Sentinel-1A is a space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system developed in the frame of the Copernicus Program. The German Aerospace Center supported the radiometric and polarimetric calibration of Sentinel-1A by the analysis of point target responses of several acquisitions considering different modes, beams, and polarization channels. An elevation dependent bias, which had not been properly predicted by the used antenna model, was found for all investigated modes. Offsets of up to 2 dB were determined during the SAR instrument calibration phase, in particular, for low and high elevation angles. Therefore, in order to correct these elevation biases, a radiometric refinement was carried out by European Space Agency in November 2015. After that, Sentinel-1A radiometric accuracy and long-term stability were analyzed over a period of 1.5 years. For this period, the absolute calibration factor and the channel imbalance were determined for the main imaging mode. Moreover, a slight drift of the derived calibration factor was observed starting from July 2016. At the same time an anomaly was detected in the front-end affecting several transmit and receive modules in one tile. The radiometric behavior of Sentinel-1A should therefore be monitored for a longer period of time, especially to detect potential degradation effects of the SAR instrument.