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Hypochondria is characterized by the presence, for 6 months or more, of a generalized and non-delusional concern with fear of having (or the idea that one has) a serious illness, based on the wrong interpretation of the symptoms. In somatic-type delusional disorder, the delusional idea is fixed, indisputable, and occurs intensely because the patient is fully convinced of the physical nature of the disorder.
To describe a clinical case and make a differential diagnosis of hypochondriac disorder vs somatic-type delusional disorder.
Case report: 61-year-old woman, after suffering from COVID-19, develops a hypochondriacal disorder vs. somatic delusional disorder, presenting anxiety-depressive symptoms and digestive somatic complaints, with a loss of 15 kg of weight. She made frequent visits to doctors and multiple complementary tests discarding organicity. She required involuntary hospital admission for 48 days, and pharmacological treatment with Venlafaxine 150 mg, Olanzapine 5mg, Mirtazapine 30mg and Alprazolam 1mg. The patient presented slow evolution during admission, with ups and downs and stagnation, meriting enteral nutrition due to refusal to ingest, given abdominal kinesthetic hallucinations and digestive evaluation (EDS) with a result of antral gastritis and negative H. pylori. In subsequent follow-ups after partial remission of symptoms, obsessive personality traits are glimpsed, although with better personal functioning.
The diagnosis at discharge was inconclusive, however the data points to a somatic-type delusional disorder.
The influence of COVID-19 as a triggering factor, social isolation and premorbid personality traits, influence the development of a Somatic Delusional Disorder vs Hypochondriac Disorder, regarding this case.
This study sought to explain results of the Water Up!@Home randomised controlled trial where low-income parents were randomised to receive an educational intervention +a low-cost water filter pitcher or only the filter. Parents in both groups had reported statistically significant reductions in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and increases in water intake post-intervention.
Qualitative explanatory in-depth interviews analysed thematically and deductively.
Washington, DC metropolitan area, USA.
Low-income Latino parents of infants/toddlers who had participated in the Water Up! @Home randomised controlled trial.
The filter-stimulated water consumption in both groups by (1) increasing parents’ perception of water safety; (2) acting as a cue to action to drink water; (3) improving the flavour of water (which was linked to perceptions of safety) and (4) increasing the perception that this option was more economical than purchasing bottled water. Safe and palatable drinking water was more accessible and freely available in their homes; participants felt they did not need to ration their water consumption as before. Only intervention participants were able to describe a reduction in SSB intake and described strategies, skills and knowledge gained to reduce SSB intake. Among the comparison group, there was no thematic consensus about changes in SSB or any strategies or skills to reduce SSB intake.
A low-cost water filter facilitated water consumption, which actively (or passively for comparison group) displaced SSB consumption. The findings have implications for understanding and addressing the role of water security on SSB consumption.
Patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis (ANMDARE) show a wide range of behavioral abnormalities and are often mistaken for primary psychiatric presentations. We aimed to determine the behavioral hallmarks of ANMDARE with the use of systematic neuropsychiatric and cognitive assessments.
A prospective study was conducted, with 160 patients admitted to the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico, who fulfilled criteria for possible autoimmune encephalitis and/or red flags along a time window of seven years. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR were processed with rat brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays with NMDA expressing cells. Systematic cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and functional assessments were conducted before knowing NMDAR antibodies results. A multivariate analysis was used to compare patients with and without definite ANMDARE according to antibodies in CSF.
After obtaining the CSF antibodies results in 160 consecutive cases, 100 patients were positive and classified as having definite ANMDARE. The most frequent neuropsychiatric patterns were psychosis (81%), delirium (75%), catatonia (69%), anxiety-depression (65%), and mania (27%). Cognition was significantly impaired. A total of 34% of the patients had a predominantly neuropsychiatric presentation without seizures. After multivariate analysis, the clinical hallmarks of ANMDARE consisted of a catatonia–delirium comorbidity, tonic-clonic seizures, and orolingual dyskinesia.
Our study supports the notion of a neurobehavioral phenotype of ANMDARE characterized by a fluctuating course with psychotic and affective symptoms, catatonic signs, and global cognitive dysfunction, often accompanied by seizures and dyskinesia. The catatonia–delirium comorbidity could be a distinctive neurobehavioral phenotype of ANMDARE.
Perfectionism, low self-esteem and external locus of control are psychological constructs linked to insomnia, anxiety and depression. Examining how these constructs impact mental health and serve as risk factors for the development of clinically significant symptoms may help direct psychological support resources and preventative measures for university students.
To longitudinally examine associations between the aforementioned psychological constructs and symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression in a large representative sample of first-year university students.
Electronic surveys including validated measures of the predictors and outcomes were emailed to all first-year undergraduate students at entry to a major Canadian university, and followed up on at conclusion of the academic year.
Compared with healthy sleepers, students screening positive for insomnia had lower self-esteem, higher self-evaluative perfectionism and increased external locus of control (all P < 0.001). Self-evaluative perfectionism (standardised β = 0.13, P < 0.01), self-esteem (β = −0.30, P < 0.001) and external locus of control (β = 0.07, P = 0.02) measured at entry were significantly associated with insomnia symptoms at follow-up. Insomnia symptoms at entry were strong predictors of symptoms of depression (β = 0.15, P < 0.001) and anxiety (β = 0.16, P < 0.001) at follow-up, even after controlling for baseline symptoms of those disorders.
Perfectionism, low self-esteem and external locus of control may predispose the development of insomnia symptoms in university students. In turn, insomnia symptoms appear to be robust predictors for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Sleep may be an important prevention target in university students.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a valid surrogate for evaluating the effectiveness of antihyperglycemic drugs in diabetes mellitus (DM) trials.
We conducted a systematic review of placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of a treatment on HbA1c (mean difference between groups) and clinical outcomes (relative risk of mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and/or kidney injury) in patients with DM. Then, we investigated the association between treatment effects on HbA1c and clinical outcomes using regression analysis at the trial level. Lastly, we interpreted the correlation coefficients (R) using the cut-off points suggested by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG). HbA1c was considered a valid surrogate if it demonstrated a strong association: lower limit of the 95 percent confidence interval (95 percent CI) of R greater than or equal to .85.
Nineteen RCTs were identified. All studies included adults with type 2 DM. None of the associations evaluated was strong enough to validate HbA1c as a surrogate for any clinical outcome: mortality (R = .34; 95 percent CI −.14 to .69), myocardial infarction (R = .20; −.30 to .61), heart failure (R = .08; −.40 to .53), kidney injury (R = −.04; −.52 to .47), and stroke (R = .81; .54 to .93).
The evidence from multiple placebo-controlled RCTs does not support the use of HbA1c as a surrogate to measure the effectiveness of antihyperglycemic drugs in DM studies.
Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common presentation of cardiomyopathy in children with 20–35% of patients having an identified genetic component. There are more than 30 genes implicated in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy. We present the first report of a female infant with dilated cardiomyopathy with a genetic variant in the dispatched RND transporter family member 1 gene.
In the last decade, an abundance of research has utilized the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research domain criteria (RDoC) framework to examine mechanisms underlying anxiety and depression in youth. However, relatively little work has examined how these mechanistic intrapersonal processes intersect with context during childhood and adolescence. The current paper covers reviews and meta-analyses that have linked RDoC-relevant constructs to ecological systems in internalizing problems in youth. Specifically, cognitive, biological, and affective factors within the RDoC framework were examined. Based on these reviews and some of the original empirical research they cover, we highlight the integral role of ecological factors to the RDoC framework in predicting onset and maintenance of internalizing problems in youth. Specific recommendations are provided for researchers using the RDoC framework to inform future research integrating ecological systems and development. We advocate for future research and research funding to focus on better integration of the environment and development into the RDoC framework.
Gender disparities between Emergency Medicine physicians with regards to salary, promotion, and scholarly recognition as national conference speakers have been well-documented. However, little is known if similar gender disparities impact their out-of-hospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) colleagues. Although there have been improvements in the ratio of women entering the EMS workforce, gender representation has improved at a slower rate for paramedics compared to emergency medical technicians (EMTs). Since recruitment, retention, and advancement of females within a specialty have been associated with the visibility of prominent, respected female leaders, gender disparity of these leaders as national conference speakers may contribute to the “leaky pipeline effect” seen within the EMS profession. Gender representation of these speakers has yet to be described objectively.
The primary objective of this study was to determine if disparity exists in gender representation of speakers at well-known national EMS conferences and trade shows in the United States (US) from 2016-2020. The secondary objective was to determine if males were more likely than females to return to a conference as a speaker in subsequent years.
A cross-sectional analysis of programs from well-known national conferences, specifically for EMS providers, which were held in the US from 2016-2020 was performed. Programs were abstracted for type of conference session (pre-conference, keynote, main conference) and speakers’ names. Speaker gender (male, female) was confirmed via internet search.
Seventeen conference programs were obtained with 1,709 conference sessions that had a total of 2,731 listed speaker names, of whom 537 (20%) were female. A total of 30 keynote addresses had 39 listed speaker names of whom six (15%) were female. No significant difference was observed in the number of years males returned to present at the same conference as compared to females.
Gender representation of speakers at national EMS conferences in the US is not reflective of the current best estimate of the US EMS workforce. This disparity exists not only in the overall percent of female names listed as speakers, but also in the percent of individual female speakers, and is most pronounced within keynote speakers. Online lecture platforms, as an unintentional consequent of the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with intentional speaker development and mentorship initiatives, may reduce barriers to facilitating a new pipeline for more females to become speakers at national EMS conferences.
Developing agents capable of commonsense reasoning is an important goal in Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Because commonsense is broadly defined, a computational theory that can formally categorize the various kinds of commonsense knowledge is critical for enabling fundamental research in this area. In a recent book, Gordon and Hobbs described such a categorization, argued to be reasonably complete. However, the theory’s reliability has not been independently evaluated through human annotator judgments. This paper describes such an experimental study, whereby annotations were elicited across a subset of eight foundational categories proposed in the original Gordon-Hobbs theory. We avoid bias by eliciting annotations on 200 sentences from a commonsense benchmark dataset independently developed by an external organization. The results show that, while humans agree on relatively concrete categories like time and space, they disagree on more abstract concepts. The implications of these findings are briefly discussed.
The primary aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) for 9 months following a regional outbreak with this organism. We also aimed to determine the differential positivity rate from different body sites and characterize the longitudinal changes of surveillance test results among CRAB patients.
A 607-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Any patient admitted from postacute care facilities and any patient housed in the same inpatient unit as a positive CRAB patient.
Participants underwent CRAB surveillance cultures from tracheostomy secretions, skin, and stool from December 5, 2018, to September 6, 2019. Cultures were performed using a validated, qualitative culture method, and final bacterial identification was performed using mass spectrometry.
In total, 682 patients were tested for CRAB, of whom 16 (2.3%) were positive. Of the 16 CRAB-positive patients, 14 (87.5%) were residents from postacute care facilities and 11 (68.8%) were African American. Among positive patients, the positivity rates by body site were 38% (6 of 16) for tracheal aspirations, 56% (9 of 16) for skin, and 82% (13 of 16) for stool.
Residents from postacute care facilities were more frequently colonized by CRAB than patients admitted from home. Stool had the highest yield for identification of CRAB.
Food security status is a continuum ranging from high to very low food security. While marginal food security falls next to high food security on the spectrum, new quantitative research indicates marginal food security status is associated with negative health outcomes and poor academic performance among college students. Qualitative research focusing on college students experiencing marginal food security has not been conducted. The current study aims to qualitatively explore experiences of college students with marginal food security and to identify themes to better understand and provide context regarding how marginal food security impacts students.
Students were recruited for semi-structured interviews with questions designed to study the challenges associated with students’ food situations. All interviews were recorded and transcribed with themes identified via an inductive approach.
A large public university on the US west coast.
Thirty college students.
Key themes that emerged: purchasing cheap unhealthy foods, insufficient time to prepare and eat meals on a regular basis, stress and anxiety around the inability to eat healthy food and future health issues, self-perception of health when eating poorly along with physical symptoms and low academic motivation by not fully participating in their courses due to few healthy food options or missing meals.
Marginal food security can potentially diminish students’ health and their capacity to learn and succeed in their coursework. The results emphasise that students experiencing marginal food security should not be grouped with students experiencing high food security.
Little is known about the consequences of viral infection for pregnant woman or for the fetus. This issue became important with the appearance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection with SARS-CoV-2 causes a respiratory syndrome known as COVID-19. The fast spreading around the world and the fact that without a treatment or vaccine humans are completely exposed, converts emerging viral diseases in a significant risk for pregnant women and their infants. At this time, during SARS-CoV-2 pandemics pregnant women are not considered as a risk population and little is known about the effects of viral infections over the offspring although the amount of emerging evidence showing detrimental effects for the mother and the fetus. This issue highlights the importance to understand the effects of viral infections during pregnancy. In this work, we analyze the effects of viral infections, like SARS-CoV-2 and other related viruses during pregnancy over the mother and the consequences for the offspring.
The number of adults requiring surgeries for CHD is increasing. We sought to evaluate the utility of the vasoactive-ventilation-renal (VVR) score as a predictor of prolonged length of stay in adults following CHD surgery.
This is a retrospective review of 158 adult patients who underwent CHD surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass. VVR score was calculated upon arrival to ICU and every 6 hours for the first 48 hours post-operatively. Our primary outcome was prolonged length of stay defined as hospital length of stay greater than 75th percentile for the cohort (≥8 days).
The study cohort had a median age of 25.6 years (18–60 years), and 83 (52.5%) were male. The groups with and without prolonged length of stay were comparable in age, gender, race, and surgical severity score. VVR score was significantly higher at all time points in the group with prolonged length of stay. The first post-operative day peak VVR score ≥13 had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 75% for predicting prolonged length of stay (p = 0.0001). On regression analysis, peak VVR score during the first day was independently associated with prolonged length of stay.
Peak VVR score during the first post-operative day was a strong predictor of prolonged length of stay in adults following CHD surgery.
Greater psychosocial risk in childhood and adolescence predicts poorer cardiometabolic outcomes in adulthood. We assessed whether the timing of psychosocial risk from infancy through adolescence predicts cardiometabolic outcomes in young adulthood. Young adults and their mothers participated in a longitudinal study beginning in infancy in Santiago, Chile (N = 1040). At infancy, 5 years, 10 years, and adolescence, mothers reported on depressive symptoms, stressful experiences, support for child development in the home, father absence, parental education, and socioeconomic status (SES) to create a psychosocial risk composite at each time point. Young adults (52.1% female; 21–27 years) provided fasting serum samples and participated in anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) assessments, including a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan for measuring body fat. Greater infant psychosocial risk was associated with a greater young adult metabolic syndrome score (β = 0.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.01 to 0.13, p = 0.02), a higher body mass index and waist circumference composite (β = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13, p = 0.002), and a higher body fat (DXA) composite (β = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.12, p = 0.02). No psychosocial risk measure from any time point was associated with BP. Infant psychosocial risk predicted cardiometabolic outcomes in young adulthood better than psychosocial risk at 5 years, 10 years, or adolescence, mean of psychosocial risk from infancy through adolescence, and maximum of psychosocial risk at any one time. Consistent with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease model, findings suggest that infancy is a sensitive period for psychosocial risk leading to poorer cardiometabolic outcomes in young adulthood.
Over the past three decades, research efforts and interventions have been implemented across the United States to increase the persistence of underrepresented minority (URM) students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This Element systematically compares STEM interventions that offer resources and opportunities related to mentorship, research, and more. We organize the findings of this literature into a multi-phase framework of STEM integration and identity development. We propose four distinct phases of STEM integration: Phase 1: High School; Phase 2: Summer before College; Phase 3: First Year of College; and Phase 4: Second Year of College through Graduation. We combine tenets of theories about social identity, stereotypes and bias, and the five-factor operationalization of identity formation to describe each phase of STEM integration. Findings indicate the importance of exploration through exposure to STEM material, mentorship, and diverse STEM communities. We generalize lessons from STEM interventions to URM students across institutions.
Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis. The potential drug resistance necessitates the search for adjunct or alternative therapies to PZQ. Previous functional genomics has shown that RNAi inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) gene in Schistosoma adult worms significantly improved the effectiveness of PZQ. Here we tested the in vitro efficacy of 15 selective and non-selective CaMK inhibitors against Schistosoma mansoni and showed that PZQ efficacy was improved against refractory juvenile parasites when combined with these CaMK inhibitors. By measuring CaMK activity and the mobility of adult S. mansoni, we identified two non-selective CaMK inhibitors, Staurosporine (STSP) and 1Naphthyl PP1 (1NAPP1), as promising candidates for further study. The impact of STSP and 1NAPP1 was investigated in mice infected with S. mansoni in the presence or absence of a sub-lethal dose of PZQ against 2- and 7-day-old schistosomula and adults. Treatment with STSP/PZQ induced a significant (47–68%) liver egg burden reduction compared with mice treated with PZQ alone. The findings indicate that the combination of STSP and PZQ dosages significantly improved anti-schistosomal activity compared to PZQ alone, demonstrating the potential of selective and non-selective CaMK/kinase inhibitors as a combination therapy with PZQ in treating schistosomiasis.
Herein, we report a synthetic route capable of producing superparamagnetic, stable and biocompatible glucosamine (GLU) nanocarriers, composed by colloidal iron oxide nanoparticles (ION, ~6 nm) surface-functionalized with GLU dispersed in physiological media (pH 7.2). The route consists first of the preparation of ION by aqueous alkaline co-precipitation of 1:2 Fe(II)/Fe(III) followed by surface treatment with citric acid, activation of acidic groups via carbodiimide intermediary and further amidation using GLU as the amine reactant. Results from cell viability tests performed with human dental pulp tissue cells suggest that ION–GLU nanocolloids are biocompatible and non-toxic for two different concentrations and several hours of incubation. Moreover, optical microscopy shows that ION–GLU adsorbs at the cells walls and also transposes them, reaching cytoplasm and nucleus as well. All findings point out the promising use of ION–GLU as biocompatible nanocarriers for GLU delivery such as in articulation diseases.
Although there is growing interest in mental health problems in university students there is limited understanding of the scope of need and determinants to inform intervention efforts.
To longitudinally examine the extent and persistence of mental health symptoms and the importance of psychosocial and lifestyle factors for student mental health and academic outcomes.
Undergraduates at a Canadian university were invited to complete electronic surveys at entry and completion of their first year. The baseline survey measured important distal and proximal risk factors and the follow-up assessed mental health and well-being. Surveys were linked to academic grades. Multivariable models of risk factors and mental health and academic outcomes were fit and adjusted for confounders.
In 1530 students surveyed at entry to university 28% and 33% screened positive for clinically significant depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively, which increased to 36% and 39% at the completion of first year. Over the academic year, 14% of students reported suicidal thoughts and 1.6% suicide attempts. Moreover, there was persistence and overlap in these mental health outcomes. Modifiable psychosocial and lifestyle factors at entry were associated with positive screens for mental health outcomes at completion of first year, while anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with lower grades and university well-being.
Clinically significant mental health symptoms are common and persistent among first-year university students and have a negative impact on academic performance and well-being. A comprehensive mental health strategy that includes a whole university approach to prevention and targeted early-intervention measures and associated research is justified.
Comorbidity has been defined as the coexistence of somatic and psychiatric diseases with diferent physiopatology in the same person, and it can appear simultaneously to the schizophrenia or during the patient's lifetime. There are two types of comorbidity: episodical or taking place during the lifetime of the patient. We can diffferenciate between comorbidity itself (in cluster, dependent or associated) to the so-called pseudo-comorbidity. Besides, comorbidity has been classified as a co-syndrome and it is considered a prognosis indicator of this disease, which can determine an increase in the rates related to relapses, worse response to treatment, less capacity to cope with social situations, and suicide in patients suffering from schizophrenia.
177 schizophrenic patients were assessed for affective symptoms and suicide behaviour. 24.3% were suffered for depression. 35% had a previous record of autolytic attempts. The rate of suicide history were higher among depressed schizophrenics (50%) than non-depressed schizophrenics (20%) (p<0,05).
We point out the clinic importance of suicide in schizophrenic patients suffering from depression. Moreover, the study shows the necessity to carry out longitudinal studies to recognize indicators of depression in advance and establish the diagnosis of depression, and, also, to acknowledge the importance of the gender factor in the depression of schizophrenic patients.