To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chapter 8 presents ‘cultivating inner qualities’ (CIQ) an initiative case study for developing ethical relations in Chinese schools. In the light of the emergent shift from ‘teaching to test’ to ‘educating whole human beings’, the CIQ project has been launched in primary and secondary schools within the different economic development regions in China, targeting especially marginalised children who suffer from severe social and emotional deprivation and exclusion. The core of CIQ practice is centred on developing ethical relations in schools, including time and space within the curriculum to enrich social emotional experiences, developing relational competencies, fostering trust and caring relationships and encouraging mutual respect and mutual support amongst teachers and students. In addition, CIQ is an innovative approach to school management, and to home–school collaboration. Research into CIQ suggests that these core ethical education practices are key to cultivating students’ holistic inner qualities, such as a greater awareness of interconnection between oneself and others; better and more positive interpersonal relationships; a stronger sense of responsibility for each other’s learning; healthier emotional states; and more relational resilience when facing challenges.
The rehabilitation of essential services infrastructure following hostilities, whether during a conflict or post-conflict, is a complex undertaking. This is made more complicated in protracted conflicts due to the continuing cycle of damage and expedient repair amid changing demands. The rehabilitation paradigm that was developed for the successful post-World War II rehabilitation of Germany and Japan has been less successful since. There are a myriad of conflicting interests that impede its application, yet the issue consistently comes down to a lack of systems-level understanding of the current situation on the ground and a lack of alignment between what is delivered and the actual local need. This article proposes a novel conceptual framework to address this, affording a greater “system of systems” understanding of the local essential services and how they can be restored to reflect the changed needs of the local population that has itself been changed by the conflict. The recommendations draw on heuristic practice and commercially available tools to provide a practicable approach to restoring infrastructure function in order to enable essential services that are resilient to temporary returns to violence and support the overall rehabilitation of the affected community.
Unit cohesion may protect service member mental health by mitigating effects of combat exposure; however, questions remain about the origins of potential stress-buffering effects. We examined buffering effects associated with two forms of unit cohesion (peer-oriented horizontal cohesion and subordinate-leader vertical cohesion) defined as either individual-level or aggregated unit-level variables.
Longitudinal survey data from US Army soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 were analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Models evaluated individual- and unit-level interaction effects of combat exposure and cohesion during deployment on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation reported at 3 months post-deployment (model n's = 6684 to 6826). Given the small effective sample size (k = 89), the significance of unit-level interactions was evaluated at a 90% confidence level.
At the individual-level, buffering effects of horizontal cohesion were found for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.11, 95% CI (−0.18 to −0.04), p < 0.01] and depressive symptoms [B = −0.06, 95% CI (−0.10 to −0.01), p < 0.05]; while a buffering effect of vertical cohesion was observed for PTSD symptoms only [B = −0.03, 95% CI (−0.06 to −0.0001), p < 0.05]. At the unit-level, buffering effects of horizontal (but not vertical) cohesion were observed for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.91, 90% CI (−1.70 to −0.11), p = 0.06], depressive symptoms [B = −0.83, 90% CI (−1.24 to −0.41), p < 0.01], and suicidal ideation [B = −0.32, 90% CI (−0.62 to −0.01), p = 0.08].
Policies and interventions that enhance horizontal cohesion may protect combat-exposed units against post-deployment mental health problems. Efforts to support individual soldiers who report low levels of horizontal or vertical cohesion may also yield mental health benefits.
In this chapter, you will gain an understanding of resilience in teachers and teaching, coping strategies for sustaining a teaching career, being mindful as a teacher, your wellbeing and ability to flourish and the meaning of a growth mindset.
The COVID-19 global crisis is reshaping Canadian society in unexpected and profound ways. The significantly higher morbidity and mortality risks by age suggest that this is largely a “gero-pandemic,” which has thrust the field of aging onto center stage. This editorial emphasizes that vulnerable older adults are also those most affected by COVID-19 in terms of infection risk, negative health effects, and the potential deleterious outcomes on a range of social, psychological, and economic contexts – from ageism to social isolation. We also contend that the pathogenic analysis of this pandemic needs to be balanced with a salutogenic approach that examines the positive adaptation of people, systems and society, termed COVID-19 resilience. This begs the question: how and why do some older adults and communities adapt and thrive better than others? This examination will lead to the identification and response to research and data gaps, challenges, and innovative opportunities as we plan for a future in which COVID-19 has become another endemic infection in the growing list of emerging and re-emerging pathogens.
Chapter 5 draws on the survey data to show how private standards are implemented in the field. It introduces three avenues through which standards may address different definitions of sustainability: to drive sustainable intensification, to shift time horizons backward, or to act as payments for social and ecosystem services. It then evaluates standards’ success by evaluating a range of production practices in each category. It shows that particularly industry-friendly standards encourage farmers to intensify their production, with moderate success, but that simultaneous decreases in input use are rarer. Improvements in practices that encourage farmers to make short-term investments for longer-term gains in terms of health or farm resilience can be observed, but often depend on outside financial support. Finally, the chapter finds very few improvements in practices that constitute long-term opportunity costs, for two reasons: one, over time many standards have lowered the stringency of their requirements for high-opportunity-cost practices such as the maintenance of permanent shade cover. Two, even when rules are binding (e.g., minimum wage laws), they are not always followed.
Psychological resilience – positive psychological adaptation in the context of adversity – is defined and measured in multiple ways across disciplines. However, little is known about whether definitions capture the same underlying construct and/or share similar correlates. This study examined the congruence of different resilience measures and associations with sociodemographic factors and body mass index (BMI), a key health indicator.
In a cross-sectional sample of 1429 African American adults exposed to child maltreatment, we derived four resilience measures: a self-report scale assessing resiliency (perceived trait resilience); a binary variable defining resilience as low depression and posttraumatic stress (absence of distress); a binary variable defining resilience as low distress and high positive affect (absence of distress plus positive functioning); and a continuous variable reflecting individuals' deviation from distress levels predicted by maltreatment severity (relative resilience). Associations between resilience measures, sociodemographic factors, and BMI were assessed using correlations and regressions.
Resilience measures were weakly-to-moderately correlated (0.27–0.69), though similarly patterned across sociodemographic factors. Women showed higher relative resilience, but lower perceived trait resilience than men. Only measures incorporating positive affect or resiliency perceptions were associated with BMI: individuals classified as resilient by absence of distress plus positive functioning had lower BMI than non-resilient (β = −2.10, p = 0.026), as did those with higher perceived trait resilience (β = −0.63, p = 0.046).
Relatively low congruence between resilience measures suggests studies will yield divergent findings about predictors, prevalence, and consequences of resilience. Efforts to clearly define resilience are needed to better understand resilience and inform intervention and prevention efforts.
As the systems that people depend on are increasingly strained by the coronavirus disease–2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, public health impacts are manifesting in different ways beyond morbidity and mortality for elderly populations. Loneliness is already a chief public health concern that is being made worse by COVID-19. Agencies should recognize the prevalence of loneliness among elderly populations and the impacts that their interventions have on loneliness. This letter describes several ways that loneliness can be addressed to build resilience for elderly populations as part of the public health response to COVID-19.
Governments across the world increasingly rely on non-state agents for managing even the most sensitive tasks that range from running critical infrastructures to protecting citizens. While private agents frequently underperform, governments as principals tend nonetheless not to enforce delegation contracts. Why? We suggest the mechanism of institutional resilience. A preexisting set of rules shapes non-enforcement through the combination of (i) its structural misfit with the delegation contract and (ii) asymmetric interdependence that favors the agent over time. To demonstrate the plausibility of our argument, we trace the political process behind Europe’s largest military transport aircraft, the A400M. Governments delegated the development and production of this complex program to a private firm, Airbus. They layered a ‘commercial approach’ onto traditionally state-run defense industries. Yet, resilience caused these new formal rules to fail and eventually disarmed principals. Our mechanism constitutes an innovative approach by theorizing an alternative path toward dynamic continuity.
Quantifying robustness of farm animals is essential before it can be implemented in breeding and management strategies. A generic modelling and data analysis procedure was developed to quantify the feed intake response of growing pigs to perturbations in terms of resistance and resilience. The objective of this study was to apply this procedure to quantify these traits in 155 pigs from an experiment where they received diets with or without cereals contaminated with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The experimental pigs were divided equally in a control group and three DON-challenged groups. Pigs in each of the challenged groups received a diet contaminated with DON for 7 days early on (from 113 to 119 days of age), later on (from 134 to 140 days of age) or in both periods of the experiment. Results showed that the target feed intake trajectory of each pig could be estimated independently of the challenge. The procedure also estimated relatively accurately the times when DON was given to each challenged group. Results of the quantification of the feed intake response indicated that age and previous exposure to DON have an effect on the resilience capacity of the animals. The correlation between resistance and resilience traits was modest, indicating that these are different elements of robustness. The feed intake analysis procedure proved its capacity to detect and quantify the response of animals to perturbations, and the resulting response traits can potentially be used in breeding strategies.
The general understanding of the ‘vulnerability–stress model’ of mental disorders neglects the modifying impact of resilience-increasing factors such as coping ability.
Probing a conceptual framework integrating both adverse events and coping factors in an extended ‘vulnerability–stress–coping model’ of mental disorders, the effects of functional neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) variation (G), early adversity (E) and coping factors (C) on anxiety were addressed in a three-dimensional G × E × C model.
In two independent samples of healthy probands (discovery: n = 1403; replication: n = 630), the interaction of NPSR1 rs324981, childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ) and general self-efficacy as a measure of coping ability (General Self-Efficacy Scale, GSE) on trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) was investigated via hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
In both samples, trait anxiety differed as a function of NPSR1 genotype, CTQ and GSE score (discovery: β = 0.129, P = 3.938 × 10−8; replication: β = 0.102, P = 0.020). In A allele carriers, the relationship between childhood trauma and anxiety was moderated by general self-efficacy: higher self-efficacy and childhood trauma resulted in low anxiety scores, and lower self-efficacy and childhood trauma in higher anxiety levels. In turn, TT homozygotes displayed increased anxiety as a function of childhood adversity unaffected by general self-efficacy.
Functional NPSR1 variation and childhood trauma are suggested as prime moderators in the vulnerability–stress model of anxiety, further modified by the protective effect of self-efficacy. This G × E × C approach – introducing coping as an additional dimension further shaping a G × E risk constellation, thus suggesting a three-dimensional ‘vulnerability–stress–coping model’ of mental disorders – might inform targeted preventive or therapeutic interventions strengthening coping ability to promote resilient functioning.
A definition of resilience is the capacity to resist mental disorders despite exposure to stress. Little is known about its biological concomitants. In adults, biochemical and hormonal factors have been advocated. Smaller Corpus Callosum (CC) volume and lower Fractional Anisotropy (FA) have been observed in psychiatric and stress-related conditions. There is no Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) study of resilience in adolescence, a critical lifetime period for neural and psychological maturation. We hypothesized that higher FA in the CC would characterize stress-resilient adolescents.
Three community groups were compared: resilient adolescents – with low risk of mental disorder despite high exposure to lifetime stress, adolescents at risk of mental disorder exposed to the same level of stress, and controls. Personality was assessed by NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and cognitive function by a battery of tests. Voxelwise statistics of DTI values in CC were obtained using Tract-Based Spatial Statistic. Regional projections were identified by probabilistic tractography.
Higher FA values were detected in the anterior CC of resilient compared with both non-resilient and control adolescents. FA values varied according to resilience capacity. Regional changes in CC were in regions that project onto anterior cingulated and frontal cortex. Neuroticism and three other personality factors differentiated at risk adolescents from the other two groups.
High FA was detected in resilient adolescents in an anterior CC region projecting to frontal areas subserving cognitive resources. Psychiatric risk in adolescents was associated with personality characteristics. Resilience in adolescence may be a dimension embedding white matter features.
The effect of perceived-stress on students' health is dependent on their coping abilities. One of coping strategies for dealing with stress is resilience. The aim of this study is to examine perceived stress and its relation with resilience in undergraduate Nursing students
Methods & Materials
In this cross-sectional study, 309 under-graduate nursing students studying at Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the first semester of 2012-2013 were selected by stratified sampling. Data were collected using the Perceived stress scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) questionnaires. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS-Verrsion14.
Findings revealed that about 100% (99.3%) students reported that perceived stress moderately or high. Regarding relation between perceived-stress and resilience There were statistically significant relationship between these two variables (P≤ 001/0, r=-0.38).
According the study findings nursing school can provide facilities and opportunities for students to learn stress management strategies such as increasing resilience ability during 4 years educational program.
Epimeleia and resilience are required elements in care practice, because there is in the mortality of the treated the provocation of a sense of temporariness of human life. This is work analyzes the notion of temporality of the life through the losses and changes throughout life.
To investigate human beings’ ability to absorb shocks and frustrations that occur throughout life and keep homeostasis, premised on the need for epimeleia in cognitive, spiritual and social spheres to strengthen resilience.
Interdisciplinary research in articles published in journals and works in the fields of Psychiatry, Psychology, Theology and Thanatology, as well as a literature review concerning the resolution of mourning through resilience.
Educational measures and care practices, highlighting the activities and actions that promote the ability to restore the holistic balance, evoke the rescue of the innate faculty of resilience in the patients.
It is important to research on the attention given to the recovery and maintenance of the resilience of those who undergo stress, live in unsafe conditions or seek the resolution of their mourning. Patients, family and caregivers are benefited by measures and practices that promote and maintain mental and psychological balance of all involved. Further research will be useful to develop the issue.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.
105 Turkish immigrant women living in Berlin were investigated with measures of extraversion/neuroticism (NEO-FFI), general self-efficacy (GSE), social support (BSSS), social strain (F-SOZU) and mental distress (GHQ-28). Interrelations between psychosocial variables were assessed using simple Pearson correlations.
In all subjects, social strain (Pearson's r = .26**, p = .008) and neuroticism (r = .34**, p < .001) were positively associated with mental distress. In contrast, perceived self-efficacy (r = −.38**, p < .001) and extraversion (r = −.36**, p < .001) were negatively associated with mental distress.
Protective factors such as extraversion and self-efficacy seem to have a buffering effect on the process of migration. However, in addition to neuroticism, social strain seems to be positively associated with mental distress.
Human being lives in temporary state, and migrates from one condition to another, by a continuing exodus, each new phase signifying the death of precedent. With this postulate we present symbolic deaths that happen in life the same person.
Fairy tales and wonderful stories present paradigms of resilience, and the resilient behavior of the characters can be understood as a pedagogical proposal for the elaboration of losses. Snow White, Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty and The Three Little Pigs are icons who have the ability to keep themselves sane in an insane environment. From narratives, drama and Bible-dramas that consider resilient states and actions it is possible to favor the acquisition of learning to solve problems in real life.
Interdisciplinary research in articles published in journals and works in the fields of Psychiatry, Psychology, Theology and Thanatology, as well as a literature review concerning the resolution of mourning through role-playing and storytelling of fairy tales and wonderful stories.
Actions like role-playing and storytelling help in the elaboration of mourning and are beneficial to implement resilience in caregivers and patients.
It is important to research on the attention given to the recovery and maintenance of the resilience of those who undergo stress, live in unsafe conditions or seek the resolution of their mourning. Further research will be useful to develop the issue.
During the course of the past four decades, developmental psychopathology has emerged as a new science that integrates various disciplines, the efforts of which had previously been distinct and separate. The distinctiveness and uniqueness of a developmental psychopathology approach lie in its focus on normal and abnormal, adaptive and maladaptive, developmental processes. A developmental analysis presupposes change and novelty, highlights the critical role of timing in the organization of behavior, underscores multiple determinants, and cautions against expecting invariant relations between causes and outcomes. A developmental analysis is essential for tracing the roots, etiology, and nature of maladaptation so that interventions may be timed and guided as well as being developmentally appropriate. Moreover, a developmental analysis proves useful for discovering the compensatory mechanisms – biological, psychological, and social-contextual – that may promote resilient functioning despite the experience of significant adversity. Inherent to a developmental psychopathology approach is a commitment to the importance of applying knowledge of normal development to the study of typical populations. Even prior to the emergence of a mental disorder, certain pathways signify adaptational failures in normal development that probabilistically forebode subsequent psychopathology. The approach suggested by a developmental psychopathology framework requires a comprehensive assessment of functioning including multidisciplinary, multidomain, multilevel, and multicontextual measurement strategies. Additionally, developmental psychopathology is a lifespan perspective, because it is only by examining a range of conditions from infancy through adulthood that developmental continuities and discontinuities can be elucidated fully.
Federal agencies invest taxpayer dollars every year in conservation programs that are focused on improving a suite of ecosystem services produced on private lands. A better understanding of the public benefits generated by federal conservation programs could help improve governmental efficiency and economic welfare by providing science-based evidence for use in policy decision-making regarding targeting of federal conservation investments. Of specific concern here are conservation investments made by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). While previous research has shown that efficiency gains are possible using cost-benefit analysis for targeting conservation investments, agency-wide implementation of this approach by policy makers has been constrained by the limited availability of location-specific information regarding conservation benefits. Cost-effective opportunities for integrating location-specific ecosystem service valuation research with USDA conservation decision-making include: (1) institutionalizing funding of comparable studies suitable for benefit transfer, (2) utilizing non-traditional data sources for research complementing benefit transfer, and (3) creating a state-of-the-art program for developing and communicating research in ecosystem service valuation exemplifying the highest standards of scientific conduct.
The editor of the BJPsych Bulletin reflects on the extraordinary recent events triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health professionals are at the front line of managing the pandemic and emergency changes should lead to a much needed refocus on what is really vital. In these unsettling times we ought to review how we manage the crisis, and its aftermath, both personally and professionally.
Sustainability as a key principle that guides the development of our societies requires fundamental transitions if we are to attain a more liveable planet. Concomitantly, the question of how to assess sustainability not only with respect to specific system states, but also regarding transition processes as a whole, has gained greater importance. In this chapter, we propose to extend established sustainability assessment practices with an approach informed by resilience thinking. In particular, we apply a systemic angle to develop three analytical perspectives which focus on the progress, the stability, as well as the adaptability of transition processes. These perspectives make it possible to reflect on the history, current state, and (potential) future development of the system in transition. We illustrate how these analytical perspectives can complement existing sustainability assessment approaches with regard to the description, interpretation, and evaluation of the transition process.