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Although early-life adversity can undermine healthy development, an evolutionary-developmental perspective implies that children growing up in harsh environments will develop intact, or even enhanced, skills for solving problems in high‐adversity contexts (i.e., 'hidden talents'). This Element situates the hidden talents model within a larger interdisciplinary framework. Summarizing theory and research on hidden talents, it proposes that stress-adapted skills represent a form of adaptive intelligence enabling individuals to function within the constraints of harsh environments. It discusses potential applications of this perspective to multiple sectors concerned with youth from harsh environments, including education, social services, and juvenile justice, and compares the hidden talents model with contemporary developmental resilience models. The hidden talents approach, it concludes, offers exciting directions for research on childhood adversity, with translational implications for leveraging stress-adapted skills to more effectively tailor education, jobs, and interventions to fit the needs of individuals from a diverse range of life circumstances.
Illicit substance use is dangerous in both acute and chronic forms, frequently resulting in lethal poisoning, addiction, and other negative consequences. Similar to research in other psychiatric conditions, whose ultimate goal is to enable effective prevention and treatment, studies in substance use are focused on factors elevating the risk for the disorder. The rapid growth of the substance use problem despite the effort invested in fighting it, however, suggests the need in changing the research approach. Instead of attempting to identify risk factors, whose neutralization is often infeasible if not impossible, it may be more promising to systematically reverse the perspective to the factors enhancing the aspect of liability to disorder that shares the same dimension but is opposite to risk, that is, resistance to substance use. Resistance factors, which enable the majority of the population to remain unaffected despite the ubiquity of psychoactive substances, may be more amenable to translation. While the resistance aspect of liability is symmetric to risk, the resistance approach requires substantial changes in sampling (high-resistance rather than high-risk) and using quantitative indices of liability. This article provides an overview and a practical approach to research in resistance to substance use/addiction, currently implemented in a NIH-funded project. The project benefits from unique opportunities afforded by the data originating from two longitudinal twin studies, the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent and Behavioral Development and the Minnesota Twin Family Study. The methodology described is also applicable to other psychiatric disorders.
Chapter 2 sets out the history of the Province from 1348 to 1559 showing first its resilience in the face of the Black Death with new foundations in Ireland and the establishment of the nuns’ convent at Dartford. Its resilence is then shown against theological attack in anti-fraternal literature, including writings by Wycliff, and the rise of Lollardy. The Province’s continuing value to key supporters is shown through the patronage manifest in church decoration, through lay burials and grants of confraternity, while their secure place in civic life before the Reformation is seen in relation to the guilds associated with their churches. The sudden collapse of the Province at the Henrician Reformation is then examined to identify several factors, the most important of which was the crown’s imposition of its agents as Provincials and Priors.
The 1972 Meadows report, ‘the limits to growth’, predicted a global socio-economic tipping point during the twenty-first century. Now supported by 50 years of empirical evidence, this work is a tribute to systems thinking and an invitation to take the current environmental crisis for what it is: neither a transition nor a bifurcation, but an inversion. For instance, we used matter (e.g., fossil fuel) to save time; we will use time to preserve matter (e.g., bioeconomy). We were exploiting ecosystems to fuel production; production will feed ecosystems. We centralised to optimise; we will decentralise to support resilience. In plant science, this new context calls for new research on plant complexity (e.g., multiscale robustness and benefits of variability), also extending to new scientific approaches (e.g., participatory research, art and science). Taking this turn reverses many paradigms and becomes a new responsibility for plant scientists as the world becomes increasingly turbulent.
This article reviews a selection of books published over the last decade that explore the relationship between humans and the environment in the ancient Greek world. These publications represent a new phase of the ecological turn in classical studies, in which ancient environmental studies has emerged as a distinct subdivision of the environmental humanities. Their contributions can roughly be divided into two groups according to their approaches and goals: one applies ecocritical analyses to Greek literature, presenting alternative ecologies to those that have produced contemporary environmental crises; the other applies historical methods to written and material evidence to illuminate the realities of ancient Greek human–environment relations. The three subsections of this review provide overviews of scholarship addressing sustainability and the conservation of natural resources; ecology and religion; and societal resilience in the face of ecological stress. I suggest productive avenues for further research in each area, arguing that interdisciplinary communication and collaboration are becoming increasingly important in this evidentially, methodologically and theoretically variegated field.
Zimbabwe’s longest election season span from the February 2000 referendum to the 2002 presidential election. In 2002, voters became wary and weary of violent elections. Politically motivated violence continued as Mugabe and Tsvangirai had their moment of reckoning as to who should be president of Zimbabwe. Over time, Mugabe become ever more dependent on violence and dictatorial methods, and less and less interested in the welfare of his people, treating Zimbabwe’s wealth and resources as rewards for loyal Zanu PF supporters, boasting that there was no vacancy at State House. A closer study of the incidence of election violence shows voter resilience amidst cyclical bouts of state-sponsored udlakela. Voter resilience in the ruling party and opposition showed the potential and capability of the electorate to recover from crises and shocks. Zimbabwe voter resilience revealed that no matter the number of violent disturbances Zimbabweans absorbed over time, they remained within a relatively similar political state domain without imploding. Voters in Zimbabwe were remarkably resilient, displaying abilities of self-organization under extreme periodic election stresses. They built capacity and adaptation in the face of election adversities without resorting to civil war.
This chapter investigates questions of language, context, cross-cultural communication and collective learning through three examples from Fórum Shakespeare. For the past twenty years, the (almost) bi-annual project Fórum Shakespeare has brought young actors from Brazilian peripheries together with theatre makers and audiences to ask questions about multicultural, multilingual and potentially mutually beneficial ways of engaging with Shakespeare. The three case studies discussed in this chapter include: Paul Heritage’s work on Romeo and Juliet with a group of juvenile prisoners in Rio de Janeiro in 1999; Bridget Escolme’s workshops for young people in Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Brasília in 2011, 2013 and 2014; and Catherine Silverstone’s lecture and workshop for general audiences in São Paulo in 2016. The Fórum – and each case study – insists on the plurality of Shakespeare. The chapter explores how professional and non-professional participants have disturbed the harmful assumptions and challenged the negative expectations that limit young people, while teaching pleasure, resilience and compassion through performance. In Fórum Shakespeare meaning has consistently been constructed through exchange, with participants’ embodied acts of translation introducing new understandings of how working inter-culturally with Shakespeare’s texts can allow different stories to be told.
The majority of children with maltreatment histories do not go on to develop depression in their adolescent and adult years. These individuals are often identified as being “resilient”, but this characterization may conceal difficulties that individuals with maltreatment histories might face in their interpersonal relationships, substance use, physical health, and/or socioeconomic outcomes in their later lives. This study examined how adolescents with maltreatment histories who exhibit low levels of depression function in other domains during their adult years. Longitudinal trajectories of depression (across ages 13–32) in individuals with (n = 3,809) and without (n = 8,249) maltreatment histories were modeled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The same “Low,” “increasing,” and “declining” depression trajectories in both individuals with and without maltreatment histories were identified. Youths with maltreatment histories in the “low” depression trajectory reported lower romantic relationship satisfaction, more exposure to intimate partner and sexual violence, more alcohol abuse/dependency, and poorer general physical health compared to individuals without maltreatment histories in the same “low” depression trajectory in adulthood. Findings add further caution against labeling individuals as “resilient” based on a just single domain of functioning (low depression), as childhood maltreatment has harmful effects on a broad spectrum of functional domains.
To determine the effect of psychological resilience levels of nurses on perceived stress levels in this study.
The research was carried out with 153 nurses. Socio-demographic Questionnaire, The Brief Resilience Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale were used as data collection tools.
The nurses’ total Brief Resilience Scale score average was 17.72 ± 4.48, and the total Perceived Stress Scale score average was 31.74 ± 7.18. There was a negative and moderately significant relationship between the resilience and stress level of the nurses. During the pandemic process, the level of stress that nurses perceive increases as their psychological resilience decreases.
Psychological resilience and coping with stress are traits that can be improved. It is important to establish strategies to increase the resilience of nurses and improve their ability to cope effectively with stress.
To summarize reports describing implementation and evaluation of Web-based psychosocial interventions for disaster-related distress with suggestions for future intervention and research, and to determine whether a systematic literature review on the topic is warranted.
Systematic searches of Embase, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE were conducted. Duplicate entries were removed. Two rounds of inclusion/exclusion were conducted (abstract and full-text review). Relevant data were systematically charted by 2 reviewers.
The initial search identified 112 reports. Six reports, describing and evaluating 5 interventions, were included in a data analysis. Four of the 5 interventions were asynchronous and self-guided modular programs, with interactive components. The fifth was a short-term, online supportive group intervention. Studies utilized a variety of evaluation methods, and only 1 of 14 outcome measures used across the studies was utilized in more than 1 project.
Several Web-based psychosocial interventions have been developed to target disaster-related distress, but few programs have been formally evaluated. A systematic review of the topic would not be recommended at this time due to heterogeneity in reported studies. Further research on factors impacting participation, generalizability, and methods of program delivery with consistent outcome measures is needed.
Global healthcare systems have been particularly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are widely reported to have experienced increased levels of baseline psychological distress relative to the general population, and the COVID-19 pandemic may have had an additive effect. However, previous studies are typically restricted to physicians and nurses with limited data available on hospital HCWs. We aimed to conduct a cross-sectional, psychological evaluation of Irish HCWs during COVID-19.
HCWs across five adult acute level-4 Dublin-based hospitals completed an online survey of wellbeing and COVID-19 experience.
There were 1898 HCWs who commenced the survey representing 10% of the total employee base. The sample comprised nurses (33%), doctors (21%), Health and Social Care Professionals (HSCPs) (24%) and ‘Other’ disciplines (22%), and 81% identified as female. Clinical levels of depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms were endorsed by 31%, 34% and 28% of respondents, respectively. Professional grouping effects included: nurses reporting significantly greater levels of COVID-19 exposure, infection, COVID-fear, moral injury, and post-traumatic distress; HSCPs were significantly less likely to report mood dysfunction. In terms of gender, males were significantly less likely to report negative pandemic experiences, low resilience, and significantly more likely to endorse ‘minimal’ depression, anxiety, and traumatic distress. Logistic regression modelling revealed mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms) were associated with increased frontline exposure, fewer career years’ experience, elevated pre-pandemic stress, and female gender.
To our knowledge, this is the largest evaluation of psychological wellbeing amongst HCWs in acute hospitals in the Dublin region. Our findings have implications for healthcare workforce wellbeing and future service delivery.
Pregnancy is a time of increased vulnerability to psychopathology, yet limited work has investigated the extent to which variation in psychopathology during pregnancy is shared and unshared across syndromes and symptoms. Understanding the structure of psychopathology during pregnancy, including associations with childhood experiences, may elucidate risk and resilience factors that are transdiagnostic and/or specific to particular psychopathology phenotypes. Participants were 292 pregnant individuals assessed using multiple measures of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analyses found evidence for a structure of psychopathology consistent with the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). A common transdiagnostic factor accounted for most variation in psychopathology, and both adverse and benevolent childhood experiences (ACEs and BCEs) were associated with this transdiagnostic factor. Furthermore, pregnancy-specific anxiety symptoms most closely reflected the dimension of Fear, which may suggest shared variation with manifestations of fear that are not pregnancy-specific. ACEs and BCEs also linked to specific prenatal psychopathology involving thought problems, detachment, and internalizing, externalizing, antagonistic, and antisocial behavior. These findings extend the dimensional and hierarchical HiTOP model to pregnant individuals and show how maternal childhood risk and resilience factors relate to common and specific forms of psychopathology during pregnancy as a period of enhanced vulnerability.
Although child maltreatment is associated with short- and long-term maladaptive outcomes, some children are still able to display resilience. Currently, there is a limited understanding of how children’s resilience changes over time after experiencing maltreatment, especially for young children. Therefore, the current study used a longitudinal, multidimensional approach to examine trajectories of resilience among very young children involved in child protective services and determine whether placement setting and caregiving behaviors are associated with resilience trajectories. This study used data from National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being I and conducted repeated measures latent class analysis, focusing on children under 2 years old at baseline (n = 1,699). Results suggested that there were three trajectories of resilience: increasing resilience, decreasing resilience, and stable, low resilience. Caregiver cognitive stimulation was related to increasing trajectories of resilience compared to both decreasing and stable, low resilience. These findings illustrate the importance of caregiving behaviors for promoting resilience among a particularly vulnerable population.
Perceived purpose in life (PIL) has been linked to a broad range of adverse physical, mental, and cognitive outcomes. However, limited research has examined factors associated with PIL that can be targeted in prevention and treatment efforts in aging populations at heightened risk of adverse outcomes. Using data from predominantly older US veterans, we sought to identify important correlates of PIL.
Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2019–2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of 4069 US military veterans (Mage = 62.2). Elastic net and relative importance analyses were conducted to evaluate sociodemographic, military, health, and psychosocial variables that were strongly associated with PIL.
Of the 39 variables entered into an elastic net analysis, 10 were identified as significant correlates of PIL. In order of magnitude, these were resilience (18.7% relative variance explained [RVE]), optimism (12.1%), depressive symptoms (11.3%), community integration (10.7%), gratitude (10.2%), loneliness (9.8%), received social support (8.6%), conscientiousness (8.5%), openness to experience (5.4%), and intrinsic religiosity (4.7%).
Several modifiable psychosocial factors emerged as significant correlates of PIL in US military veterans. Interventions designed to target these factors may help increase PIL and mitigate risk for adverse health outcomes in this population.
Although the dominant meaning of virtue today concerns human ethical capacity, the word had a much broader scope in Aristotle’s natural philosophy and in early-modern herbal and agricultural literature. This chapter tackles this ecological sense of “vertue” (as it was often spelled in the period), unpacking the resilient force it named in natural matter and the skill and virtue of stewardship it solicited from the humans entangled in its management in household, garden, or apothecary. As this chapter shows through readings of examples from Shakespeare, early modern practical texts, and modern environmental thinking, stewardship and resilience promise to capture the skills and virtues of household management in its broadest sense, to include care for the oikos shared by human and nonhuman creatures and systems – especially, in contemporary settings, in times of catastrophe. As keywords of contemporary environmental ethics, however, they have also been criticized for individualizing environmental virtue, undermining necessary structural change in favor of personal care and tenacity. This chapter suggests we might clarify this debate through a return to early modern vertues, by engaging the powers of nonhuman virtues and the legacy of these mixed and distributed agencies in the present.
Well-designed markets and public-sector actions can promote climate-resilient agriculture and improve livelihood opportunities for farmers. To enable small-scale farmers to access appropriate technologies, agronomic services, and markets while fostering rural industrialisation, countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa have created geographically focused, transformative commodity value-chain clusters. In addition, novel initiatives to incentivise the adoption of sustainable practices have demonstrated potential to contribute to food-system transformation. For example, private-sector co-investments with small and medium-sized enterprises and farmer cooperatives aim to accelerate financial inclusion and scale climate-resilient agriculture. National policy adoption of low-emissions practices, such as alternate wetting and drying, supports innovations in rice systems. Together, the public sector and privately driven initiatives can build markets that are advantageous for small-scale farmers and lessen their risks.
Studies have reported that minorities are disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Few studies have elucidated the lived experiences of African American older adults, and the resiliency displayed in combatting the COVID-19 pandemic and other disasters.
This study used 4 recorded focus groups with 26 African American older adults who have spent most of their lives living in Houston, Texas to assess safety, economic, and health concerns related to the pandemic and similarities or differences with other types of disasters that are specific to Houston/ the Gulf Region of Texas, such as Hurricane Harvey.
Key themes emerged from the thematic analysis: 1) previous disasters provided important coping and preparation skills, although each occurrence was still a major stressor, 2) while telehealth was a significant benefit, regular health maintenance and chronic disease management were not completed during the COVID-19 pandemic, 3) information from the federal and state authorities were inconsistent and spurred fear and anxiety, 4) participants experienced few to no disruptions to their income but were heavily called on to support family members, and 5) participants experienced anxiety and isolation, but many used existing social connections to cope.
These findings demonstrate how African American older adults navigate disaster response and recovery through experience and community. Providing unambiguous information to older adults could prove useful in preparing for future disaster events and coping with disasters.
This chapter introduces health recovery processes, recommending realistic engagements backed by appropriate conceptual tools. Direct experience supported by the literature warns against linear narratives, ready-made solutions and missions accomplished! The nature of stresses and shocks, and their influence on health systems is discussed. The politics of transition and its implications are highlighted. Situation analysis, debate, and proposed intervention as the main drivers of a sound recovery process are reviewed. A situation analysis covers patterns, trends, and resource levels across a disrupted healthcare landscape including appraisal of vulnerabilities and strengths. An informed, contextualised debate regarding political settlement, demography, economy, privatisation, and urbanisation is needed with all stakeholders. Supporting health recovery processes entails seizing opportunities, while containing harmful drives. Realistic strategies and effective measures must be negotiated with overambitious stakeholders. The chapter concludes with advice on designing, managing, and evaluating recovery-oriented interventions, and readings to deepen the study of health recovery processes.
The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that: 1) there is no single ‘cookie-cutter approach’ to health systems strengthening, and 2) health systems must be significantly more holistic and equitable. This chapter examines the global spread of COVID-19 and its impacts on health systems and communities. By analysing public health gaps and challenges in L&MICs, the authors provide concrete examples of innovations and interventions that were effective in responding to the pandemic. It explores how different health systems across L&MICs and HICs can be better equipped to mitigate health emergencies and maintain routine health services by leveraging a range of essential public health functions, primary health care, and risk management capacities. Health systems resilience is only possible when systems thinking is operationalized and aligned with the wider SDGs. There is a case for multisectoral engagement in mounting a comprehensive health systems response to COVID-19 at the national and global levels. The chapter offers lessons on why strengthening health systems -- through integrated investments and with equity and resilience as key objectives – is key to sustainably achieving health security and universal health coverage.
This chapter explores concepts of service delivery including coverage, provision of health care, processes and inputs involved in delivery of services, and the requirements for good quality care in low and middle-income countries (L&MICs). Health service delivery models are organized in diverse ways that encompass the levels of care, location and platforms, as well as vertical and horizontal modes of integration, and personal and non-personal services. Several key characteristics and enablers are markers of high-quality health services and when adhered to lead to favourable health outcomes. The community’s preferences and demand with regard to what services to provide is key to building their trust. Essential packages for defining health services should be needs-based, incorporating the disease burden, ensuring quality, coverage and utilization needed to have good health outcomes. The pursuit of Universal Health Coverage requires Primary Health Care as the foundation of health systems in L&MICs, equity in services provision, as well as good information and monitoring systems.