider the neurobiological, cognitive, social, and environmental aspects of substance use among youth to effectively address crucial time-points and processes during an adolescent’s life, such as puberty. Practitioners should also be aware of emerging threats to adolescents, such as use of marijuana, e-cigarettes, and opioids, and co-occurring substance use and mental disorders.
Treatment resistance causes significant burden in psychosis. Clozapine is the only evidence-based pharmacologic intervention available for people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia; current guidelines recommend commencement after two unsuccessful trials of standard antipsychotics.
This paper aims to explore the prevalence of treatment resistance and pathways to commencement of clozapine in UK early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services.
Data were taken from the National Evaluation of the Development and Impact of Early Intervention Services study (N = 1027) and included demographics, medication history and psychosis symptoms measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Prescribing patterns and pathways to clozapine were examined. We adopted a strict criterion for treatment resistance, defined as persistent elevated positive symptoms (a PANSS positive score ≥16, equating to at least two items of at least moderate severity), across three time points.
A total of 143 (18.1%) participants met the definition of treatment resistance of having continuous positive symptoms over 12 months, despite treatment in EIP services. Sixty-one (7.7%) participants were treatment resistant and eligible for clozapine, having had two trials of standard antipsychotics; however, only 25 (2.4%) were prescribed clozapine over the 12-month study period. Treatment-resistant participants were more likely to be prescribed additional antipsychotic medication and polypharmacy, instead of clozapine.
Prevalent treatment resistance was observed in UK EIP services, but prescription of polypharmacy was much more common than clozapine. Significant delays in the commencement of clozapine may reflect a missed opportunity to promote recovery in this critical period.
Although parents and educators have identified student social and emotional development as an important educational outcome, this domain has not received as much emphasis in educational policy or practice as academic achievement. Recognition of the contributions of social and emotional learning (SEL) to students’ social and academic success, however, has increased interest in promoting SEL in schools over the last decade. This chapter begins with a brief introduction to SEL constructs and definitions, followed by a synopsis of current SEL assessment and intervention practices. We also highlight the current state of empirical evidence for these practices and then turn to several important necessary future directions to advance school-based SEL practices.
In this chapter, current research on cross-race/ethnic friendships of children and adolescents in school settings is reviewed. In the first part of the chapter, research on the prevalence, meaning, and function of cross-race/ethnic friendships is discussed. The second section considers school organizational and instructional practices, such as academic tracking, that might interfere with the opportunity to form cross-race/ethnic friendships even in ethnically diverse schools. The third section reviews school-based interventions, including prejudice reduction programs, that can promote the development of friendships that cross racial and ethnic boundaries. The chapter concludes with reflections on promising directions for future research. Harnessing the power of cross-race/ethnic friendships may be critical for promoting tolerance of multiple groups in this era of increasingly racial/ethnic diversity.
In this chapter, we discuss the evolving role of the school psychologist working in early childhood settings, and highlight the importance of early learning and early intervention, standards for training and education of school psychologists to work with young children, and the role of the school psychologist in transitioning young children to kindergarten. We believe that early learning and early childhood education are critical to a healthy, thriving society, including the United States. However, most school psychology graduate programs do not offer knowledge of or experience in early childhood learning, assessment, diagnosis, or intervention. Given the importance of early childhood education and school psychologists’ evolving roles and responsibilities, they are strongly encouraged to engage in professional development activities around early childhood learning, education, assessment, and intervention in order to serve young children optimally. Multiple resources are provided at the end of the chapter to assist school psychologists in increasing their knowledge base regarding early childhood topics.
The constructs now subsumed under the label “internalizing disorders” had garnered the attention of researchers and practitioners long before the recent terminology was coined in the 1980s. Spanning decades of research, intervention, and practice, this chapter describes childhood internalizing disorders by their traits and prevalence, and then highlights the important contribution of factor analysis in marking their scientific evolution. We learn how exposure of the underlying dimensionality of internalizing disorders, along with critical refinements to terminology, precipitated the identification of early (subsyndromal) symptoms of depression and anxiety, and paved the way for the development of assessment scales that would ultimately expand our ability to intervene with precision, refine research, develop methods for prevention, identify moderator variables, and discover the potential of universal screening. The chapter concludes by providing a brief sampler of tools currently in use by practitioners and schools for the treatment, reduction of symptoms, and prevention of internalizing disorders.
Progress monitoring is an important part of any prevention and intervention model. The data can be used not only to evaluate whether the intervention is working, but also to suggest potential modifications to the intervention. This chapter defines progress monitoring, and presents data-based decision making, formative evaluation, and psychometric theory as the foundations for it. We also discuss the role of general outcome measures and subskill mastery measures in light of the last 25 years of research. Finally, the chapter discusses the role that progress monitoring has in a prevention model by providing an overview of decision-making models and how the data can be used to intensify interventions.
Chronic pediatric illnesses are common and they are often educationally consequential. Many chronically ill children experience severe educational impairments. Empirical research on the pediatric illness–schooling interface notwithstanding, theoretical endeavors on the topic are largely missing. This chapter presents a theoretical model comprising four interrelated dimensions. These are the nature and severity of the pediatric illness itself (e.g., asthma, epilepsy), educational challenges common to each illness (e.g., direct neurocognitive effects, uninformed teachers), students’ personal strengths (e.g., emotional resilience), and environmental supports (e.g., social supports at school). These three dimensions are hypothesized to mutually determine the nature and severity of any adverse educational impacts (e.g., academic or attendance problems). The model is abbreviated as P-CSI, to denote Pediatric, Challenges, Strengths/Supports, and Impacts. It is argued that the P-CSI model helps contextualize existing information on prevention and intervention. It may also reveal gaps to be addressed by future research concerning pediatric illnesses at school.
Several pathways can lead out of destructive drug use, including natural recovery with no treatment. Mental-health professionals in treatment programs or working independently offer treatment, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and secular groups enable mutual support for recovery from SUD. The Minnesota Model, based on the principles of AA, heavily influences many treatment programs. Counseling and psychotherapy are primary treatments for SUD, often conducted in groups. Sharing of common SUD experiences relieves shame and isolation that impede recovery. Office-based treatment may provide individual psychotherapy. Therapists and counselors try to establish an alliance with clients to promote intrinsic motivation for secure abstinence. Therapies include cognitive-behavioral, 12-step facilitation, mindfulness, dialectical behavior change, and couples or family therapy. Brief Interventions are short counseling sessions most appropriate for early-stage substance abuse. Alcohol or other drug use often recurs after treatment, and prevention of relapse is a primary goal of SUD treatment. Participation in mutual assistance groups is associated with lower rates of relapse.
During a psychotic episode, patients frequently suffer from severe maladaptive beliefs known as delusions. Despite the abundant literature investigating the simple presence or absence of these beliefs, there exists little detailed knowledge regarding their actual content and severity at the onset of illness.
This study reports on delusions during the initiation of indicated treatment for first-episode psychosis (FEP).
Data were systematically collected from a sample of 636 patients entering a catchment-based early intervention service for FEP. The average severity and frequency of each delusional theme at baseline was reported with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms. Delusional severity (globally and per theme) was examined across a number of sociodemographic and clinical variables.
Delusions were present in the vast majority of individuals experiencing onset of FEP (94%), with persecutory (77.7%) being the most common theme. Persecutory delusions remained consistent in severity across diagnoses, but were more severe with older age at onset of FEP. No meaningful differences in delusional severity were observed across gender, affective versus non-affective psychosis, or presence/absence of substance use disorder. Globally, delusion severity was associated with anxiety, but not depression. Delusions commonly referred to as passivity experiences were related to hallucinatory experiences.
This community sample offers a rare clinical lens into the severity and content of delusions in FEP. Although delusional severity was consistent across certain sociodemographic and clinical variables, this was not always the case. Future research should now consider the course of delusion themes over time.
We study the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India and model the epidemic to guide those involved in formulating policy and building healthcare capacity.
This effect is studied using the SEIR compartmental model. We estimate the infection rate using a least square method with Poisson noise and calculate the reproduction number.
The infection rate is estimated to be 0.270 and the reproduction number to be 2.70. The approximate peak of the epidemic will be August 9, 2020. A 25% drop in infection rate will delay the peak by 11 days for a 1 month intervention period. The total infected individuals in India will be 9% of the total population.
The predictions are sensitive to changes in the behaviour of people and their practice of social distancing.