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Quantum structure and human thought

  • Diederik Aerts (a1), Jan Broekaert (a1), Liane Gabora (a2) and Sandro Sozzo (a1)


We support the authors' claims, except that we point out that also quantum structure different from quantum probability abundantly plays a role in human cognition. We put forward several elements to illustrate our point, mentioning entanglement, contextuality, interference, and emergence as effects, and states, observables, complex numbers, and Fock space as specific mathematical structures.



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Aerts, D. (2007) General quantum modeling of combining concepts: A quantum field model in Fock space. Available at:
Aerts, D. (2009) Quantum structure in cognition. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 53:314–48.
Aerts, D. (2011) Quantum interference and superposition in cognition: Development of a theory for the disjunction of concepts. In: Worldviews, science and us: Bridging knowledge and its implications for our perspectives of the world, ed. Aerts, D., Broekaert, J., D'Hooghe, B. & Note, N., pp. 169211. World Scientific.
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Aerts, D. & D'Hooghe, B. (2009) Classical logical versus quantum conceptual thought: Examples in economics, decision theory and concept theory. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5494:128–42.
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Quantum structure and human thought

  • Diederik Aerts (a1), Jan Broekaert (a1), Liane Gabora (a2) and Sandro Sozzo (a1)


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