Carbon aerogels (CAs) are a unique class of high surface area materials derived by sol–gel chemistry. Their high mass-specific surface area and electrical conductivity, environmental compatibility, and chemical inertness make them very promising materials for many applications, such as energy storage, catalysis, sorbents, and desalination. Since the first CAs were made via pyrolysis of resorcinol–formaldehyde (RF)-based organic aerogels in the late 1980s, the field has really grown. Recently, in addition to RF-derived amorphous CAs, several other carbon allotropes have been realized in aerogel form: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, graphite, and diamond. Furthermore, the popularity of graphene aerogels has inspired research into aerogels made of a host of graphene analog materials (e.g., boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, etc.), with potential for an even wider array of applications. Finally, the development of three-dimensional-printed aerogels provides the potential for CAs to have an even broader impact on energy-related technologies. Here, we will present recent work covering the novel synthesis of RF-derived, CNT, graphene, graphite, diamond, and graphene analog aerogels.