Multiproxy analysis of two sediment cores recovered from lagos Morrenas 3C and Ditkebi, located in the páramo of Costa Rica's Chirripó National Park, was undertaken to develop multidecadal-scale reconstructions of late Holocene fire regimes for the region. Analysis of macroscopic charcoal and sediment geochemistry (C%, N%, δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratios) documents periodic burning of the páramo in Chirripó National Park during the past ~1700 yr. The charcoal records provide evidence of high fire frequency between AD ~560 and 720 and between AD ~980 and 1230. Severe fire episodes are reflected by a rapid increase in the flux of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from the surrounding catchment because of the volatilization of páramo vegetation. Additionally, δ15N, which sharply increases following local fire events, captures postfire changes in nutrient loading and, likely, the decadal-scale rate of postfire recovery of páramo vegetation. The consistently high δ13C and C/N values observed between AD ~700 and 1100 suggest an expansion of Muhlenbergia, a native C4 grass growing near shore, suggesting that the interval between AD ~700 and 1100, broadly corresponding to the Terminal Classic Drought and Medieval Climate Anomaly, was characterized by a decrease in effective moisture and temperature.