Skip to main content Accessibility help

The artful mind meets art history: Toward a psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation

  • Nicolas J. Bullot (a1) and Rolf Reber (a2)

Research seeking a scientific foundation for the theory of art appreciation has raised controversies at the intersection of the social and cognitive sciences. Though equally relevant to a scientific inquiry into art appreciation, psychological and historical approaches to art developed independently and lack a common core of theoretical principles. Historicists argue that psychological and brain sciences ignore the fact that artworks are artifacts produced and appreciated in the context of unique historical situations and artistic intentions. After revealing flaws in the psychological approach, we introduce a psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation. This framework demonstrates that a science of art appreciation must investigate how appreciators process causal and historical information to classify and explain their psychological responses to art. Expanding on research about the cognition of artifacts, we identify three modes of appreciation: basic exposure to an artwork, the artistic design stance, and artistic understanding. The artistic design stance, a requisite for artistic understanding, is an attitude whereby appreciators develop their sensitivity to art-historical contexts by means of inquiries into the making, authorship, and functions of artworks. We defend and illustrate the psycho-historical framework with an analysis of existing studies on art appreciation in empirical aesthetics. Finally, we argue that the fluency theory of aesthetic pleasure can be amended to meet the requirements of the framework. We conclude that scientists can tackle fundamental questions about the nature and appreciation of art within the psycho-historical framework.

Hide All
Alter, A. L. & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2009) Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation. Personality and Social Psychology Review 13:219–35. DOI: 10.1177/1088868309341564.
Alter, A. L., Oppenheimer, D. M., Epley, N. & Eyre, R. N. (2007) Overcoming intuition: Metacognitive difficulty activates analytical reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136:569–76. DOI: 10.1037/0096-3445.136.4.569.
Anderson, R. C. & Pearson, P. D. (1984) A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading comprehension. In: Handbook of reading research, ed. Barr, R., Kamil, M. L. & Mosenthal, P., pp. 255–91. Longman.
Antliff, M. (2000) The fourth dimension and futurism: A politicized space. The Art Bulletin 82(4):720–33.
Arnau, F. (1961) The art of the faker: Three thousand years of deception. Little, Brown.
Arnheim, R. (1956/1974) Art and visual perception: A psychology of the creative eye. University of California Press.
Arnheim, R. (1981) Style as a Gestalt problem. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 39(3):281–89.
Arnheim, R. (1986) New essays in the psychology of art. University of California Press.
Azzouni, J. (2004) Theory, observation and scientific realism. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55(3):371–92. DOI: 10.1093/bjps/55.3.371.
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995) Mindblindness. MIT Press.
Bartsch, K. & Wellman, H. J. (1995) Children talk about the mind. Oxford University Press.
Baxandall, M. (1985) Patterns of intention. Yale University Press.
Beardsley, M. C. (1958/1981) Aesthetics: Problems in the philosophy of criticism (second edition). Hackett Publishing.
Beckett, S. (1954) Waiting for Godot: A tragicomedy in two acts. Grove Press.
Belke, B., Leder, H., Strobach, T. & Carbon, C. C. (2010) Cognitive fluency: High-level processing dynamics in art appreciation. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 4:214–22.
Benjamin, W. (1936/2008) The work of art in the age of its technological reproducibility, second version, trans. E. Jephcott, R. Livingstone & H. Eiland. In: The work of art in the age of its technological reproducibility, and other writings on media, ed. Jennings, M. W., Doherty, B. & Levin, T. Y., pp. 1955. Harvard University Press.
Berlyne, D. E. (1971) Aesthetics and psychobiology. Meredith.
Berlyne, D. E., ed. (1974) Studies in the new experimental aesthetics: Steps toward an objective psychology of aesthetic appreciation. Hemisphere.
Bigand, E. & Poulin-Charronnat, B. (2006) Are we “experienced listeners”? A review of the musical capacities that do not depend on formal musical training. Cognition 100:100–30. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2005.11.007.
Bloom, P. (1996a) Intention, history, and artifact concepts. Cognition 60:129. DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(95)00699-0.
Bloom, P. (1998) Theories of artifact categorization. Cognition 66:8793. DOI: 10.1016/S0010-0277(98)00003-1.
Bloom, P. (2004) Descartes' baby: How the science of child development explains what makes us human. Basic Books.
Bloom, P. (2010) How pleasure works: The new science of why we like what we like. Norton.
Boccioni, U. (1914/1977) Pittura scultura futuriste: Dinamismo plastico. Vallechi.
Bourdieu, P. (1979/1987) Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste, trans. Nice, R.. Harvard University Press.
Bourdieu, P. (1992/1996) Rules of art: Genesis and structure of the literary field, trans. Emanuel, S.. Stanford University Press.
Boyd, R. (1991) Realism, anti-foundationalism and the enthusiasm for natural kinds. Philosophical Studies 61:127–48. DOI: 10.1007/bf00385837.
Brecht, B. (1964) Brecht on theatre: The development of an aesthetic, trans. Willett, J.. Methuen.
Bredius, A. (1937) A new Vermeer: Christ and the disciples at Emmaus. The Burlington Magazine 71:210–11.
Breton, A. (2008) Le surréalisme et la peinture [1928–1946–1965]. Ecrits sur l'art, Œuvres complètes, IV, pp. 346846. Gallimard.
Budd, M. (1995) Values of art: Pictures, poetry and music. Allen Lane/The Penguin Press.
Bullot, N. J. (2009a) Material anamnesis and the prompting of aesthetic worlds: The psycho-historical theory of artworks. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16(1):85109. Available at:
Bullot, N. J. (2009b) Toward a theory of the empirical tracking of individuals: Cognitive flexibility and the functions of attention in integrated tracking. Philosophical Psychology 22(3):353–87. DOI: 10.1080/09515080902969006.
Bullot, N. J. (2011) Attention, information and epistemic perception. In: Information and living systems: Essays in philosophy of biology, ed. Terzis, G. & Arp, R., pp. 309–52. MIT Press.
Bullough, E. (1957) Aesthetics: Lectures and essays. Bowes & Bowes.
Cage, J. (1961/1973) Silence: Lectures and writings. Wesleyan University Press.
Carey, S. (1985) Conceptual change in childhood. MIT Press.
Carroll, N. (1999) Philosophy of art: A contemporary introduction. Routledge.
Carroll, N. (2002) Aesthetic experience revisited. British Journal of Aesthetics 42(2):145–68. DOI: 10.1093/bjaesthetics/42.2.145.
Carroll, N. (2004) Art and human nature. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62(2):95107. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-594X.2004.00143.x.
Carruthers, P. (1992) Human knowledge and human nature: A new introduction to an ancient debate. Oxford University Press.
Carruthers, P. (2002) The roots of scientific reasoning: infancy, modularity and the art of tracking. In: The cognitive basis of science, ed. Carruthers, P., Stich, S. & Siegal, M., pp. 7395. Cambridge University Press.
Carruthers, P. (2006a) The architecture of the mind: Massive modularity and the flexibility of thought. Oxford University Press.
Carruthers, P. (2006b) Why pretend? In: The architecture of the imagination: New essays on pretence, possibility, and fiction, ed. Nichols, S., pp. 89109. Oxford University Press.
Carruthers, P. (2009) Mindreading underlies metacognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32(02):164–82. DOI:10.1017/S0140525X09000831.
Chase, W. G. & Simon, H. A. (1973) Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology 4(1):5581. DOI: 10.1016/0010-0285(73)90004-2.
Chatterjee, A. (2011a) Neuroaesthetics: A coming of age story. The Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 23(1):5362. DOI: 10.1162/jocn.2010.21457$$$.
Chikofsky, E. & Cross, J. H. II. (1990) Reverse engineering and design recovery: A taxonomy. IEEE Software 7(7):1317. DOI: 10.1109/52.43044.
Cho, H. & Schwarz, N. (2006) If I don't understand it, it must be new: Processing fluency and perceived product innovativeness. Advances in Consumer Research 33:319–20.
Chomsky, N. (1966) Topics in the theory of generative grammar. Mouton.
Clark, K. (1961) Looking at pictures. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Collingwood, R. G. (1938) The principles of art. Oxford University Press.
Collingwood, R. G. (1946) The idea of history. Oxford University Press.
Coltheart, M., Menzies, P. & Sutton, J. (2009) Abductive inference and delusional belief. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 15(1–3):261–87. DOI: 10.1080/13546800903439120.
Coremans, P. B. (1949) Van Meegeren's faked Vermeers and de Hooghs: A scientific examination. J. M. Meulenhoff.
Crane, D. (1989) The transformation of the avant-garde: The New York art world, 1940–1985. University of Chicago Press.
Crimp, D. (1981) Richard Serra: Sculpture exceeded. October 18:6778.
Croce, B. (1902/1909) Aesthetic as science of expression and general linguistic, trans. Ainslie, D.. Macmillan.
Croce, B. (1921) The essence of aesthetic, trans. Ainslie, D.. William Heinemann.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Robinson, R. E. (1990) The art of seeing: An interpretation of the æsthetic experience. J. Paul Getty Museum & The Getty Education Institute for the Arts.
Cudworth, C. L. (1954) Ye Olde Spuriosity Shoppe, or, Put it in the Anhang . Notes, Second Series 12(1):2540.
Currie, G. (1989) An ontology of art. Macmillan Press and Scots Philosophical Club.
Currie, G. (1990) The nature of fiction. Cambridge University Press.
Currie, G. (1995) Imagination and simulation: Aesthetics meets cognitive science. In: Mental simulation: Evaluations and applications, ed. Davies, M. & Stone, T., pp. 151–69. Blackwell.
Currie, G. (2003) Aesthetics and cognitive science. In: The Oxford handbook of aesthetics, ed. Levinson, J., pp. 706–21. Oxford University Press.
Currie, G. (2004) Arts and minds. Oxford University Press.
Currie, G. & Ravenscroft, I. (2003) Recreative minds: Imagination in philosophy and psychology. Oxford University Press.
Cutting, J. E. (2003) Gustave Caillebotte, French impressionism, and mere exposure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 10:319–43.
Damasio, A. R. (1994) Descartes' error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. G. P. Putnam.
Danto, A. C. (1964) The artworld. Journal of Philosophy 61(19):571–84.
Danto, A. C. (1974) The transfiguration of the commonplace. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 33(2):139–48.
Danto, A. C. (1992) Beyond the Brillo box: The visual arts in post-historical perspective. University of California Press.
Danto, A. C. (1998) After the end of art: Contemporary art and the pale of history. Princeton University Press.
Danto, A. C. (2003) The abuse of beauty: Aesthetics and the concept of art. Open Court.
Danto, A. C. (2009) Andy Warhol. Yale University Press.
Davies, D. (2004) Art as performance. Blackwell.
Davies, S. (2006a) Aesthetic judgments, artworks and functional beauty. The Philosophical Quarterly 56(223):224–41. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9213.2006.00439.x.
Dennett, D. C. (1987) The intentional stance. MIT Press.
Dennett, D. C. (1990) The interpretation of texts, people and other artifacts. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50(Issue Supplement):177–94.
Dewey, J. (1910) The analysis of a complete act of thought. In: How we think, pp. 6878. D. C. Heath.
Dickie, G. (1984/1997) The art circle: A theory of art. Chicago Spectrum Press.
Dickie, G. (2000) The institutional theory of art. In: Theories of art today, ed. Carroll, N., pp. 93108. The University of Wisconsin Press.
Dretske, F. I. (1988) Explaining behavior: Reasons in a world of causes. MIT Press.
Ducasse, C. J. (1964) Art and the language of the emotions. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 23(1):109–12.
Dutton, D. (1974) To understand it on its own terms. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 35(2):246–56.
Dutton, D. (1979) Artistic crimes: The concept of forgery in the arts. British Journal of Aesthetics 19(4):302–14. DOI: 10.1093/bjaesthetics/19.4.302.
Dutton, D. (2005) Aesthetic universals. In: The Routledge companion to aesthetics, second edition, ed. Gaut, B. N. & Lopes, D. M., pp. 279–92. Routledge.
Dutton, D. (2009) The art instinct: Beauty, pleasure & human evolution. Bloomsbury Press.
Dutton, D., ed. (1983) The forger's art: Forgery and the philosophy of art. University of California Press.
Eaton, M. M. (2000) A sustainable definition of “art.” In: Theories of art today, ed. Carroll, N., pp. 141–59. University of Wisconsin Press.
Eco, U. & Sebeok, T. A. eds. (1983) The sign of three: Dupin, Holmes, Peirce. Indiana University Press.
Ekman, P. (1992) An argument for basic emotions. Cognition & Emotion 6(3–4):169200. DOI: 10.1080/02699939208411068.
Elias, N. (1939/1969) The civilizing process, Vol. I. The history of manners. Blackwell.
Esslin, M. (1961) The theatre of the absurd. Doubleday.
Evans, G. (1982) The varieties of reference. Oxford University Press.
Fechner, G. T. (1876) Vorschule der Äesthetik [Elements of aesthetics]. Druck und Verlag von Breitkopf & Härtel.
Foster, H. (2002) Design and crime and other diatribes. Verso.
Freedberg, D. (1989) The power of images: Studies in the history and theory of response. Chicago University Press.
Freedberg, D. & Gallese, V. (2007) Motion, emotion and empathy in esthetic experience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11(5):197203.
Fried, M. (1998) Art and objecthood: Essays and reviews. University of Chicago Press.
Frigg, R. & Howard, C. (2011) Fact and fiction in the neuropsychology of art. In: The aesthetic mind: Philosophy and psychology, ed. Schellekens, E. & Goldie, P., pp. 5470. Oxford University Press.
Gann, K. (2010) No such thing as silence: John Cage's 4′33″. Yale University Press.
Gardner, H. (1970) Children's sensitivity to painting styles. Child Development 41(3):813–21.
Geldzahler, H. (1994) Making it new: Essays, interview, and talks. Turtle Point Press.
Gell, A. (1998) Art and agency: An anthropological theory. Oxford University Press.
Gelman, S. A. (2003) The essential child: Origins of essentialism in everyday thought. Oxford University Press.
Gendler, T. S. (2000) The puzzle of imaginative resistance. The Journal of Philosophy 97(2):5581.
Gendler, T. S. (2004) Thought experiments rethought – and reperceived. Philosophy of Science 71(5):1152–63. DOI: 10.1086/425239.
Gendler, T. S. (2006) Imaginative contagion. Metaphilosophy 37(2):183203. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9973.2006.00430.x.
Gendler, T. S. (2010) Intuition, imagination, and philosophical methodology. Oxford University Press.
Gendler, T. S. & Hawthorne, J., eds. (2002) Conceivability and possibility. Oxford University Press.
German, T. P. & Johnson, S. C. (2002) Function and the origins of the design stance. Journal of Cognition and Development 3(3):279300. DOI: 10.1207/s15327647jcd0303_2.
Ginzburg, C. (1979) Clues: Roots of a scientific paradigm. Theory and Society 7(3):273–88.
Godfrey-Smith, P. & Sterelny, K. (2007) Biological information. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at:
Godley, J. (1951) Master art forger: The story of Han van Meegeren. Wilfred Funk.
Goldman, A. I. (2006) Simulating minds: The philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience of mindreading. Oxford University Press.
Gombrich, E. H. (1950/1951) The story of art, fourth edition, Phaidon.
Gombrich, E. H. (1960) Art and illusion: A study in the psychology of pictorial representation. Princeton University Press.
Gombrich, E. H. (1963) Meditations of a hobby horse: And other essays on the theory of art. Phaidon.
Gombrich, E. H. (1979) The sense of order: A study in the psychology of decorative art. Phaidon.
Gombrich, E. H. (1990) Pictorial instructions. In: Images and understanding, thoughts about images, ideas about understanding, ed. Barlow, H. B., Blakemore, C. & Weston-Smith, M., pp. 2645. Cambridge University Press.
Gombrich, E. H. (2000) Concerning “The science of art”: Commentary on Ramachandran and Hirstein. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7(8–9):17.
Gombrich, E. H. (2002) The preference for the primitive: Episodes in the history of western taste and art. Phaidon Press.
Goodman, N. (1968) The languages of art. Oxford University Press.
Goodman, N. (1978) Ways of worldmaking. Hackett.
Gopnik, A. & Meltzoff, A. N. (1997) Words, thoughts, and theories. MIT Press.
Gopnik, A. & Schulz, L. eds. (2007) Causal learning: Psychology, philosophy, and computation. Oxford University Press.
Gopnik, A. & Wellman, H. M. (1994) The theory theory. In: Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture, ed. Hirschfeld, L. A. & Gelman, S. A., pp. 257–93. Cambridge University Press.
Gopnik, B. (2012) Aesthetic science and artistic knowledge. In: Aesthetic science: Connecting minds, brains, and experience, ed. Shimamura, A. P. & Palmer, S. E., pp. 129–59. Oxford University Press.
Gordon, P. C. & Holyoak, K. J. (1983) Implicit learning and generalization of the “mere exposure” effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45:492500.
Görner, V. (1997) Jörg Immendorf: Bild mit Geduld [Immendorf: Picture with Patience]. Hatje Cantz.
Gracyk, T. (2009) Ontological contextualism. In: A companion to aesthetics: second edition, ed. Davies, S., Higgins, K. M., Hopkins, R., Stecker, R. & Cooper, D. E., pp. 449–53. Wiley-Blackwell.
Grandy, R. E. (2007) Artifacts: Parts and principles. In: Creations of the mind: Theories of artifacts and their representation, ed. Margolis, E. & Laurence, S., pp. 1832. Oxford University Press.
Greenberg, C. (1961) Art and culture. Beacon Press.
Grice, H. P. (1957) Meaning. The Philosophical Review 66(3):377–88.
Griffiths, P. E. (1999) Squaring the circle: Natural kinds with historical essences. In: Species: New interdisciplinary essays, ed. Wilson, R. A., pp. 209–28. MIT Press.
Guercio, G. (2006) Art as existence: The artist's monograph and its project. MIT Press.
Gutheil, G., Bloom, P., Valderrama, N. & Freedman, R. (2004) The role of historical intuitions in children's and adults' naming of artifacts. Cognition 91(1):2342. DOI: 10.1016/s0010-0277(03)00165-3.
Harris, P. L. (2000) The work of the imagination. Blackwell.
Haskell, H. (1996) The early music revival: A history. Dover Publications.
Hauser, A. (1951) The social history of art. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Heider, F. (1958) The psychology of interpersonal relations. Wiley.
Heinich, N. (1996b) The glory of van Gogh: An anthropology of admiration, trans. Leduc Browne, P.. Princeton University Press.
Helmholtz, H. V. (1863) Die lehre von den tonempfindungen als physiologische grundlage für die theorie der musik. Vieweg.
Hilpinen, R. (2004) Artifact. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (online).
Hood, B. M. & Bloom, P. (2008) Children prefer certain individuals over perfect duplicates. Cognition 106(1):455–62. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.01.012.
Hookway, C. (2002) Emotions and epistemic evaluations. In: The cognitive basis of science, ed. Carruthers, P., Stich, S. & Siegal, M., pp. 251–62. Cambridge University Press.
Hume, D. (1757/1993) Of the standard of taste. In: Selected essays, ed. Copley, S. & Edgar, A., pp. 133–54, Oxford University Press.
Jeshion, R., ed. (2010) New essays on singular thought. Oxford University Press.
Juslin, P. N. & Västfjäll, D. (2008) Emotional responses to music: The need to consider underlying mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31:559621. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X08005293.
Kant, I. (1793/2000) Critique of the power of judgment, trans. Guyer, P. & Matthews, E.. Cambridge University Press.
Kaplan, S. (1992) Environmental preference in a knowledge-seeking, knowledge-using organism. In: The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, ed. Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J., pp. 581–98. Oxford University Press.
Keil, F. C. (1989) Concepts, kinds, and cognitive development. MIT Press.
Keil, F. C. (2006) Explanation and understanding. Annual Review of Psychology 57(1):227–54. DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190100.
Keil, F. C. & Wilson, R. A. eds. (2000) Explanation and cognition. MIT Press.
Kelemen, D. (1999) Function, goals and intention: Children's teleological reasoning about objects. Cognition 3(12):461–68.
Kelemen, D. & Carey, S. (2007) The essence of artifacts: Developing the design stance. In: Creations of the mind: Theories of artifacts and their representation, ed. Margolis, E. & Laurence, S., pp. 212–30. Oxford University Press.
Keysar, B. & Barr, D. J. (2002) Self-anchoring in conversation: Why language users do not do what they “should.” In: Heuristics and biases. The psychology of intuitive judgment, ed. Gilovich, T., Griffin, D. & Kahneman, D., pp. 150–66. Cambridge University Press.
Kieran, M. & Lopes, D. M. (2006) Knowing art: Essays in aesthetics and epistemology. Springer.
Kinder, A., Shanks, D. R., Cock, J. & Tunney, R. J. (2003) Recollection, fluency, and the explicit/implicit distinction in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132:551–65.
Kintsch, W. (1998) Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. Cambridge University Press.
Kintsch, W. (2005) An overview of top-down and bottom-up effects in comprehension: The CI perspective. Discourse Processes 39(2–3):125–28. DOI: 10.1080/0163853x.2005.9651676.
Knobe, J. (2010) Person as scientist, person as moralist. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33(04):315–29. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X10000907.
Kreitler, H. & Kreitler, S. (1972) The psychology of the arts. Duke University Press.
Kruger, J., Wirtz, D., Van Boven, L. & Altermatt, T. W. (2004) The effort heuristic. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40(1):9198. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-1031(03)00065-9.
Kwon, M. (2002) One place after another: Site-specific art and locational identity. MIT Press.
Kwon, M. (2009) Approaching architecture: The case of Richard Serra and Michael Asher. Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin:4455.
Lang, B., ed. (1987) The concept of style (second edition) Cornell University Press.
Leavis, F. R. (1962) Two cultures? The significance of C. P. Snow. Chatto & Windus.
Leder, H., Belke, B., Oeberst, A. & Augustin, D. (2004) A model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments. British Journal of Psychology 95:489508. DOI: 10.1348/0007126042369811.
LeDoux, J. (1996) The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. Touchstone.
Levinson, J. (1990) Music, art, and metaphysics. Cornell University Press.
Levinson, J. (1996a) Art, value, and philosophy. Mind 105(420):667–82.
Levinson, J. (2002) The irreducible historicality of the concept of art. British Journal of Aesthetics 42(4):367–79. DOI: 10.1093/bjaesthetics/42.4.367.
Levinson, J. (2007) Aesthetic contextualism. Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 4(3):112.
Lipton, P. (1991/2004) Inference to the best explanation. Routledge.
Livingston, P. (2003) Intention in art. In: The Oxford handbook of aesthetics, ed. Levinson, J., pp. 275–90. Oxford University Press.
Locher, P. J. (2003) An empirical investigation of the visual rightness theory of picture perception. Acta Psychologica 114(2):147–64. DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2003.07.001.
Locher, P. J. (2012) Empirical investigation of an aesthetic experience with art. In: Aesthetic science: Connecting minds, brains, and experience, ed. Shimamura, A. P. & Palmer, S. E., pp. 163–88. Oxford University Press.
Locher, P. J., Overbeeke, K. & Stappers, P. J. (2005) Spatial balance of color triads in the abstract art of Piet Mondrian. Perception 34(2):169–89. DOI: 10.1068/p5033.
Lopes, D. M. (1996) Understanding pictures. Oxford University Press.
Lopes, D. M. (2002) Review of Inner vision: An exploration of art and the brain by Semir Zeki. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 60(4):365–66. DOI: 10.1111/1540-6245.00082.
Lopes, D. M. (2004) Directive pictures. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62(2):189–96. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-594X.2003.00151.x.
Lopes, D. M. (2005) Sight and sensibility: Evaluating pictures. Oxford University Press.
Lopes, D. M. (2010) A philosophy of computer art. Routledge.
Machotka, P. (1966) Aesthetic criteria in childhood: Justifications of preference. Child Development 37(4):877–85.
MacLeod, S. (1999) The life of Haifisch. Broken Boulder Press.
Malevich, K. (1959) The non-objective world, trans. Dearstyne, H.. Theobold.
Margolis, E. & Laurence, S., eds. (2007) Creations of the mind: Theories of artifacts and their representation. Oxford University Press.
Margolis, J. (1980) Prospects for a science of aesthetic perception. In: Perceiving artworks, ed. Fisher, J., pp. 213–39. Temple University Press.
Margolis, J. (2000) The deviant ontology of artworks. In: Theories of art today, ed. Carroll, N., pp. 109–29. The University of Wisconsin Press.
Marinetti, F. T. (1909, 20 February) Manifeste du Futurisme, Le Figaro, p. 1.
Martin, L. J. (1906) An experimental study of Fechner's principles in aesthetics. Psychological Review 13:142219. DOI:10.1037/h0076085.
Martindale, C. (1984) The pleasures of thought: A theory of cognitive hedonics. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 5:4980.
Martindale, C. (1990) The clockwork muse: The predictability of artistic change. Basic Books.
Martindale, C., Moore, K. & Borkum, J. (1990) Aesthetic preference: Anomalous findings for Berlyne's psychobiological theory. American Journal of Psychology 103:5380.
Matan, A. & Carey, S. (2001) Developmental changes within the core of artifact concepts. Cognition 78(1):126. DOI: 10.1016/s0010-0277(00)00094-9.
McManus, I. C. (2006) Measuring the culture of C. P. Snow's Two Cultures . Empirical Studies of the Arts 24(2):219–27. DOI: 10.2190/5NM6-FV42-X38A-F3VP.
McManus, I. C., Cheema, B. & Stoker, J. (1993) The aesthetics of composition: A study of Mondrian. Empirical Studies of the Arts 11(2):8394.
McWhinnie, H. J. (1968) A review on aesthetic measure. Acta Psychologica 28:363–75. DOI: 10.1016/0001-6918(68)90025-5.
Meskin, A. & Weinberg, J. M. (2003) Emotions, fiction, and cognitive architecture. The British Journal of Aesthetics 43(1):1834. DOI: 10.1093/bjaesthetics/43.1.18.
Miller, J. G. (1984) Culture and development of everyday social explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46:961–78.
Millikan, R. G. (1984) Language, thought, and other biological categories. MIT Press.
Millikan, R. G. (2004) Varieties of meaning. MIT Press.
Mishkin, H. G. (1959) The published works of Giovanni Battista Sammartini: A bibliographical reappraisal. The Musical Quarterly 45(3):361–74. DOI: 10.1093/mq/XLV.3.361.
Morelli, G. (1880/1893) Italian masters in German galleries: A critical essay on the Italian pictures in the galleries of Munich, Dresden and Berlin, trans. Richter, L. M.. Bell.
Morris, M. W., Nisbett, R. E. & Peng, K. (1995) Causal attribution across domains and cultures. In: Causal cognition: A multidisciplinary debate, ed. Sperber, D., Premack, D. & Premack, A. J., pp. 577613. Oxford University Press.
Morton, A. (2003) The importance of being understood: Folk psychology as ethics. Routledge.
Mras, G. P. (1966) Eugène Delacroix's theory of art. Princeton University Press.
Munro, T. (1951) Aesthetics as science: Its development in America. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 9(3):161207.
Munro, T. (1968) Evolution in the arts and other theories of culture history. The Cleveland Museum of Art.
Munro, T. (1970) Form and style in the arts: An introduction to aesthetic morphology. Press of Case Western Reserve University.
Murphy, G. L. & Medin, D. L. (1985) The role of theories in conceptual coherence. Psychological Review 92(3):289316.
Newman, G. E. & Bloom, P. (2012) Art and authenticity: The importance of originals in judgments of value. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 141(3):558–69. DOI: 10.1037/a0026035.
Nichols, S., ed. (2006) The architecture of the imagination: New essays on pretence, possibility, and fiction. Oxford University Press.
Nichols, S. & Stich, S. P. (2003) Mindreading: An integrated account of pretence, self-awareness, and understanding other minds. Oxford University Press.
Nisbett, R. E. (2003) The geography of thought: How Asians and Westerners think differently…and why. Free Press.
Norman, D. A. (1988) The design of everyday things. Basic Books.
Nozick, R. (1981) Philosophical explanations. Harvard University Press.
Osgood, C. E. & Suci, G. J. (1955) Factor analysis of meaning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 50:325–38.
Palmer, S. E., Schloss, K. B. & Gardner, J. S. (2012) Hidden knowledge in aesthetic judgments: Preference for color and spatial composition. In: Aesthetic science: Connecting minds, brains, and experience, ed. Shimamura, A. & Palmer, S. E., pp. 189222. Oxford University Press.
Panofsky, E. (1955) Meaning in the visual arts: Papers in and on art history. Doubleday Anchor Books.
Panofsky, E. (1995) Three essays on style. MIT Press.
Parsons, G. & Carlson, A. (2008) Functional beauty. Oxford University Press.
Parsons, M. J. (1987) How we understand art: A cognitive developmental account of æsthetic experience. Cambridge University Press.
Peretz, I. (2006) The nature of music from a biological perspective. Cognition 100(1):132. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2005.11.004.
Peretz, I. & Coltheart, M. (2003) Modularity of music processing. Nature Neuroscience 6(7):688–91. DOI: 10.1038/nn1083.
Petrie, B. (1974) Boccioni and Bergson. The Burlington Magazine 116(852):140–47.
Pickford, R. W. (1972) Psychology and visual aesthetics. Hutchinson.
Piliavin, I. M., Rodin, J. & Piliavin, J. A. (1969) Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 13:289–99.
Pinker, S. (1997) How the mind works. Norton.
Pinker, S. (2002) The blank slate: The modern denial of human nature. Penguin Books.
Popper, K. R. (1962) The open society and its enemies, Vol. II, the high tide of prophecy: Hegel, Marx, and the aftermath. Princeton University Press.
Popper, K. R. (1957/1976) The poverty of historicism. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Pratt, C. C. (1961) Aesthetics. Annual Review of Psychology 12:7192. DOI: 10.1146/
Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978) Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:515–26. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X00076512.
Preston, B. (1998) Why is a wing like a spoon? A pluralist theory of function. The Journal of Philosophy 95(5):215–54.
Putnam, H. (1975) Mind, language and reality: Philosophical papers, vol. 2. Cambridge University Press.
Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1999) Is vision continuous with cognition? The case for cognitive impenetrability of visual perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22(3):341423.
Quine, W. V. O. (1969) Ontological relativity and other essays. Columbia University Press.
Ramachandran, V. S. (2001) Sharpening up “The science of art.” Journal of Consciousness Studies 8(1):929.
Reber, R. (2008) Art in its experience: Can empirical psychology help assess artistic value? Leonardo 41(4):367–72. DOI: 10.1162/leon.2008.41.4.367.
Reber, R. (2012) Processing fluency, aesthetic pleasure, and culturally shared taste. In: Aesthetic science: Connecting minds, brains, and experience, ed. Shimamura, A. P. & Palmer, S. E., pp. 223–49. Oxford University Press.
Reber, R., Schwarz, N. & Winkielman, P. (2004a) Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experience? Personality and Social Psychology Review 8(4):364–82. DOI: 10.1207/s15327957pspr0804_3.
Reber, R., Wurtz, P. & Zimmermann, T. D. (2004b) Exploring “fringe” consciousness: The subjective experience of perceptual fluency and its objective bases. Consciousness and Cognition 13:4760. DOI: 10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00049-7.
Reisenzein, R. (1986) A structural equation analysis of Weiner's attribution-affect model of helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50(6):1123–33. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.50.6.1123.
Rekoff, M. G. (1985) On reverse engineering. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC-15(2):244–52. DOI: 10.1145/336512.336526.
Rhodes, G. (2006) The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Annual Review of Psychology 57(1):199226. DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190208.
Richter, H. (1998) Dada: Art and anti-art. Thames & Hudson.
Rips, L. J., Blok, S. & Newman, G. (2006) Tracing the identity of objects. Psychological Review 113(1):130. DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.113.1.1.
Robinson, J. (1979) Expressing the way the world is: Expression as reference. Journal of Aesthetic Education 13(1):2944.
Robinson, J. (1995) Startle. The Journal of Philosophy 92(2):5374.
Robinson, J. (2004) The art of distancing: How formal devices manage our emotional responses to literature. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62(2):153–62. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-594X.2004.00148.x.
Robinson, J. (2005) Deeper than reason: Emotion and its role in literature, music, and art. Clarendon.
Roese, N. J. & Olson, J. M. (1995) What might have been: The social psychology of counterfactual thinking. Erlbaum.
Rollins, M. (2004) What Monet meant: Intention and attention in understanding art. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62(2):175–88. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-594X.2004.00150.
Rollins, M., ed. (1993) Danto and his critics. Blackwell.
Roskill, M. (1976/1989) What is art history? Second edition. The University of Massachusetts Press.
Ross, L. (1977) The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortions in the attribution process. In: Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 10), ed. Berkowitz, L., pp. 173220. Academic Press.
Ruben, D.-H. (1990) Explaining explanation. Routledge.
Sartre, J.-P. (1965) Situations, trans. Eisler, B.. Hamish Hamilton.
Schaeffer, J.-M. (1999) Pourquoi la fiction? [Why fiction?] Éditions du Seuil.
Schank, R. C. (1990) Tell me a story: Narrative and intelligence. Northwestern University Press.
Schank, R. C. (1999) Dynamic memory revisited. Cambridge University Press.
Scharfstein, B.-A. (2009) Art without borders: A philosophical exploration of art and humanity. University of Chicago Press.
Schellekens, E. & Goldie, P. eds. (2011) The aesthetic mind: Philosophy and psychology. Oxford University Press.
Schwarz, N. (1994) Judgment in a social context: Biases, shortcomings, and the logic of conversation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 26:123–62. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60153-7.
Shimamura, A. P. & Palmer, S. E., eds. (2012) Aesthetic science: Connecting minds, brains, and experience. Oxford University Press.
Shklovsky, V. (1917/1965) Art as technique. In: Russian formalist criticism, ed. Lemon, L. T. & Reis, M. J., pp. 324. University of Nebraska Press.
Shultz, T. R. (1982) Rules of causal attribution. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 47(1):151.
Silvia, P. J. (2005c) What is interesting? Exploring the appraisal structure of interest. Emotion 5:89102. DOI: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.1.89.
Silvia, P. J. (2009) Looking past pleasure: Anger, confusion, disgust, pride, surprise, and other unusual aesthetic emotions. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 3:4851.
Silvia, P. J. (2012) Human emotions and aesthetic experience: An overview of empirical aesthetics. In: Aesthetic science: Connecting minds, brains, and experience, ed. Shimamura, A. P. & Palmer, S. E., pp. 250–75. Oxford University Press.
Skolnick, D. & Bloom, P. (2006) The intuitive cosmology of fictional worlds. In: The architecture of the imagination: New essays on pretence, possibility, and fiction, ed. Nichols, S., pp. 7386. Oxford University Press.
Skov, M. & Vartanian, O. (2009) Neuroaesthetics. Baywood.
Smith, J. D. & Melara, R. J. (1990) Aesthetic preference and syntactic prototypicality in music: 'Tis the gift to be simple. Cognition 34(3):279–98. DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(90)90007-7.
Smith, L. F. & Smith, J. K. (2006) The nature and growth of aesthetic fluency. In: New directions in aesthetics, creativity, and the psychology of art, ed. Locher, P., Martindale, C., Dorfman, L., Petrov, V. & Leontiev, D., pp. 4758. Baywood.
Snow, C. P. (1959) The two cultures. Cambridge University Press.
Solso, R. L. (1994) Cognition and the visual arts. MIT Press.
Song, H. & Schwarz, N. (2008a) Fluency and the detection of misleading questions: Low processing fluency attenuates the moses illusion. Social Cognition 26:791–99.
Song, H. & Schwarz, N. (2008b) If it's hard to read, it's hard to do: Processing fluency affects effort prediction and motivation. Psychological Science 19:986–88. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02189.x.
Sosa, E. (2007) A virtue epistemology: Apt belief and reflective knowledge, Volume I. Oxford University Press.
Speer, J. H. (2010) Fundamentals of tree-ring research. University of Arizona Press.
Sperber, D. (2007) Seedless grapes. In: Creations of the mind: Theories of artifacts and their representation, ed. Margolis, E. & Laurence, S., pp. 124–37, Oxford University Press.
Sperber, D. & Wilson, D. (2002) Pragmatics, modularity and mind-reading. Mind & Language 17(1–2):323. DOI: 10.1111/1468-0017.00186.
Stafford, B. M. (2007) Echo objects: The cognitive work of images. The University of Chicago Press.
Stafford, B. M. (2011) A field guide to a new meta-field: Bridging the humanities-neurosciences divide. University of Chicago Press.
Stalnaker, N. (2005) Fakes and forgeries. In: The Routledge companion to aesthetics, second edition, ed. Gaut, B. N. & Lopes, D. M., pp. 513–25. Routledge.
Stanovich, K. E. (2009) Distinguishing the reflective, algorithmic, and autonomous minds: Is it time for a tri-process theory? In: In two minds: Dual processes and beyond, ed. Evans, J. S. B. T. & Frankish, K., pp. 5588. Oxford University Press.
Stecker, R. (2003) Value in art. In: The Oxford handbook of aesthetics, ed. Levinson, J., pp. 307–24. Oxford University Press.
Steinberg, L. (1955) Month in review: Fifteen years of Jackson Pollock. Arts 30(3):4346.
Sterelny, K. (2003) Thought in a hostile world: The evolution of human cognition. Blackwell Publishing.
Takahashi, S. (1995) Aesthetic properties of pictorial perception. Psychological Review 102(4):671–83.
Tanner, J., ed. (2003) The sociology of art: A reader. Routledge.
Thagard, P. (2002) The passionate scientist: Emotion in scientific cognition. In: The cognitive basis of science, ed. Carruthers, P., Stich, S. & Siegal, M., pp. 235–50. Cambridge University Press.
Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (2001) Does beauty build adapted minds? Toward an evolutionary theory of aesthetics, fiction and the arts. SubStance 30(94/95):627. DOI: 10.1353/sub.2001.0017.
Topolinski, S. & Strack, F. (2009) The architecture of intuition: Fluency and affect determine intuitive judgments of semantic and visual coherence, and of grammaticality in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 138(1):3963.
Ullman, S. (1984) Visual routines. Cognition 18:97159. DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(84)90023-4.
Vasari, G. (1550/1991) The lives of the artists, Conaway Bondanella, J. & Bondanella, P., trans. Oxford University Press.
Vermaas, P. E. & Houkes, W. (2003) Ascribing functions to technical artefacts: A challenge to etiological accounts of functions. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54(2):261–89. DOI: 10.1093/bjps/54.2.261.
Walton, K. L. (1970) Categories of art. The Philosophical Review 79(3):334–67.
Walton, K. L. (1978) Fearing fictions. The Journal of Philosophy 75(1):527.
Walton, K. L. (1987) Style and the products and processes of art. In: The concept of style (second ed.), ed. Lang, B., pp. 72103. Cornell University Press.
Walton, K. L. (1990) Mimesis as make-believe: On the foundations of the representational arts. Harvard University Press.
Watanabe, S., Sakamoto, J. & Wakita, M. (1995) Pigeons' discrimination of paintings by Monet and Picasso. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior 63(165–74). DOI: 10.1901/jeab.1995.63-175.
Weiner, B. (1980) A cognitive (attribution)-emotion-action model of motivated behavior: An analysis of judgments of help giving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39:186200.
Wellman, H. M. (1990) The child's theory of mind. MIT Press.
Werness, H. B. (1983) Han van Meegeren fecit . In: The forger's art: Forgery and the philosophy of art, ed. Dutton, D., pp. 157. University of California Press.
Whiten, A. & Byrne, R. W. eds. (1997) Machiavellian intelligence II: Extensions and evaluations. Cambridge University Press.
Whitfield, S. (2000) Lucio fontana. University of Califonia Press.
Wilson Bareau, J. (2001) Manet by himself. Little, Brown.
Winckelmann, J. J. (1756/1987) Reflections on the imitation of Greek works in painting and sculpture, ed. Heyer, E. & Norton, R. C., trans., Open Court.
Winckelmann, J. J. (1972) Winckelmann: Writings on art, ed. Irwin, D. G.. Phaidon.
Winkielman, P., Halberstadt, J., Fazendeiro, T. & Catty, S. (2006) Prototypes are attractive because they are easy on the mind. Psychological Science 17:799806. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01785.x.
Winkielman, P., Schwarz, N., Fazendeiro, T. & Reber, R. (2003) The hedonic marking of processing fluency: Implication for evaluative judgment. In: The psychology of evaluation: Affective processes in cognition and emotion, ed. Musch, J. & Klauer, K. C., pp. 189217. Erlbaum.
Wölfflin, H. (1920/1950) Principles of art history: The problem of the development of style in later art, Hottinger, M. D., trans., Dover Publications.
Wollheim, R. (1974) On art and the mind, Harvard University Press.
Wollheim, R. (1980) Art and its objects, second edition with six supplementary essays. Cambridge University Press.
Wollheim, R. (1993) Danto's gallery of indiscernibles. In: Danto and his critics, ed. Rollins, M., pp. 2838. Blackwell.
Zacks, J. & Tversky, B. (2001) Event structure in perception and conception. Psychological Bulletin 127(1):321.
Zeki, S. (1998) Art and the brain. Dædalus 127:71103.
Zeki, S. & Lamb, M. (1994) The neurology of kinetic art. Brain 117:607–36.
Zizak, D. M. & Reber, A. S. (2004) Implicit preferences: The role(s) of familiarity in the structural mere exposure effect. Consciousness and Cognition 13:336–62. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2003.12.003.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed