Psychiatric training in all European Union (EU) Member States complies with the relevant Council Directive 93/16, permitting free movement of specialists within EU borders. This assumes that the training offers similar experiences, and produces specialists fit for purpose in all EU countries. Surveys demonstrate that, although all countries adhere to the conditions of the Directive, the diversity of training is striking on all but the most fundamental aspects. An added complication is that psychiatric practice has become increasingly diversified, even between neighbouring countries, and psychiatric training will have evolved to meet national service requirements. Questions about how to safeguard competence of psychiatric specialists to practice across the EU are therefore pertinent, and introducing systems to regulate quality control of training should be considered.