To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chapter 8 discusses the arrival of vaccination in Portugal and Spain. An early recipient of cowpox, Portugal proved barren ground until the Prince Regent promoted the practice. Given its long rejection of smallpox inoculation, Spain moved surprisingly rapidly to embrace the new prophylaxis, with the first vaccination at the end of 1800, with vaccine sent from Paris. During 1801, vaccination was established in Madrid and other major centres and there was a flurry of publications on the procedure, some original, others customised translations. Grandees patronised vaccination in the provinces and local initiatives led to good coverage in Barcelona and Navarra. In 1803, the Royal and Philanthropic Vaccine Expedition was organised to extend the practice through the Spanish empire, beginning in the Canary Islands. War and political upheaval frustrated measures to consolidate vaccination in Spain and Portugal, but the authorities, political and medical, and some communities retained their commitment to the practice.
Chapter 12 discusses the severity of smallpox in the New World and the use of smallpox inoculation to control smallpox in the West Indies and suppress epidemics in Spanish America. Early attempts to introduce cowpox in Jamaica and elsewhere led to disappointment, but local initiatives began to bear fruit prior to the arrival of the Spanish Royal and Philanthropic Vaccine Expedition in 1804. This well documented expedition, in which children under vaccination were escorted to go arm-to-arm with others along the way, naturally commands centre stage. Projecting an image of professional expertise and imperial benevolence, Dr Balmis and his assistants brought vaccination to Venezuela and helped to set the practice on a firmer organisational footing in Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico. In the meantime, Salvany, his deputy, headed south through Colombia and Peru, vaccinating on an epic scale. Although Lima was already supplied with vaccine from Brazil by way of Buenos Aires, Salvany continued his work in the remote districts of Peru until his death in 1810. His assistant, Grajales, remained in harness in Chile until 1812.
The ‘Landscapes of (Re)Conquest’ project investigates the dynamics of medieval frontier societies in South-west Europe through the lens of the cultural landscape. It compares diverse regional borderlands in Spain, created by successive waves of Islamic and Christian conquests, with the Pyrenean frontier on either side of the Albigensian Crusade and aims to reconnect the castles of frontier authorities with their associated territories from a heritage perspective.
New Institutional Economics treats early modern Spain as an example of a state whose political and contracting institutions hindered economic growth. However, the assumption that Spanish political institutions were predatory in this respect has been called into question. This paper challenges the idea that Spain was unable to develop sufficiently good contracting institutions, of which we know relatively little. Using data from Malaga's notarial credit market, I show that legal institutions facilitated contractual compliance in private financial transactions. Specifically, public mortgage registries, which had improved the registration of properties used as collateral since their creation in 1768, favoured the subscription of larger contracts. Furthermore, results suggest that registries could have contributed to the development of a more impersonal credit market.
This brief biography of Blazquez de Pedro illustrates not only his central ideas but more importantly how he was representative of Caribbean transnational anarchism. As a Spanish soldier in the 1890s, he fought against anarchist-supported independence for Cuba. After the war, he discovered anarchism and became an important literary and educational figure in the movement. In 1914, he moved to Panama and helped the isthmus maintain regional linkages with Havana. He combined literary with labor anarchism in the 1910s and 1920s, becoming the most recognizable face of anarchism in Central America. His deportation to and death in Cuba was not the end of his transnational wanderings as comrades returned his remains to Panama in 1929.
This article examines the conditions under which interest groups interact with political parties. Existing research finds that interest group–political party interactions in most western democracies have become more open and contingent over time. The close ideological and formal organisational ties that once characterised these relations have gradually been replaced by alternative, more pragmatic forms of cooperation. However, most of this research stresses the importance of the structural factors underpinning these links over time and across countries, but sheds little light on the factors driving short-term interest group–party interactions. Here, by drawing on survey data on Spanish interest groups obtained between December 2016 and May 2017, this article seeks to fill this gap by taking into account party status, issue salience and a group’s resources as explanatory variables. It shows that mainstream parties are the primary targets of interest groups, that groups dealing with salient issues are more likely to contact political parties and that the groups with most resources interact with a larger number of parties.
Chapter 3 looks at how far questions of human rights contributed to the campaigns against political imprisonment during the 1950s. The Cold War forms the inescapable context: the left campaigned for left-wing prisoners, and the right for right-wing prisoners. Peter Benenson challenged this binary distinction when he set up the cross-party lawyers’ organisation Justice in 1956. The chapter discusses Benenson’s early career, as well as that of Eric Baker, who would work closely with him in Amnesty. The two men first worked together in Cyprus during the Emergency of 1955-1959. Baker’s Quaker heritage is explored, as well as his support for the influential Italian social activist Danilo Dolci. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the various campaigns that were launched in the late 1950s and early 1960s for an amnesty for political prisoners in Spain, Portugal and Greece. These were essentially left-wing campaigns, but it is argued that they had much in common with later ‘human rights‘ campaigns and are worthy of serious study.
During the late 1960s and early 1970s activists became deeply concerned about the increasing use of torture by states, and this swiftly became a central issue for their activities. The chapter begins with a discussion of the campaigns against torture in Greece, Chile and Spain. This is followed by a major re-evaluation of Amnesty’s decision to launch an international campaign for the abolition of torture in 1973, emphasising the significance of the role played by the Quaker activist Eric Baker. The final section examines the Soviet Union’s decision to place political opponents in psychiatric hospitals, a practice that was seen by activists as an act of torture. The chapter argues that the campaign against torture marked a relaunching of Amnesty International, and, indeed, of human rights activism more generally.
The sixteenth century would witness the remarkable rise of silk production in the Spanish Empire, as Iberian conquistadors and caterpillars converged upon Meso-American Indians and mountain forests. By the 1560s, amidst the brutal extraction of gold and silver, silk production had blossomed into one of the Americas’ first post-Columbian cash crops, and for a time it sustained a manufacturing industry that helped satiate the growing markets of a Latinising America. Perhaps strangely, this first colonial attempt at establishing silk cultivation across the Atlantic – rooting in Oaxaca – would prove unquestionably the most successful of all those in the Americas, linking the victims of the European Reconquista with those of the American Conquista: a Moorish speciality became a Mixtecan Indian opportunity. But it was a function of the dramatic pace of global interconnection in the sixteenth century that, within four decades of the first harvesting of American raw silk in the 1540s, the first Asian raw silk in bulk arrived from the other direction, across the Pacific. A commercial battle followed between the valuable fibrous proteins emitted by the silkworms of Granada (in Spain and New Spain), and those of their long-distant ancestors in China. Its result, the collapse of raw silk production in New Spain, was heavily influenced by the decline of Indian populations and the paranoia of the Spanish Crown in terms of protecting peninsular interests.
F. Manuel Montalbán, Francisco M. Llorente and Evelina Zurita apply key ideas from critical assessments of study abroad contexts when they examine the effects of academic mobility on exchange students’ intercultural competence. Their chapter draws on comments from Spanish and South Korean students within joint internationalization programmes led by the University of Malaga and South Korean universities to analyse how exactly international students construct their cultural experiences. In particular, they discover three interpretative repertoires, which focus on fundamental aspects of these experiences: mastery and interest in the language, counter-stereotypic otherness and differentiation at the individual level. Some student comments demonstrate that progress in intercultural competence is frequently left to the spontaneous development of informal and personal interactions.
The main problem of depression is not only the high prevalence of the disorder but also its serious consequences on the patient’s quality of life and the associated social costs in terms of health care resource utilization and productivity losses. In recent years, there has been a considerable improvement in the knowledge of depression from the pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic perspectives. The present study analyzes whether such advances are reflected in a positive evolution of the treatment of depression in Spain. To this effect we have contrasted the results of two socio-sanitary studies published in this country: the White Book editions of 1982 and 1997 (WB82 and WB97, respectively). From the methodological perspective, the physician selection criteria employed were very uniform (structured questionnaires delivered to 128 (WB82) and 300 (WB97) randomly selected psychiatrists). The origin of patients consulting for specialized care has varied over this 15-year period. In effect, WB82 patients were essentially referred by friends (87.5%) and from the primary care setting (44.5%), whereas in the WB97 study referral from primary care predominated (50.1%), followed by the patient’s personal decision (24.8%). In turn, 40.7% and 51.7% of the psychiatrists in WB97 respectively considered the diagnostic and therapeutic means available in primary care to be insufficient. The priorities for improving patient quality of life, as reflected by both editions of the study, were the training of primary care physicians and the adequate provision of means in the mental health care centers. On the other hand, fewer problems for establishing a correct diagnosis were referred in the 1997 edition of the study (28.7%) than in 1982 (48.4%). In this sense, the main problem reported in WB82 was the lack of specialized training, whereas the masking of depression by some other disease process or symptoms was the main problem in WB97 (67.6% vs 21.1% according to WB82). The main symptoms upon which the diagnosis of depression are based do not seem to have evolved much in the past 15 years. The most frequently cited manifestations were a worsening of mood, loss of interest and leisure capacity, sleep alterations and diminished vitality. A comparative analysis of the therapeutic resources used was not possible, for prior to 1982 the only drugs available to physicians were the classical tricyclic agents and some MAO inhibitors; the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) – possibly the greatest advance in the treatment of depression in these 15 years – had not yet been introduced. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that 98% of the psychiatrists consulted in WB97 considered pharmacologic treatment to be the most widely adopted form of management once depression has been diagnosed.
To analyze the trend of antipsychotic drug consumption in Spain from 1985 to 2000, and the impact of atypical antipsychotics on the overall consumption and on clozapine use.
Data on antipsychotic consumption were drawn from the ECOM database of the Spanish Ministry of Health, which contains the retail community pharmacies sales of medicinal products reimbursed by the National Health System. Data are presented as defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1000 inhabitants per day, for each year. To evaluate the impact of atypical antipsychotics on clozapine use, data from the Spanish “Clozapine Monitoring Program” were analyzed. Consumption data from Nordic countries were obtained from national statistics.
The use of antipsychotics in Spain increased progressively from 1.51 DDD/1000 inhabitants/d in 1985 to 5.73 DDD/1000 inhabitants/d in 2000. The pattern of use of individual drugs changed greatly over the study period. In 1985, haloperidol, fluphenazine and thioridazine, all typical antipsychotics, were the drugs most widely used, whereas in 2000, the three drugs most frequently used were risperidone, olanzapine and haloperidol. The introduction of olanzapine in December 1996 reduced the number of new treatments with clozapine to half. Antipsychotic use is still lower in Spain than in Nordic countries, despite the prevalence of schizophrenia being similar worldwide.
Antipsychotic agent use in Spain has increased progressively since 1985, reducing the differences between Spain and other European countries (Nordic countries). Substantial differences in the pattern of drug use from 1985 to 2000 have been observed.
– To describe the utilization, geographical variations and adaptation of ECT in the Spanish context.
– A cross-sectional study, involving a questionnaire delivered to all hospitals with a Psychiatry Unit (PU) in Spain included in the National Hospitals Catalogue (N = 233). A descriptive analysis was made of the answers to the different questions, using an adequate denominator in each case: all PUs (n = 233), those units that prescribe and apply ECT (n = 174), or only those that apply the technology (n = 108).
– All PUs completed the questionnaire. Fifty-nine units (25.3%) neither prescribed nor applied ECT, while 108 (46.4%) prescribed and applied the technology, and 66 PUs (28.3%) only prescribed ECT. Those units with training responsibilities for psychiatry residents or pregraduate students, and those with a larger number of beds, were more inclined to apply ECT. The estimated ECT applied in the preceding 12 months totaled 2435 with an annual rate per 10,000 inhabitants of 0.61, and a range per Spanish Autonomous Community of 0.28–16.59.
– We now know a reliable rate and characteristics of the use of ECT in Spain, and the attitudes and opinion of PUs Spanish psychiatrists about it. We found a very important variability in ECT application rates among Autonomous Communities.
Post-1945 Spanish and Portuguese emigration and immigration histories encapsulate the Iberian region's long-standing interconnectedness with the wider world (particularly Latin America and Africa) and other parts of Europe alike. Portugal and Spain have both been part of multiple migration systems as important sending countries that ultimately experienced an international migration turnaround owing to their transition to democracy, decolonisation, and accession to a European Union in which internal freedom of movement counted among its core principles. With the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis and Europe's migration crisis of the 2010s serving as its vantage point, this article considers these topics as they intersect with issues that include nationality and citizenship, race and racism, and religion and Islamophobia in multicultural Spain and Portugal.
The Spanish patent system in the twentieth century has been defined by the incorporation of technologies and regulations. Patents have been intermediaries, and their regulation has been subject to complaints, some of which came from abroad. To analyse this reality, I propose two case studies that suggest different patent cultures, subject to specific times and places. The first case, the arrival in Spain of the first North American patents to protect production of penicillins, shows the mediation role patents played. Patents connected practices, languages, and interests from different Spanish and North American professional communities – clinical, industrial, and political – at the end of the 1940s and beginning of the 1950s. The second case, the launch on the market of a Spanish patent for a DNA polymerase, product of research done in a Spanish laboratory and patented in the USA in 1988, shows rather local regulations and the limits on international harmonization. The political, social, and economic changes that protection systems demand differ from one place to another, and do not always coincide with voices calling for harmonization.
Spanish bullfights have been organized twice in Hungary: in 1904 and 1924. Unlike in 1904, when the bullfights arrived in Budapest from Paris and were held with the city's urban tourism promotion interests in mind, the 1924 corrida was connected to the internationalization of Spanish bullfights through their support by fascist Italy, causing a domestic political imbroglio in Hungary due to competing political and business interests at home. At the same time, the bullfights represented another novelty in the field of transnational popular entertainment, whose different waves had continuously reached Budapest since the late nineteenth century. Focusing on the 1924 event, the article argues that the bullfights organized in Budapest that year need to be understood from the perspective of interactions between postwar European authoritarian cultural politics, the domestic political scene in Hungary, and Spanish attempts to turn the bullfights into a transnational spectacle rivaling the popularity of British football. Although the bullfights did not take root in Hungary, their organization in Budapest represents an important chapter in the global advance of twentieth-century popular culture, a historically informed understanding of the formation of which requires consideration not just of successful but also failed processes of cultural transfer.
Using an interpretative comparison in search for cross-case similarities and differences, we examine the evolution of equity of access to healthcare during the economic crisis in two potentially vulnerable Eastern and Southern European countries – Lithuania and Spain. While the type of healthcare system may have shown higher resilience, i.e. equity of access to care during the crisis should have been affected more in Lithuania – a relatively immature health insurance system – than in Spain – a consolidated national health service, the intensity and length of the crisis and types of adjustment measures undertaken may have led, in turn, to different results in terms of equity of access. The analysis focuses on the respective institutional designs and healthcare reforms under austerity as well as subjective and objective indicators of access to care. We conclude that the Lithuanian healthcare system, despite potential comparative disadvantage, has shown greater performance than the Spanish one during the crisis.
Representative democracies are supposed to be uniquely virtuous in that they ensure that public preferences drive public policy. Dynamic representation is the outcome of a recurring interaction between electorate and parties that can be observed at the macro level. Preferences can shape government policy via two possible mechanisms. ‘Policy accomodation’ suggests that governments respond directly to the electorate’s preferences. ‘Electoral turnover’, on the other hand, assumes that preferences shape policy indirectly. Parties pursue their ideological goals, and public preferences respond ‘thermostatically’ by moving in the opposite direction to policy. This causes voters to switch votes and eventually leads to a turnover of power from one ‘side’ to ‘the other’. In this paper, we estimate preferences for government activity (‘the policy mood’) in Spain between 1978 and 2017. We show that mood responds ‘thermostatically’ to policy. Variations in mood are associated with support for parties. Policy is driven by party control but is not thermostatically responsive to mood. It appears that in Spain – like Britain – dynamic representation can only be achieved by electoral turnover. We consider the implications of this for our understanding of how representation works.
Northern Spain has a high density of Upper Palaeolithic cave art sites. Until recently, however, few such sites have been reported from the Basque Country, which has been considered to be a ‘void’ in the distribution of parietal art. Now, new discoveries at Danbolinzulo Cave reveal a different situation. The graphic homogeneity of the motifs, which comprise five ibex, two horses and a possible anthropomorph, along with several unidentified figures, strongly suggests a pre-Magdalenian (>20 000 cal BP) date for the art. Here, Danbolinzulo is interpreted in its wider context as occupying a pivotal position between Cantabrian-Iberian and French/continental art traditions.