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In this paper, self-focusing of finite Airy–Gaussian (AiG) laser beams in collisionless plasma has been investigated. The source of nonlinearity considered herein is relativistic. Based on the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial-ray approximations, the nonlinear coupled differential equations for beam-width parameters in transverse dimensions of AiG beams have been established. The effect of beam's modulation parameter and linear absorption coefficient on the self-focusing/defocusing of the beams is specifically considered. It is found that self-focusing/defocusing of finite AiG beams depends on the range of modulation parameter. The extent of self-focusing is found to decrease with increase in absorption.
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common psychiatric complication facing stroke survivors and has been associated with increased distress, physical disability, poor rehabilitation, and suicidal ideation. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PSD remain unknown, and no objective laboratory-based test is available to aid PSD diagnosis or monitor progression.
Here, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in plasma samples obtained from PSD, stroke, and healthy control subjects.
The significantly differentiated proteins were primarily involved in lipid metabolism and immunoregulation. Six proteins associated with these processes – apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV), apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II), C-reactive protein (CRP), gelsolin, haptoglobin, and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) – were selected for Western blotting validation. ApoA-IV expression was significantly upregulated in PSD as compared to stroke subjects. ApoC-II, LRG, and CRP expression were significantly downregulated in both PSD and HC subjects relative to stroke subjects. Gelsolin and haptoglobin expression were significantly dysregulated across all three groups with the following expression profiles: gelsolin, healthy control > PSD > stroke subjects; haptoglobin, stroke > PSD > healthy control.
Early perturbation of lipid metabolism and immunoregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of PSD. The combination of increased gelsolin levels accompanied by decreased haptoglobin levels shows promise as a plasma-based diagnostic biomarker panel for detecting increased PSD risk in post-stroke patients.
In this chapter on hematology and transfusion, the author reviews commonly encountered perioperative disorders such as hemoglobinopathies, G6PD, Sickle Cell Disease, von Willebrand Disease and Hemophilia. Pediatric transfusion of blood components is discussed as well as use of thromboelastography to guide treatment.
Although common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are consumed worldwide, studies on the metabolic fate of phenolic compounds from common beans are still very scarce. The present work aimed to study the bioavailability of phenolic compounds in human plasma and urine, after acute consumption of a single meal of cooked common beans. Blood and urine of seven volunteers were collected before (0 h) and at different time points (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h for plasma and 0–2, 2–4, 4–6, 6–8 and 8–24 h for urine) after beans’ intake. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used for quantification. After beans’ intake, 405 (sd 3) g, containing 188 mg of phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalents), there was a significant increase (P < 0·05) in the plasma concentration of six metabolites and in the urinary excretion of eleven metabolites. After 1 h post-consumption, metabolites, such as kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, showed a significant increase in plasma concentration, suggesting kaempferol’s glucuronidation in the upper gastrointestinal tract. More than 50 % of the total amount of metabolites, such as 4-methylcatechol-O-sulphate and dihydrocaffeic acid-3-O-sulphate, were excreted after 8 h post-consumption, indicating colonic bacterial metabolism of the phenolic compounds. Partial least square-discriminant analysis models clearly showed clusters of metabolites, which contributed to extend the list of compounds related to cooked common beans’ human intake at different time points and showed the human inter-individual variability in plasma concentration as well as in urinary excreted metabolites, after cooked common beans’ intake.
The experiments described in this research communication compared cortisol concentrations in plasma and saliva samples collected from dairy cattle before and after an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) application. For that purpose, blood and saliva samples were collected from five dairy cows at determined time intervals before (490 min and down to 0 min) and after (10 min and up to 500 min) an ACTH application. Mean baseline cortisol concentrations were greater in plasma compared to saliva. The relative increases and decreases in plasma and salivary cortisol concentrations following ACTH were similar. After ACTH, we observed an increase in cortisol concentrations in plasma after 10 min and in saliva after 20 min. The time of peak concentrations after ACTH were reached at 70 and 80 min for plasma and saliva, respectively. After peak concentrations, values steadily declined and returned to baseline values at 169 ± 15 min in plasma and 170 ± 14 min in saliva. Ratios between salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations were on average 0.09 and did not change substantially during the ACTH challenge. There was a strong positive relationship between salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations. These results indicate that salivary cortisol concentrations can be a good indicator of ACTH-induced plasma cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle.
In this work we have analyzed turbulent plasma in the kinetic scale by the characterization of magnetic fluctuations time series. Considering numerical Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations we apply a method known as MultiFractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) to study the fluctuations of solar-wind-like plasmas in thermodynamic equilibrium (represented by Maxwellian velocity distribution functions), and out of equilibrium plasma represented by Tsallis velocity distribution functions, characterized by the kappa (κ) parameter, to stablish relations between the fractality of magnetic fluctuation and the kappa parameter.
The solvent-casting method was used to synthesize a silver–zeolite–chitosan (AgZ-Ch) composite from Philippine natural zeolites. X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) were used to investigate the different properties of the composite before and after plasma treatment. The major phase of the zeolite is Na-clinoptilolite with trace amounts of mordenite, feldspar and quartz. UV-Vis and OES analyses confirmed the presence of Ag and zeolite on the chitosan matrix. The decrease in the transmittance signal at 290 nm and the emission spectra of the discharge showed the presence of Ag I, Al I and Si I signals at 705–852 nm. The TGA and DTG curves revealed the thermal stability of the natural zeolites after ion exchange and after incorporation in the chitosan matrix, where the onset of degradation was observed to occur above ~37°C, the human body temperature. Bacterial count showed minimal growth of colonies on all samples, both pristine and plasma-treated, suggesting that the surface of the composites does not influence bacterial habitation. The fabricated composites meet the minimum requirements for biomedical application such as thermal stability with respect to the average human body temperature and absence of bacteria.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.
Implementation of a novel experimental approach using a bright source of narrowband x-ray emission has enabled the production of a photoionized argon plasma of relevance to astrophysical modelling codes such as Cloudy. We present results showing that the photoionization parameter ζ = 4πF/ne generated using the VULCAN laser was ≈ 50 erg cm s−1, higher than those obtained previously with more powerful facilities. Comparison of our argon emission-line spectra in the 4.15 - 4.25 Å range at varying initial gas pressures with predictions from the Cloudy code and a simple time-dependent code are also presented. Finally we briefly discuss how this proof-of-principle experiment may be scaled to larger facilities such as ORION to produce the closest laboratory analogue to a photoionized plasma.
Hypoimmunity and numerous stresses are two major challenges in broiler industry. Nutrient intervention at the specific time of embryonic stage is a feasible way to improve animal performance. This study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of vitamin C at embryonic age 15th day (E15) on growth performance, antioxidation and immune function of broilers. A total of 240 broiler fertile eggs were randomly divided into two groups (0 and 3 mg injected dose of vitamin C at E15), and new-hatched chicks from each treatment were randomly allocated into six replicates with 10 chicks per replicate after incubation. The results indicated that in ovo vitamin C injection improved the hatchability (P < 0.05) and increased immunoglobulin M (IgM) (at the broiler’s age 1st day, D1), IgG and IgM concentrations (D21), as well as lysozyme activity (D21, P < 0.05) and total antioxidant capacity (D42, P < 0.01) in plasma of broilers. On D21, the splenic expression level of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was up-regulated in vitamin C (VC) group, whereas interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-γ, ten-eleven translocation protein 1 and thymine-DNA glycosylase were down-regulated (P < 0.05). On D42, in ovo vitamin C injection up-regulated splenic expression levels of DNMT1, DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein beta (P < 0.05), whereas down-regulated splenic expression levels of IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 4 (P < 0.05). Our findings suggested that IOF of 3 mg vitamin C at E15 could improve, to some extent, the antioxidant activity and immune function in plasma, corresponding with the lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. However, IOF of vitamin C leading to the changes in the expression of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases may suggest an increased trend of DNA methylation level in spleen and whether DNA methylation variation is associated with the lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen warrants future study.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
The collimated electron jets ejected from cylindrical plasma are produced in particle-in-cell simulation under the applied longitudinal magnetostatic field and radial electrostatic field, which is a process that can be conveniently performed in a laboratory. We find that the applied magnetostatic field contributes significantly to the jet collimation, whereas the applied electrostatic field plays a vital role in the jet formation. The generation mechanism of collimated jets can be well understood through energy gain of the tagged electrons, and we conclude that the longitudinal momentum of the electrons is converted from the transverse momentum via the transverse-induced magnetic field. It has been found that the ejecting velocity of the jets is close to the speed of light when the applied electrostatic field reaches 3 × 1010 V/m. The present scheme may also give us an insight into the formation of astrophysical jets in celestial bodies.
Accretion disks are observed around young stellar objects such as T Tauri stars. In order to complete the star formation, particles in the disk need to loose angular momentum in order to be accreted into the central object. The magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is probably the mechanism responsible for a magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence that leads to disk accretion, which implies the disk particles to be coupled with the magnetic filed lines. As the temperature in the disk is low, we considered, besides the viscous heating mechanism often included in the models by means of the α - prescription, the damping of Alfvén waves as an additional heating source. In particular, we show that the mechanism derived that couples the turbulent and non-linear damping mechanisms of Alfvén waves proved to be very efficient, generating temperatures almost one order of magnitude higher than those mechanisms considered independently.
Wheat and rye, the most consumed whole grains (WG) in the Nordic countries, contain alkylresorcinols (AR) in their bran. AR concentrations in human adipose tissue might reflect long-term WG rye and wheat intake. We aimed to evaluate AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies as a long-term biomarker of WG wheat and rye intake in free-living Swedish men and women.
Cross-sectional study. AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies were analysed and compared with long-term WG intake assessed by three FFQ (repeated over a period of 14 years in men, 17 years in women) and with plasma AR concentrations.
The Cohort of Swedish Men between 1997 and 2010 and the Swedish Mammography Cohort between 1987 and 2003, Sweden.
Men (n 149) and women (n 109).
Long-term WG rye intake estimated with repeated FFQ correlated (r=0·31–0·41, P<0·01) with adipose-tissue AR concentrations, while WG wheat intake correlated only weakly (r=0·17–0·33, P<0·05). Total AR concentration in adipose tissue was 61 % lower in women than in men at similar energy-adjusted WG wheat and rye intakes, but plasma concentrations were similar. AR concentrations in adipose tissue correlated well with plasma concentrations (r=0·49–0·81, P<0·001).
AR in adipose tissue reflected long-term WG rye but not WG wheat intake, probably due to poor precision in estimating WG wheat intake by FFQ. AR in adipose tissue appears promising as a biomarker of long-term WG rye intake but should be adjusted for sex.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
The effect of the ingestion of diets containing either myo-inositol or exogenous phytase on plasma metabolites was examined using 29 kg barrows. The diets were: control (maize, soya, rapeseed, rice bran), control plus 2 g/kg myo-inositol, control plus 1000 phytase units (FYT)/kg or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed in a PigTurn device and blood was collected, from jugular catheters, via an automated system at −30, (30 min before feeding), 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min post-feeding. The addition of 2 g/kg myo-inositol to the basal diet resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was evident 45–60 min after diet introduction and persisted to 360 min post-feeding. Similarly, supplementation of the basal diet with either 1000 or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was still rising 360 min post-feeding. Plasma P concentration was increased over time by the addition of 1000 and 3000 FYT/kg phytase, but not by the addition of myo-inositol. Other plasma metabolites examined were not affected by dietary treatment. It can be concluded that oral delivery of myo-inositol results in rapid increase in plasma myo-inositol concentrations that peak approximately 45–60 min after feeding. Use of supplemental phytase achieves similar increases in myo-inositol concentration in plasma but the appearance is more gradual. Furthermore, supplementation of pig diets with exogenous phytase results in rapid appearance of P in plasma that may be sustained over time relative to diets with no added phytase.
As a continuation of developing multiscale method for the transport phenomena, a unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for multi-scale and multi-component plasma simulation is constructed. The current scheme is a direct modeling method, where the time evolution solutions from the Vlasov-BGK equations of electron and ion and the Maxwell equations are used to construct a scale-dependent plasma simulation model. The modeling scale used in the UGKS is the mesh size scale, which can be comparable to or much larger than the local mean free path. As a result, with the variation of modeling scales in space and time through the so-called cell's Knudsen number and normalized Larmor radius, the discretized governing equations can recover a wide range of plasma evolution from the Vlasov equation in the kinetic scale to different-type of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the hydrodynamic scale. The UGKS provides a general evolution model, which goes to the Vlasov equation in the kinetic scale and many types of MHD equations in the hydrodynamic scale, such as the two fluids model, the Hall, the resistive, and the ideal MHD equations. All current existing governing equations become the subsets of the UGKS, and the UGKS bridges these distinguishable governing equations seamlessly. The construction of UGKS is based on the implementation of physical conservation laws and the un-splitting treatment of particle collision, acceleration, and transport in the construction of a scale-dependent numerical flux across a cell interface. At the same time, the discretized plasma evolution equations are coupled with the Maxwell equations for electro-magnetic fields, which also cover a scale-dependent transition between the Ampére's law and the Ohm's law for the calculation of electric field. The time step of UGKS is not limited by the relaxation time, the cyclotron period, and the speed of light in the ideal-MHD regime. Our scheme is able to give a physically accurate solution for plasma simulation with a wide range of Knudsen number and normalized Larmor radius. It can be used to study the phenomena from the Vlasov limit to the scale of plasma skin depth for the capturing of two-fluid effect, and the phenomena in the plasma transition regime with a modest Knudsen number and Larmor radius. The UGKS is validated by numerical test cases, such as the Landau damping and two stream instability in the kinetic regime, and the Brio-Wu shock tube problem, and the Orszag-Tang MHD turbulence problem in the hydrodynamic regime. The scheme is also used to study the geospace environment modeling (GEM), such as the challenging magnetic reconnection problem in the transition regime. At the same time, the magnetic reconnection mechanism of the Sweet-Parker model and the Hall effect model can be connected smoothly through the variation of Larmor radius in the UGKS simulations. Overall, the UGKS is a physically reliable multi-scale plasma simulation method, and it provides a powerful and unified approach for the study of plasma physics.
As biomarkers of dietary intake or disease risk factor, n-3 fatty acid (FA) can be measured in plasma phospholipids (PL), total lipids (TL) or erythrocytes. However, the numeric relationships between n-3 FA in these lipid pools are not clear. Our goal was to derive conversion ratios for plasma and erythrocyte n-3 FA. Potential studies were identified through systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library of Systematic reviews (1950 to October 2014). In all, fifty-six studies reporting n-3 in healthy individuals were included, of which thirty-four articles reported plasma PL and erythrocytes, and twenty-two reported plasma TL and erythrocytes. Meta-regressions were performed to quantify the ratio between plasma and erythrocyte n-3 FA weight percentages, controlling for covariates including age, sex and study design. The conversion ratios from plasma PL to erythrocytes for EPA, DHA, DPA and total n-3 PUFA are 0·75, 1·16, 2·32 and 1·22; the corresponding conversion ratios from plasma TL to erythrocytes are 1·00, 2·10, 3·85 and 2·08, respectively. The conversion ratios were validated using reported values from the literature and measured data from fifty individuals. The relative error of the predicted results were within 10 % of the mean reported values except for EPA, and the individual measured data except for DPA, in plasma TL. The conversion ratios between plasma PL and erythrocytes were more stable compared with plasma TL. Such conversion ratios will be useful for nutritionists or public health professionals to assess FA profiles of different populations using data collected with different methodologies.
Plasma waves with frequencies close to the particular gyrofrequencies of the charged particles in the plasma lose energy due to cyclotron damping. We briefly discuss the gyro-resonance of low frequency plasma waves and ions particularly with regard to particle-in-cell (PiC) simulations. A setup is outlined which uses artificially excited waves in the damped regime of the wave mode's dispersion relation to track the damping of the wave's electromagnetic fields. Extracting the damping rate directly fromthe field data in real or Fourier space is an intricate and non-trivial task. We therefore present a simple method of obtaining the damping rate Γ from the simulation data. This method is described in detail, focusing on a step-by-step explanation of the course of actions. In a first application to a test simulation we find that the damping rates obtained from this simulation generally are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We then compare the results of one-, two- and three-dimensional simulation setups and simulations with different physical parameter sets.
Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) is an important parameter used to describe the resistance of optical thin films to laser damage. The service life and cost of optical systems depend on the LIDT of the film. Thus, the precision with which the film's LIDT can be measured impacts how well the service life and cost of the system can be predicted. Therefore, it is important to find a precise approach to diagnose a film's laser-induced damage. In this paper, characteristics of the peak sound pressure of laser-induced plasma shock waves from thin films have been systematically investigated experimentally. We found that the peak sound pressure decays rapidly with propagation distance during air transmission. Based on a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the peak sound pressure and the laser damage to a film, we propose a method for diagnosing laser damage using the peak sound pressure of a thin film's shock wave. Our results show that this method can simplify implementation, which will provide a new method with which to diagnose laser damage to thin films.