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Chapter 2 moves into the later period of the war, when Biafra was cut off from the outside world and its carefully constructed legal system began to unravel. It traces the emergence of vigilantism, the blurring of lines between the battlefield and civilian life in Biafra, and the Biafran state’s loss of its monopoly on violence.
Chapter 5 uses legal records to describe the shape of crime in the postwar East Central State – the core of the former Biafra and the last region to fall to Nigeria – where poverty, unemployment, and a variety of social and political ills caused by the war conspired to make everyday life in the 1970s very violent and precarious.
This chapter explores the pervasive ways in which Gothic forces and affiliations appear in Dickens’s writings. The word ‘Gothic’ is rare in his work but an awareness of Gothic tropes, plottings and conventions is vital to understanding it. Gothic is used in highly innovative ways: to explore asymmetrical power relations of many sorts; to limit-test the idea of the ‘human’; and as radical social critique. The diabolical and uncanny are particularly powerful modes, and Dickens is pioneering both in his use of ‘virtual’ Gothic in A Christmas Carol and in the creation of ‘paranoid Gothic’ in the violent same-sex eroticism of Our Mutual Friend and theMystery of Edwin Drood. Gothic is also an essential component of such scenes as Miss Havisham’s resemblance to ‘waxwork and skeleton’ in Great Expectations and Fagin’s and Monks’s appearance at the sleeping Oliver Twist’s window. The chapter discusses a wide range of Gothic presences in these and other works, concluding with a discussion of Dicken’s remarkable late essay ‘Nurse’s Stories’ (1863), a complex ‘meta-Gothic’ reflection on uncanny repetition and its simultaneously comic and diabolical power in subjective experience and narration.
Sexual assault, including unwanted sexual contact, coercion, and rape, is a social phenomenon that has been approached in a variety of ways in different global contexts. Attempts to address risk and protective factors for perpetrators and victims are limited by the difficulty of collecting empirical data on experiences that can be traumatic, stigmatizing, complicated, and private. This chapter explores current and historic definitions of sexual assault as well as how these definitions influence estimates of sexual assault prevalence and subsequent psychological and public health responses. We describe best practices in sexual assault measurement, explore the need for culturally acceptable interventions that acknowledge intersections of identity, critique current victim response services, and finally provide recommendations for future directions in sexual assault prevention and response.
Within and across cultures, sexism derives from cultural beliefs about the superiority of one sex and predicts gender inequity. Given the persistent and striking gender inequalities across nations, the goal of this chapter is to elaborate the relation among blatant and subtle sexism, ideology, sexual violence, men’s dominance over women, and patriarchal inequities. Toward that end, we review social psychological theory and research on gender and sexism; within this context, we discuss forms of sexism and gendered ideologies at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup level. We also focus on the important aspects of construing gender as a social identity. We then compare and contrast psychological perspectives to feminist theories, which emphasize how the gender binary defines hegemonic masculinity in contrast to women; we focus particularly attention to how women negotiate gendered roles and relations given awareness of the frequency, prevalence, and possibility of gendered and/or sexual violence. After integrating social psychological and enduring principles of radical feminist perspectives, we conclude by discussing the implications of cross-cultural perspectives and potential interventions that may combat sexism that reinforces gender inequities.
Domestic violence is a global phenomenon that concerns a broad variety of disciplines and stakeholders. Domestic violence does not discriminate; it occurs in all countries and settings, across all socioeconomic levels, and religious cultural groups. All family types -- nuclear and extended, traditional, same-sex, and all other varieties -- are at risk. Data clearly show that women are more likely to be victims and men are more likely to be perpetrators. Similar acts of violence, if perpetrated outside of the home, would be punishable by law, but the same acts are often accepted when they occur in the domestic sphere. In this chapter, we discuss the problem of domestic violence for women in the global South. The global South encompasses many countries and cultures that share certain developmental characteristics; however, official and societal responses to domestic violence prevention and protection differ. Some countries in this region have passed laws designed to counter domestic violence, but others have not. The psychological sequel associated with domestic violence is concerning.
Sexual assault, including unwanted sexual contact, coercion, and rape, are both criminal and traumatic. They are approached in a variety of ways in different global contexts. Attempts to address risk and protective factors for perpetrators and victims are limited by the difficulty of collecting empirical data on experiences that can be stigmatizing, complicated, shocking, and private. This chapter takes a global intersectional focus and explores current and historic definitions of sexual assault as well as how they influence estimates of sexual assault prevalence and subsequent psychological and public health responses. Empirical research is selectively reviewed to identify best practices in sexual assault measurement, prevalence, risk factors, and impact. Then interventions and prevention are addressed with emphasis on culturally acceptable and empirically validated approaches that acknowledge intersections of identity viewed from individual through societal levels. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future directions in sexual assault surveillance, prevention, and response.
Major historical shifts in the field of fertility, childbirth, and parenting have implications for feminist psychologists working on these topics. These shifts include approaches to sexuality and reproduction: a population control emphasis in the late 1940s, a reproductive rights paradigm in the 1990s, and progression from reproductive rights to reproductive justice. Feminist psychologists have to traverse the political landscape created by these broad approaches. In this chapter, we suggest ways in which such engagement may be facilitated through examination of mainstream assumptions and outcomes and the use of nuanced feminist research. Drawing from transnational feminisms, the principles of reproductive justice, and examples of research and interventions in reproductive decision-making, abortion, obstetric violence, "deviant" (m)others, early reproduction, and contraception, we argue that feminist psychology should attend to both global and cross-cutting power relations concerning fertility and reproduction, as well as localized dynamics.
An often-cited finding in US-driven suicidology is that women have higher rates of suicidal behavior, and lower suicide rates than men. This pattern, however, is not representative of the global suicidality picture. In Asian countries, female and male suicide rates are similar. To stimulate new thinking about female suicidality, we put China at the center of our analysis, and the United States at the periphery, and then discussed the insights generated by this reversal. Insights include that the US-centered canon is caught in the mental illness paradigm; and that it generalizes to women assumptions and evidence that mainly apply to men. For example, China’s data challenge dominant assumptions that marriage offers suicide protection. For many Chinese rural women, suicide is an act of despair and protest against suffocating marriages and communities – not a plea for closer ties (nor an expression of mental illness). China’s evidence, including that women’s suicide-mortality has significantly dropped since urbanization, supports a paradigm-shift in suicidology.
Though railways have been frequently depicted as icons of the progressive and the dynamic within British Victorian fiction, their secular and timetabled culture is, in fact, more often than not freighted with a disruptive Gothic presence. This chapter begins by noting how the construction of the railways in the nineteenth century literally impacted upon the built and cultural environments, laying waste to familiar landmarks and marking the bodies of those who travel as well as those who serve the engines of progress. The chapter considers the theme of physical violence and sexual interference within the closed space of the railway carriage, making reference to popular newspaper reportage and erotic fiction before engaging with the issue of psychological trauma and isolation, particularly among those whose task is as much to protect, as to transport, the travelling public.
Violence against women politicians is increasingly recognized as an issue that undermines women's presence in politics. Latin America has been at the vanguard of this global discussion. In 2012, Bolivia became the only country in the world to criminalize “political violence and harassment against women.” Several other countries have similar legislation in the works. What explains the emergence of these bill proposals? This article argues that the creation of these bills is the result of three processes: activism at the local level used international norms to propose an innovative solution to a problem; women politicians and “femocrats” worked within the state apparatus to overcome resistance; and international actors worked to foster connections among activists and politicians across the region. In this process, international norms have been transformed, with important implications for women's political representation.
Placements within high secure forensic hospitals consist of wards providing various different levels of relational security. They should form a coherent pathway through secure care, based on individual patient risks and needs. Moves to less secure wards within high secure forensic hospitals and moves on to lower secure hospital settings have rarely been systematically studied.
The aim of this study was to ascertain if placements within Broadmoor High Secure Hospital and moves from Broadmoor to medium secure hospitals corresponded to measures of violence risk, programme completion and recovery.
A 13-month prospective cohort study was completed. Patients (n = 142) were rated at baseline for violence risk (Historical, Clinical and Risk – 20), therapeutic programme completion and recovery (DUNDRUM tool) and overall functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning). Placements on the care pathway and moves on to medium secure hospitals were observed.
Placements on the care pathway within the high secure hospital were associated with dynamic violence risk (F = 16.324, P<0.001), therapeutic programme completion (F = 4.167, P = 0.003), recovery (F = 2.440, P = 0.050) with better scores on these measures being found in the rehabilitation wards and the poorest scores on the highest levels of dependency. Moves to medium secure hospitals were associated with better scores on dynamic risk of violence (F = 33.199, P<0.001), therapeutic programme completion (F = 9.237 P<0.001), recovery (F = 6.863, P = 0.001).
Placements within Broadmoor Hospital formed a coherent pathway through high secure care. Moves to less secure places were influenced by more than reduction in violence risk. Therapeutic programme completion and recovery in a broad sense were also important.
The Great War altered the means by which women conducted political activity as they adapted to wartime circumstances, while also bringing new opportunities for women’s mobilisation and politicisation. Competing loyalties of suffrage, nationalism, republicanism and unionism also affected attitudes towards Irish women’s role in the war effort and provided dissenting voices against the mechanisms of wartime mobilisation. This chapter examines the mobilisation of suffragist, nationalist and unionist women for the war effort, the participation of women in acts of dissent and the impact of the war on the achievement of female suffrage in 1918. It contrasts the opportunities for politicisation offered by the nationalist and unionist movements and argues that the differing approaches to the war effort resulted in the further polarisation of unionist Ulster and southern Ireland. The chapter argues that the war created a space for political activism, evident through the mass mobilisation of previously unorganised women in the 1918 anti-conscription campaign and the actions of working-class soldiers’ wives in Ireland in defending their interests against the growing republican movement.
Hannah earned extravagant praise from both fellow writers and critics, who were collectively bedazzled by his prolific and profound universe and his inimitable prose - at once brilliant and bizarre, gorgeous and grotesque. Even Hannah’s greatest fans admit to occasional “disgust” - he never shied away from violence, and its recipients were often women or racial others. It is into this desperate, violent world that Hannah compulsively deposits his Indians as not just inept but decidedly corrupt guides to a redemption that will not come. A pioneer of so-called “Grit Lit,” Hannah’s work rejects romanticism and nostalgia - conceits that typify and bedevil Indigenous and southern cultures simultaneously. There, the Indigenous motif poses not just as guide but at times as lingering fetish, drawing its subjects toward a narrative of fulfillment, albeit one based on hurt and horror rather than transcendence. For his primarily white southern male characters, the lessons of Indigenous conquest become a contemporary parable for the self-defeating desires, vacancies, betrayals, and violence of both southern history and modernity’s insidious bequests.
How neighbourhood characteristics affect the physical safety of people with mental illness is unclear.
To examine neighbourhood effects on physical victimisation towards people using mental health services.
We developed and evaluated a machine-learning-derived free-text-based natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to ascertain clinical text referring to physical victimisation. This was applied to records on all patients attending National Health Service mental health services in Southeast London. Sociodemographic and clinical data, and diagnostic information on use of acute hospital care (from Hospital Episode Statistics, linked to Clinical Record Interactive Search), were collected in this group, defined as ‘cases’ and concurrently sampled controls. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated associations (odds ratios, ORs) between neighbourhood-level fragmentation, crime, income deprivation, and population density and physical victimisation.
Based on a human-rated gold standard, the NLP algorithm had a positive predictive value of 0.92 and sensitivity of 0.98 for (clinically recorded) physical victimisation. A 1 s.d. increase in neighbourhood crime was accompanied by a 7% increase in odds of physical victimisation in women and an 13% increase in men (adjusted OR (aOR) for women: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.14, aOR for men: 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.21, P for gender interaction, 0.218). Although small, adjusted associations for neighbourhood fragmentation appeared greater in magnitude for women (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) than men, where this association was not statistically significant (aOR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.95–1.04, P for gender interaction, 0.096). Neighbourhood income deprivation was associated with victimisation in men and women with similar magnitudes of association.
Neighbourhood factors influencing safety, as well as individual characteristics including gender, may be relevant to understanding pathways to physical victimisation towards people with mental illness.
Chapter 4 draws on a series of interrelated ideas including those of Emmanuel Levinas and phenomenological and Buddhist thought concerning ethics as a non-violent relation to the Other; a relation that is marked by one’s response to an other’s singularity. The aim is to outline a key element for creating institutional change that recognises this singularity, appreciating the complexity involved in living with others and the challenges this places on educational institutions. In particular, it argues that changes in educational institutions must encompass both the people who exist in them and the practices that constitute these spaces as institutions in the first place. In this light, while institutions are governed by rules, regulations, policies, legal frameworks and organisational structures, they institute themselves as institutions through cultures, which are composed of relationships, practices, experiences and shared imaginaries. These practices are not only cognitive or intellectual but also embodied, sensate and phenomenal. Thus in order for institutional change to have any real purchase, it is necessary that the transformation of cultures qua embodied practices, and the imaginaries that support them become the focus of our efforts, towards promoting new forms of relationality and new modes of sensibility in pluralistic contexts.
Despite a sizable minority of persons with serious mental illness (SMI) acting aggressively toward family members, little is known about this topic. The objectives of the present analyses are to examine the association of offenders' SMI status with offender behaviors and victim outcomes and to compare the immediate contextual characteristics of incidents involving offenders with and without SMI.
Using a cross-sectional design, all incidents of domestic violence to which police were called between adult children and their parents in Philadelphia, PA, in 2013 (N = 6191) were analyzed. Additionally, incidents in which the offender was indicated to have SMI (n = 327) were matched with a sample of incidents in which the offender was not indicated to have SMI (n = 327).
Offenders having SMI was not associated with using a bodily weapon or gun, threatening victims, or damaging property. Offenders having SMI was associated with a decreased risk of offenders using a non-gun external weapon and victims being observed to have a complaint of pain or visible injuries. When offenders had SMI, conflict was less likely to focus on family issues and more likely to focus on offenders' behaviors and to involve contextual characteristics related to mental illness.
Efforts to prevent gun and other violence between non-intimate partner family members should target factors more strongly associated with violence than SMI (e.g. history of domestic violence, substance abuse). Intervening in family aggression by persons with SMI likely requires addressing unique circumstances these parties experience.
Solidarity is founded in violence and bears the signs of violence, and revolt. The beginning/creation of community in innumerable foundational myths is a terrible killing. According to whether this killing is of the father or the brother, the chapter suggests that solidarity is either hierarchical, and geared towards those strictly understood as children of the father, or fraternal, in the sense of geared towards the stranger, the non-brother. These solidarities sometimes exist in combined forms within the same foundational myth. In the socio-political imaginary concatenation that Europe is right now, different types of solidarity constantly co-exist and sometimes clash with each other. Revolt is violence-in-solidarity and it reconciles different sorts of debt, different conceptions of time, that is, it allows for simultaneity of the event (or suspension of time, which happens in the area of the sacred, the religious, the Durkheimian mechanic) and the historical, continuous flow of time (which happens in the area of the reasonable, the Durkheimian organic).
This chapter examines the formation of a new anti-impunity Transnational Legal Order (TLO), its institutionalization, and its consequences. Socio-legal scholarship and recent research on responses to the mass violence unfolding in the Darfur region of Sudan, beginning in 2003, provide insights into strengths and limits of the new anti-impunity TLO. Based on a comparative eight-country study, involving in depth interviews in four social fields (human rights, diplomacy, humanitarian aid, media) and an analysis of 3,387 media reports, I review judicial steps taken on Darfur, conditions supporting them, and their consequences, interpreting them in terms of the transnational legal ordering approach. The case of Darfur shows the anti-impunity TLO at work, displaying it as a force that delegitimizes mass violence. Yet, it also shows impediments to institutionalization in the form of hostile state actors, fields with potentially competing agendas, including diplomacy and humanitarian aid, internal contradictions, and lack of enforcement power. Nation-level forces filter cultural effects of intervention, resulting in diminished concordance between the international and the global realms and across nation states.