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    Ashtiani, Mehrdad and Azgomi, Mohammad Abdollahi 2015. A survey of quantum-like approaches to decision making and cognition. Mathematical Social Sciences, Vol. 75, p. 49.


Limitations of the Dirac formalism as a descriptive framework for cognition

  • Artem Kaznatcheev (a1) (a2) and Thomas R. Shultz (a1) (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 14 May 2013

We highlight methodological and theoretical limitations of the authors' Dirac formalism and suggest the von Neumann open systems approach as a resolution. The open systems framework is a generalization of classical probability and we hope it will allow cognitive scientists to extend quantum probability from perception, categorization, memory, decision making, and similarity judgments to phenomena in learning and development.

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

P. Bruza , K. Kitto , D. Nelson & C. McEvoyc (2009) Is there something quantum-like about the human mental lexicon? Journal of Mathematical Psychology 53:362–77.

A. Chefles (2000) Quantum state discrimination. Contemporary Physics 41(6):401–24.

R. Franco (2009) The conjunction fallacy and interference effects. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 53:415–22.

A. Litt , C. Eliasmith , F. W. Kroon , S. Weinstein & P. Thagard (2006) Is the brain a quantum computer? Cognitive Science 30:593603.

T. R. Shultz (2007) The Bayesian revolution approaches psychological development. Developmental Science 10:357–64.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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