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  • Cited by 5
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    2016. The Medieval Revision of the Ambrosian Hexateuch. p. 431.

    2014. The Portrayals of the Pharisees in the Gospels and Acts. p. 248.

    Thompson, Joseph 2012. From Judah to Jamaica: The Psalms in Rastafari Reggae. Religion and the Arts, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 328.

    Smith, Anthony D. 1994. The problem of national identity: Ancient, medieval and modern?. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 375.

    Derrett, J. Duncan M. 1994. ‘You Abominate False Gods; but Do You Rob Shrines?’ (ROM 2.22b). New Testament Studies, Vol. 40, Issue. 04, p. 558.

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Book description

The first three volumes of The Cambridge History of Judaism cover the history of the Jews from the Exile in 587 BCE to the early Roman period extending into the third century CE. A comprehensive examination is made of all the relevant literary and archeological sources, and special attention is given to the interaction of Iranian, Semitic, Hellenistic and Roman cultures. The contributors include both Jewish and Gentile scholars from many countries, and this History thus helps to deliver the study of Jewish history and Christian origins from geographical and religious limitations, and contributes to a deeper understanding and a broader tolerance. This first volume opens with three introductory chapters to the work as a whole dealing with the geographical background, the chronology and the numismatic history of Judaism. The remainder of this volume concentrates on the Persian period, the two and a half centuries following the Babylonian Exile.

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  • 1 - The geography of Palestine and the Levant in relation to its history
    pp 1-24
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter focuses on two facts that are of fundamental importance: the centrality and the extraordinary smallness of Palestine. The most obvious feature of the Levant is its division into four longitudinal zones: the narrow lowlands along the coast, widening only in the south, the western highlands, the central rift valley, and the eastern plateau. The dominant alignment of the surface folds is roughly from south-west to north-east, clearly visible in the Lebanon and Anti- Lebanon mountains and those parallel folds which form the Negeb uplands of southern Cis-jordan. In the days of the Israelite monarchy the long Horns-Palmyra corridor was the limit of David's, and later Jeroboam II's, empire, and in the period with which we are concerned it constituted the northern boundary of the territories of Phoenicia and Coele-Syria, as it is today the boundary of Lebanon. The nature of the Palestinian climate helped to compartmentalize the country, which lies close to the southern limit of the Mediterranean climate belt.
  • 2 - Numismatics
    pp 25-59
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter focusses on numismatics during various periods of Jewish history: Persian period, Alexander Janneus and Hellenistic dynasties, Hasmonean period, John Hyrcanus I and Herodian period. Since the eighteenth century the careful, scientific study of ancient Palestinian coinage struck by both Jewish and non-Jewish authorities has been recognized as an adjunct to the study of classical Jewish history. The Phoenician coins found in Palestine were minted in the first place in Sidon and also in Tyre. Many of the Ptolemaic coins found in Palestine were minted in Alexandria, though there is significant coinage from other mints in the Ptolemaic empire. The suppression of the two great Jewish revolts in Palestine changed the ethnography of the land and shifted the balance in favour of the non-Jewish elements. The production of coinage was now restricted to a number of official mints and the currency in use in Palestine consisted of coins provided by a number of these production centres.
  • 3 - Calendars and chronology
    pp 60-69
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Babylonian conquest changed both the civil calendar and the reckoning of years in Judea. The regnal years, however, must differ from the fixed civil years. From 200 BCE, the official reckoning in Jerusalem was that of the Seleucid dynasty that is, the continuous numbering of the regnal years of Seleucus I, even after his death. With the Babylonian domination came also the Babylonian calendar and the Babylonian names of the months, first attested in Zech. The Babylonian calendar, like the biblical one, was lunisolar, and in both calendars the beginning of a month depended on the observation of the new crescent. The calendar situation in the Roman province of Judea, before and after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE remains obscure. The Julian solar year became accepted in the whole Roman Levant, often without change in month names. The author of Jubilees, writing about 200 BCE, compiled a biblical chronology based on Jubilee and sabbatical year periods.
  • 4 - The Persian empire and the political and social history of Palestine in the Persian period
    pp 70-87
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    With the conquest of the Babylonian empire in the days of Cyrus, the satrapy of Abar Nahara, which was at that time an integral part of the Babylonian empire, was annexed as a whole to the young Persian empire. Cyrus inherited from the Babylonian kings the unstable organization of this large region on the south-west border of the empire, which included many kingdoms, nomadic tribes and commercial towns. A new wave of Jews from Babylon left to resettle in Palestine, this time headed by a strong religious and political leadership. This chapter discusses the establishment of the province of Judah. The predominant characteristic of the province of Judah as reflected in the Bible and archeological finds is the connection between the province of the Persian period and that of the Judean kingdom of the pre-exilic period. In the south, the Judean state was re-established first by the descendants of the royal family and later by a dynasty of local governors.
  • 5 - The archeology of Persian palestine
    pp 88-114
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the history of Palestine, the Persian period is one of the more obscure periods, despite the fact that archeologically it is relatively recent. There were three types of tombs is used in Palestine, differing both in plan and in contents: the Intermediate type, the Cist type, and the Shaft type. The pottery of the Persian period is generally scanty in decoration. The Achemenid pottery was quite meagre and not common beyond the borders of Persia proper. Thus we may conclude that in the Persian period Palestine was divided, as far as pottery production is concerned, into two regions: Galilee and the coastal plain and the mountainous regions of Judea and Samaria. During the Persian period there were also coins in use in Palestine. The astonishing fact emerges that in the case of the material culture in Palestine one cannot distinguish any influence of the Persian material culture by whose name one identify the entire period.
  • 6 - Hebrew and Aramaic in the Persian period
    pp 115-129
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Hebrew and Aramaic were the two main languages in use among the Jews during the Persian period. During the Persian period, Aramaic adopted a great number of Iranian loanwords and it is not surprising to find some Egyptian loanwords in the texts from Egypt. The literary remains of the Persian period may be divided into the following groups: poetry and prophecy, prose tales, and historical works. There is both Hebrew and Aramaic epigraphic material from the Persian period in Palestine, the Aramaic material being more plentiful than the Hebrew. In the pre-exilic period one can distinguish between the three independent script traditions of Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic on the one hand, and the derivative scripts of the Ammonites, of the Moabites and the Edomites in the tenth to ninth centuries BCE on the other hand. One may assume that in the cities, especially Jerusalem, the populace was bilingual, but that in many villages Hebrew was the chief language.
  • 7 - The Jewish community in Palestine in the Persian period
    pp 130-161
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses the essential elements of the small Jewish community history in the Persian period. In view of the Chronicler's almost entire concentration upon the southern kingdom of Judah, a first stage might well be some extension of the purely Judah narratives covering the period from 722 to 587 BCE. Attempts have been made in recent years to identify stages in the evolution of the Chronicler's work, intermediate between the form of the material familiar in the Deuteronomic History and that found in the final completed work. The main source for the history of Circa period is Ezra 1 to 6; it lacks continuity and consists of elements in Hebrew and in Aramaic. Ezra is shown as commissioned by the Persian ruler to bring about a new and fuller acceptance of the Jewish law in the whole area of the Persian province of Beyond the River. The activity of Nehemiah is described in the narratives of Neh.
  • 8 - Prophecy and Psalms in the Persian period
    pp 162-188
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    An account of the prophecy and Psalms of the Persian period is fraught with the same difficulties as any other history of prophecy and Psalms within a given period. All the prophets after Deutero-Isaiah had to take a position in regard to the expectation of impending salvation. These include the known prophets Haggai, Zechariah and Joel, together with a number of anonymous prophets whose words have come down to everyone in the book of Malachi and in the books of the pre-exilic prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah and Micah. Haggai's proclamation links up with the prophecies of Deutero-Isaiah, announcing the impending eschatological rule of the Lord. Deutero-Isaiah still saw the dawn of redemption as being connected with the return of the Israelites to Palestine. The destruction of Jerusalem, the deportation of Judeans and the desolate conditions in the land itself even after the return of the deportees had given rise to the composing of Psalms particularly of the kind known as lamentations.
  • 9 - Wisdom literature in the Persian period
    pp 189-218
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The roots of Jewish Wisdom literature lie in the pre-exilic period. The book of Proverbs is attributed to Solomon. Whatever this 'authorship' may signify, at least it reveals that under Solomon Israel participated in that spiritual movement usually denoted by the biblical keyword 'Wisdom'. After Israel had unreservedly entered the historical world of Near Eastern antiquity under the reign of David, it was then enabled under Solomon to partake of the highly advanced Near Eastern culture in which this Wisdom represented an essential element. The Mesopotamian Wisdom literature had already been widely developed in Sumerian writings. In addition to the instructional form also common in Mesopotamian Wisdom literature, collections of proverbs are a characteristic feature. The urgent nature of Wisdom's admonitions, which may take on a prophetic form as though they proceeded from Yahweh Himself, and which pursue men ineluctably, is underlined by the personification of Wisdom.
  • 10 - Jewish religious life in the Persian period
    pp 219-278
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Pagan literature tells everyone little about the Jews of the Persian period. Herodotus says that the Phoenicians and Syrians in Palestine admit that they learned from the Egyptians. Of the reports only Ezra and 1 Esdras, Nehemiah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Josephus, contain material of importance for an historical account of Judaism in the Persian period. This period saw the copying and preservation of all the earlier Hebrew literature that has come down to people. Presumably the material copied was indicative of the copyists' religious interests and beliefs. On the basis of historical events, then, one should say that the main concerns of Jewish religious life in the late sixth century were the return to Jerusalem, the rebuilding of the temple, and the conflicts and messianic expectations it touched off. The Levites who produced Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah wanted to justify and magnify their position in Temple and cult.
  • 11 - Persian religion in the Achemenid age
    pp 279-307
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The records of ancient Iran are sparse; and the first piece of evidence for Zoroastrianism among the Persians comes from personal names among the Achemenids, who in the seventh century BCE were ruling over Pars as vassals of the Medes. In due course Cyrus II rebelled against the Median King Astyages and established the first Persian empire. Zarathushtra's own dualism is expressed with characteristic force and concentration in the Gathic verses. Zarathushtra invokes other lesser divine beings in the Gathas, notably a great heptad which includes the Holy Spirit. Cyrus kept his word, as befitted a worshipper of Truth, in allowing the exiled peoples in Babylonia, including the Jews, to return to their own lands. The word brahman is attested in a famous inscription of Artaxerxes' father, Xerxes, who succeeded Darius in 486. Early in his reign Xerxes put down a Babylonian revolt. The Sasanid royal family was Zurvanite, and consciously maintained Achemenid tradition in a number of ways.
  • 12 - Iranian influence on Judaism: first century B.C.E. to second century C.E.
    pp 308-325
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The fact that in the latter part of the Second Temple period Judaism was undergoing far-reaching changes and developing new aspects, trends, themes and ideas, which were to be retained in part as belonging to the permanent stock of Jewish life and thought, has long attracted the attention of students of Judaism. The earliest layer of religious literature in Iran, the group of hymns known as the Gathas, are quite commonly accepted to be a composition of the founder of the religion, Zarathushtra, whose date is not unanimously agreed upon. A common misconception has bred an argument against a comparison of Jewish dualism with the Iranian type of faith. In the field of eschatological ideas, encounter some of the striking points of similarity between Iran and the Jewish writings. The complexity and apparent contradictions in the eschatological schemes, both in Iran and in Judaism, are quite considerable. The idea of the eschatological conflagration is probably not of Persian origin.
  • 13 - The Diaspora
    pp 326-400
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Persian period in Babylonia's history is exceptional for its wealth of written source material, mainly thousands of domestic, administrative and private legal documents. The official language of the Persian civil service in Babylonia ever since Cyrus II was Aramaic. Under Darius I it was used for communication between government departments throughout the Persian state. During the Achemenid period regular trading relations were established between Babylonia and its neighbouring countries. In point of fact, the question of Jewish self-government in Persian Babylonia is difficult. The new attitude of the Babylonian Diaspora became paradigmatic. From everywhere, the Diaspora turned to Zion and to Zion alone. Towards the end of the reign of Darius I there seems to have been a slackening of Persian control over the Egyptian colony, probably because of the Persian engagement with the Greeks, who had successfully resisted the great king at Marathon.
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