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Recurrent, nonequilibrium systems and the Markov blanket assumption

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 September 2022

Miguel Aguilera
School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ, UK
Christopher L. Buckley
School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ, UK


Markov blankets – statistical independences between system and environment – have become popular to describe the boundaries of living systems under Bayesian views of cognition. The intuition behind Markov blankets originates from considering acyclic, atemporal networks. In contrast, living systems display recurrent, nonequilibrium interactions that generate pervasive couplings between system and environment, making Markov blankets highly unusual and restricted to particular cases.

Open Peer Commentary
Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

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