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Each of these chapters contains a case study of a couple from the relevant country. Each includes a description of the everyday life of the couple with respect to the division of housework and childcare, a recounting of the history of their relationship and how it became equal, a discussion of how they balance paid work and family, and an analysis of the factors that facilitate their equality. Those factors include their conviction in gender equality, their rejection of essentialist beliefs, their familism, and their socialization in their families of origin. By showing how and why they undo gender, these couples provide lessons on how equality at home can be achieved.
This chapter recalls the author’s earlier visit to a Chinese compulsory drug detention center to explore covert civil society counter-surveillance of a tightly restricted facility under multiple rings of state surveillance, and to reflect on the limits of international regimes of monitoring and accountability. While torture and forced labor were widely reported, the facility’s manager presented it to the author as a model detention center. Ten years later, as senior human rights advisor at the Global Fund, which then invested in HIV programs in similar centers in Viet Nam, the author was tasked with developing a corporate Key Performance Indicator on human rights. The process of putting in place systems of compliance to ensure that aid money was not financing human rights violations became a public challenge. The chapter asks what can be known, from Geneva, about what really happens in places situated within multiple circles of top-down surveillance and display? By engaging in monitoring, civil society and development organizations attempt to engage in their own forms of surveillance and discipline. Sometimes, what they encounter is a Potemkin effect: a sunny display intended to deflect accountability and hide grimmer realities.
Since 1978, we have observed the steady development of institutions, mechanisms and processes of dispute resolution in China. In the last ten years or so, we then noted frequent issuance of new rules and measures as well as revision of existing laws, the promotion of mediation as the preferred method for resolving disputes and, more recently, the promotion of an integrated dispute-resolution system as a national strategy for comprehensive social control (as well as for resolving disputes), in the name of reforming and strengthening ‘the Mechanism for Pluralist Dispute Resolution’. Careful examination of these latest developments suggests that fundamental changes are taking place that may potentially alter the course of the development of the Chinese dispute-resolution system. These developments are the focus of this paper with an aim to ascertain the nature of the developments and their future direction or directions.
Yushu Prefecture in Qinghai Province provides some of the largest known stretches of habitat for the Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia in China. People living in these areas are dependent on agropastoralism. Support from local communities is necessary for effective long-term conservation action for snow leopards, but loss of livestock to snow leopards can create financial burdens that induce negative attitudes and encourage retaliatory killing. We assessed factors driving herders' attitudes towards snow leopards and their conservation. We found that herders had higher agreement with positive than with negative statements about snow leopards despite nearly half reporting livestock loss to snow leopards within the last 5 years. No retaliatory killing was reported. Herders with more years of formal education and fewer livestock losses were more likely to have positive attitudes whereas those with lower importance of snow leopards to their religion, fewer livestock losses, and fewer years of education were more likely to have negative attitudes. Understanding the multifaceted mechanisms responsible for positive views towards species is imperative for reaching conservation goals. Our findings ascribe to the importance of increased education and adherence to Tibetan beliefs in promoting conservation tolerance towards snow leopards in Qinghai Province, but also indicate a need for further research into the impact of livestock loss.
Reducing stigma is a perennial target of mental health advocates, but effectively addressing stigma relies on the ability to correctly understand and accurately measure culture-specific and location-specific components of stigma and discrimination.
We developed two culture-sensitive measures that assess the core components of stigma. The 40-item Interpersonal Distance Scale (IDS) asks respondents about their willingness to establish four different types of relationships with individuals with 10 target conditions, including five mental health-related conditions and five comparison conditions. The 40-item Occupational Restrictiveness Scale (ORS) asks respondents how suitable it is for individuals with the 10 conditions to assume four different types of occupations. The scales – which take 15 min to complete – were administered as part of a 2013 survey in Ningxia Province, China to a representative sample of 2425 adult community members.
IDS and ORS differentiated the level of stigma between the 10 conditions. Of the total, 81% of respondents were unwilling to have interpersonal relationships with individuals with mental health-related conditions and 91% considered them unsuitable for various occupations. Substantial differences in attitudes about the five mental health-related conditions suggest that there is no community consensus about what constitutes a ‘mental illness’.
Selection of comparison conditions, types of social relationships, and types of occupations considered by the IDS and ORS make it possible to develop culture-sensitive and cohort-specific measures of interpersonal distance and occupational restrictiveness that can be used to compare the level and type of stigma associated with different conditions and to monitor changes in stigma over time.
Chapter 2 critiques conventional bundled measures of corruption and presents an alternative – the Unbundled Corruption Index (UCI). This is an original expert survey that measures the prevalence of the four categories of corruption in my framework: petty theft, grand theft, speed money, access money. It provides systematic evidence that China’s corruption is indeed distinct from other typically predatory states.
The contention over the quantity and quality of regional missile defenses forward-deployed by the United States in the Asia-Pacific region animates much of the US–China disagreement about strategic stability. The Chinese argue that the deployed assets exceed reasonable defensive requirements and suggest that if these missile-defense deployments continue, they will be forced to increase the size of their nuclear arsenal. In disagreement, the United States claims that regional missile defenses are defensive by design, limited in scope, and necessary to defeat a North Korean missile campaign. In this article, a series of simulation experiments were developed to empirically test these opposing arguments over missile defenses and strategic stability. The simulations indicate that current deployments are necessary for defense and proportional to the threat. The analysis also argues that current deployments do not possess the ability to alter the US–China strategic nuclear balance significantly. The article concludes with a discussion of other subjective aspects of national security that may explain Chinese concerns and explore possible ways to reassure China.
Whether companies and shareholders should be held liable for land contamination that occurred prior to the passage of the law imposing liability for such contamination is a complex issue. After a theoretical analysis of the legitimacy of retroactivity in land contamination law, our comparative study shows that most countries have adopted, or tacitly approve of, retroactive liability for land contamination. However, the liability schemes implemented in the countries investigated vary as to the types of obligation, the timing of conduct for which liability is imposed, and the standard of liability, among other factors. The retroactive imposition of liability in China's recently enacted Law on the Prevention and Control of Soil Pollution is examined, as well as the roadblocks that still remain, and further improvement based on the theoretical and comparative analysis are considered.
Parents’ comparisons of siblings have been understudied among sibling research, especially in Chinese societies where the government recently relaxed its one-child policy. This study, using a two-wave longitudinal design, explored how parents’ comparisons of siblings were associated with adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Study participants were 260 Chinese adolescents who had siblings and completed questionnaires that assessed their internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as their perceptions of parents’ critical comparisons of siblings. Cross-lagged modeling analysis showed that parents’ comparisons of siblings predicted more internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents 6 months later. Moreover, adolescents’ externalizing problems but not internalizing problems predicted more parents’ comparisons of siblings over time. These findings underscore the importance of reciprocal relations between parents’ comparisons of siblings and adolescents’ externalizing problems and the implication of cultural context in understanding associations between parental practices and adolescents’ adjustment.
This article examines the institutionalization of online consultation, a prominent instrument of governance reform in contemporary China in which government organizations make public draft laws and regulations and solicit input from interested parties prior to finalizing decisions. The article specifically analyses the extent to which online consultation is a durable governance reform that enhances transparency and participation in policymaking. The analysis focuses on the Ministry of Commerce (MOC) and Guangzhou Municipal Government (GMG), leading organizations in the implementation of online consultation. Through the analysis of original datasets consisting of hundreds of policies proposed by the MOC and GMG and thousands of comments submitted in response to these drafts, the article demonstrates that online consultation has institutionalized government transparency but has not consistently enhanced public participation. Although online consultation has the potential to transform policymaking, the evidence suggests that strong confidence in this possibility is not warranted.
Chapter 1 places the Third Front in the climate of post-Great Leap Forward policy making. When the Great Leap failed, a group of leaders centered on Liu Shaoqi reaffirmed top-down control and promoted higher consumption, lower growth targets, and coastal development. Mao Zedong viewed these policies as being dangerously close to Soviet “revisionism” and wanted to push China onto a different economic path. I argue that Mao utilized growing American and Soviet animosity to tar post-Great Leap policies as a threat to national security and launch a new Maoist approach to building socialism in China in the Third Front campaign. Mao and his colleagues set up the Third Front to be different from the Great Leap Forward, which had relied on bottom–up mass mobilization and simple technologies. In contrast, the Third Front fused low– and high–tech methods in a centrally planned project to covertly industrialize inland areas in anticipation of a future conflict with Cold War rivals.
Already home to 23% of the global elderly population, China will experience further demographic change in the coming decades. To address the consequences of population ageing, the Chinese government is implementing major social insurance reforms and promotes the development of private insurance markets. We aim to inform these initiatives by developing a new method to project healthy life expectancy (HLE) in different regions. HLE is an important population health measure which is increasingly used in the actuarial literature. Our new approach relies on publicly available data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for life expectancy and HLE for 139 countries. We use the model to estimate HLE at birth in 2015 for 31 province-level regions in China for both males and females. We discuss the implications of our results for planned increases in the retirement age in China and for long-term care insurance pricing.
Human influence on ecological niches can drive rapid changes in the diet, behaviour and evolutionary trajectories of small mammals. Archaeological evidence from the Late Neolithic Loess Plateau of northern China suggests that the expansion of millet cultivation created new selective pressures, attracting small mammals to fields and settlements. Here, the authors present direct evidence for commensal behaviour in desert hares (Lepus capensis), dating to c. 4900 years ago. Stable isotope ratio analysis of hare bones from the Neolithic site at Yangjiesha shows a diachronic increase in a C4 (millet-based) diet, revealing, for the first time, the expansion of ancient human-hare interactions beyond the predator-prey relationship.
In the past 20 years, major public health emergencies and natural disasters such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003, the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, and the new coronavirus in 2019 (COVID-19), which caused massive casualties, infections and mass panic. These could also result in complex demands of medical resources and information disposal, and a shortage of human resources in emergency response. To address the potential shortage of human resources in emergency response, Chinese dental professionals have done some useful work in these incidents. From the work, deficiencies in emergency response training and in the expansion of rescue capabilities were identified and improvements were made.
Amid rapid population ageing and the high-speed progress of information and communications technology, use of smart electronics can improve older people's quality of life by helping them to stay connected, active and independent, which may, in turn, increase their overall happiness and sense of social belonging. Taking a gender perspective, this paper aims to understand variations in digital exclusion among older people. Using data from the 2016 China Longitudinal Ageing Social Survey, it finds that digital exclusion seems to vary by gender, with rural female older people being most excluded, possibly because they have the lowest capital endowment. The gender difference in the digital divide is even more salient with all other things being equal. Digital exclusion in the information era may further exacerbate gender inequality, particularly for those who are already most vulnerable. Since digital inclusion is somewhat inherent in the concept of intelligent old-age support, it should be considered an urgent necessity to help older people, especially rural women, become familiar with smart electronic products.
Chapter 1 provides the background for a discussion of Chinese economic thought in the Qing period, introducing its most important ideas, terminology, and tropes. In this context, it stresses the unique centrality of economic issues in Qing politics. It also illustrates how dismissing imperial tropes related to the notion of “nurturing” and “pacifying the people” (yangmin and anmin) as mere empty rhetoric prevents historians from fully understanding important political and economic objectives of the Chinese imperial government. This chapter also examines two important debates on the role of the state in the economy of the empire, the Debate on Salt and Iron (81 BCE) and the controversy surrounding Wang Anshi’s New Policies (1069–76). It further analyses the pro-market trends that accompanied the commercial growth of the Song dynasty – the beginning of a process of commercialization that was to come to maturation in the late Ming and early Qing periods.
The New Village (Atarashiki Mura) was an experiment in rural living created in 1918 by novelist and White Birch founder member Mushanokōji Saneatsu. Mushanokōji envisaged the village as the start of a social movement which would transform Japanese rural life from below. In fact, though, the village (which still exists today) remained tiny. However, I argue in this chapter that it had an influence and significance which cannot simply be measured by its size. The New Village helped to inspire a boom in the creation of experimental rural communities in Japan and China in the 1920s, and its practical influence even extended as far as South America. Despite internal problems, and despite the fact that Mushanokōji expressed enthusiastic support for Japan’s wartime military expansion, the village experienced a postwar period of revival and continued to be seen as a model for some social experiments in the 1970s, when the rise of environmentalism inspired a new interest in the creation of intentional communities.
“I’ll never forgive myself,” laments Professor Henry Jones Senior after hitting Junior with a large vase on the head. The subsequent scenes in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade clarify that the Professor’s concern was not directed at his son – who had, after all, come to save him from Nazi captivity – but at the damage inflicted on what appeared to be a fine exemplar of blue-and-white Chinese porcelain.
Islam travelled across the Asian expanse along land and maritime routes, as Muslims engaged in trade, proselytism, and conquest. While the territory and influence of Islamic political authority expanded, collapsed, and reached further once again, between the seventh and sixteenth centuries the realities and attributes of any given Islamic society varied greatly. This chapter provides a bird's-eye view of the expansive movement of Muslims out of Arabia and into Asia, as Islam crossed the Oxus/Amu Darya river (Uzbekistan), following two main paths. First was the military expansion of the Arab Muslim Empire, which reached its territorial apogee under the Abbasid, spreading as far as Transoxiana and Northwest India. Second was the movement of pilgrims, scholars, soldiers, and mystics – whose identities melted one into the other – across continental and maritime Asia, along the centuries-old Silk Road and the Indian Ocean networks. These trajectories allow us to see Asia as a historically cohesive space of Islamized interaction, where Muslims imagined themselves as part of a religious community, the umma.
This chapter stresses how Islamic activist ideologies travelled from one country to another, following multiple geographical vectors and shaping local envisioning of piety beginning in the 1980s. The influence of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood in the establishment and political assertion of Malaysia’s Islamist party (PAS), the impact of Iran’s revolutionary intellectuals among Indonesia’s activists, the Saudi World League’s interest in fostering connections in China, and the booming of relations across the border between former Soviet Central Asia and Pakistan all show how the re-imagination of piety that occurred in the second half of the twentieth century across Asia had roots in phenomena that built on the idea of the transnational umma as a global community of belonging, but it was also “hyper-national” in nature. These case studies are useful for understanding how international networks of piety found fertile soil to implant themselves in Asia as Muslims there became disenchanted with the secularist experiment.