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We provide two new bounds on the number of visible points on exponential curves modulo a prime for all choices of primes. We also provide one new bound on the number of visible points on exponential curves modulo a prime for almost all primes.
An additive basis
$A$
is finitely stable when the order of
$A$
is equal to the order of
$A\cup F$
for all finite subsets
$F\subseteq \mathbb{N}$
. We give a sufficient condition for an additive basis to be finitely stable. In particular, we prove that
$\mathbb{N}^{2}$
is finitely stable.
Let
${\mathcal{A}}=\{a_{1}<a_{2}<\cdots \,\}$
be a set of nonnegative integers. Put
$D({\mathcal{A}})=\gcd \{a_{k+1}-a_{k}:k=1,2,\ldots \}$
. The set
${\mathcal{A}}$
is an asymptotic basis if there exists
$h$
such that every sufficiently large integer is a sum of at most
$h$
(not necessarily distinct) elements of
${\mathcal{A}}$
. We prove that if the difference of consecutive integers of
${\mathcal{A}}$
is bounded, then
${\mathcal{A}}$
is an asymptotic basis if and only if there exists an integer
$a\in {\mathcal{A}}$
such that
$(a,D({\mathcal{A}}))=1$
.
In this paper, we prove some conjectures of K. Stolarsky concerning the first and third moments of the Beatty sequences with the golden section and its square.
Using elementary means, we improve an explicit bound on the divisor function due to Friedlander and Iwaniec [Opera de Cribro, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2010]. Consequently, we modestly improve a result regarding a sieving inequality for Gaussian sequences.
The algebraic proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra uses two facts about real numbers. First, every polynomial with odd degree and real coefficients has a real root. Second, every nonnegative real number has a square root. Shipman [‘Improving the fundamental theorem of algebra’, Math. Intelligencer29(4) (2007), 9–14] showed that the assumption about odd degree polynomials is stronger than necessary; any field in which polynomials of prime degree have roots is algebraically closed. In this paper, we give a simpler proof of this result of Shipman.
We compute the Alexander polynomial of a nonreduced nonirreducible complex projective plane curve with mutually coprime orders of vanishing along its irreducible components in terms of certain multiplier ideals.
Let
$G$
be a group and
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}=\{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{i}\mid i\in I\}$
some partition of the set of all primes. A subgroup
$A$
of
$G$
is
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$
-subnormal in
$G$
if there is a subgroup chain
$A=A_{0}\leq A_{1}\leq \cdots \leq A_{m}=G$
such that either
$A_{i-1}\unlhd A_{i}$
or
$A_{i}/(A_{i-1})_{A_{i}}$
is a finite
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{j}$
-group for some
$j=j(i)$
for
$i=1,\ldots ,m$
, and it is modular in
$G$
if
$\langle X,A\cap Z\rangle =\langle X,A\rangle \cap Z$
when
$X\leq Z\leq G$
and
$\langle A,Y\cap Z\rangle =\langle A,Y\rangle \cap Z$
when
$Y\leq G$
and
$A\leq Z\leq G$
. The group
$G$
is called
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$
-soluble if every chief factor
$H/K$
of
$G$
is a finite
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{i}$
-group for some
$i=i(H/K)$
. In this paper, we describe finite
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$
-soluble groups in which every
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$
-subnormal subgroup is modular.
Let
$G$
be a finite group. Let
$\operatorname{cl}(G)$
be the set of conjugacy classes of
$G$
and let
$\operatorname{ecl}_{p}(G)$
be the largest integer such that
$p^{\operatorname{ecl}_{p}(G)}$
divides
$|C|$
for some
$C\in \operatorname{cl}(G)$
. We prove the following results. If
$\operatorname{ecl}_{p}(G)=1$
, then
$|G:F(G)|_{p}\leq p^{4}$
if
$p\geq 3$
. Moreover, if
$G$
is solvable, then
$|G:F(G)|_{p}\leq p^{2}$
.
We show that if a finitely generated group
$G$
has a nonelementary WPD action on a hyperbolic metric space
$X$
, then the number of
$G$
-conjugacy classes of
$X$
-loxodromic elements of
$G$
coming from a ball of radius
$R$
in the Cayley graph of
$G$
grows exponentially in
$R$
. As an application we prove that for
$N\geq 3$
the number of distinct
$\text{Out}(F_{N})$
-conjugacy classes of fully irreducible elements
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D719}$
from an
$R$
-ball in the Cayley graph of
$\text{Out}(F_{N})$
with
$\log \unicode[STIX]{x1D706}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D719})$
of the order of
$R$
grows exponentially in
$R$
.
We establish a new sufficient condition under which a monoid is nonfinitely based and apply this condition to Lee monoids
$L_{\ell }^{1}$
, obtained by adjoining an identity element to the semigroup generated by two idempotents
$a$
and
$b$
with the relation
$0=abab\cdots \,$
(length
$\ell$
). We show that every monoid
$M$
which generates a variety containing
$L_{5}^{1}$
and is contained in the variety generated by
$L_{\ell }^{1}$
for some
$\ell \geq 5$
is nonfinitely based. We establish this result by analysing
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}$
-terms for
$M$
, where
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}$
is a certain nontrivial congruence on the free semigroup. We also show that if
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}$
is the trivial congruence on the free semigroup and
$\ell \leq 5$
, then the
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}$
-terms (isoterms) for
$L_{\ell }^{1}$
carry no information about the nonfinite basis property of
$L_{\ell }^{1}$
.
We prove the sharp inequality
$|H_{3,1}(f)|\leq 4/135$
for convex functions, that is, for analytic functions
$f$
with
$a_{n}:=f^{(n)}(0)/n!,~n\in \mathbb{N}$
, such that
Let
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}$
be a member of a certain class of convex ellipsoids of finite/infinite type in
$\mathbb{C}^{2}$
. In this paper, we prove that every holomorphic function in
$L^{p}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA})$
can be approximated by holomorphic functions on
$\bar{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}}$
in
$L^{p}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA})$
-norm, for
$1\leq p<\infty$
. For the case
$p=\infty$
, the continuity up to the boundary is additionally required. The proof is based on
$L^{p}$
bounds in the additive Cousin problem.
We use properties of the gamma function to estimate the products
$\prod _{k=1}^{n}(4k-3)/4k$
and
$\prod _{k=1}^{n}(4k-1)/4k$
, motivated by the work of Chen and Qi [‘Completely monotonic function associated with the gamma function and proof of Wallis’ inequality’, Tamkang J. Math.36(4) (2005), 303–307] and Mortici et al. [‘Completely monotonic functions and inequalities associated to some ratio of gamma function’, Appl. Math. Comput.240 (2014), 168–174].
for functions
$f$
and
$h$
mapping a semigroup
$(G,\cdot )$
into a commutative semigroup
$(E,+)$
, where the map
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}:G\rightarrow G$
is an endomorphism of
$G$
with
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}(x))=x$
for all
$x\in G$
. We derive from these results some characterisations of inner product spaces. We also obtain a description of solutions to the equation and hyperstability results for the
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$
-quadratic and
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$
-Drygas equations.
Let
$N$
be a fixed positive integer and
$f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$
. As a generalisation of the superstability of the exponential functional equation we consider the functional inequalities
for all
$x,y\in \mathbb{R}$
, where
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D719}:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{+}$
is an arbitrary function and
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D713}:\mathbb{R}^{2}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{+}$
satisfies a certain condition.
We use the Morrey norm estimate for the imaginary power of the Laplacian to prove an interpolation inequality for the fractional power of the Laplacian on Morrey spaces. We then prove a Hardy-type inequality and use it together with the interpolation inequality to obtain a Heisenberg-type inequality in Morrey spaces.
To explore the difficulties of classifying actions with the tracial Rokhlin property using K-theoretic data, we construct two
$\mathbb{Z}_{2}$
actions
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}_{1},\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}_{2}$
on a simple unital AF algebra
$A$
such that
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}_{1}$
has the tracial Rokhlin property and
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}_{2}$
does not, while
$(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}_{1})_{\ast }=(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}_{2})_{\ast }$
, where
$(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}_{i})_{\ast }$
is the induced map by
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}_{i}$
acting on
$K_{0}(A)$
for
$i=1,2$
.
We use a unified approach to study the boundedness of fractional integral operators on
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$
-modulation spaces and find sharp conditions for boundedness in the full range.
We give a simple proof of the strong law of large numbers with rates, assuming only finite variance. This note also serves as an elementary introduction to the theory of large deviations, assuming only finite variance, even when the random variables are not necessarily independent.