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Wendell Willis excavates from within the New Testament the meanings of what is termed “conscience” in the English language today. Upon surveying all the books of the NT, Willis concludes that suneidesis (the word most-often translated in the NT as conscience) does not have a fixed meaning for NT writers. Willis’s key contribution is to cleave the reader’s understanding of suneidesis into two main categories, while also identifying additional shades of meaning across NT texts. For example, in the Pauline corpus, especially in 1 and 2 Corinthians, suneidesis seems most often to refer to a person’s self-knowledge or internal understandings about himself and his past actions. Here, suneidesis should be understood as “consciousness” rather than “conscience”. In this sense, suneidesis in Corinthians is fundamentally retrospective in nature, while in Romans, suneidesis is more often a guide for the believers’ future moral choices. Other usages of suneidesis in the NT are a variation on the theme first established by Paul: consciousness of past actions or an inner model for one’s future actions.
To examine awareness and recall of healthy eating public education campaigns in five countries.
Data were cross-sectional and collected as part of the 2018 International Food Policy Study. Respondents were asked whether they had seen government healthy eating campaigns in the past year; if yes (awareness), they were asked to describe the campaign. Open-ended descriptions were coded to indicate recall of specific campaigns. Logistic models regressed awareness of healthy eating campaigns on participant country, age, sex, ethnicity, education, income adequacy and BMI. Analyses were also stratified by country.
Participants were Nielsen panelists aged ≥18 years in Australia, Canada, Mexico, UK and US (n=22,463).
Odds of campaign awareness were higher in Mexico (50.9%) than UK (18.2%), Australia (17.9%), US (13.0%) and Canada (10.2%) (P<0.001). Awareness was also higher in UK and Australia versus Canada and US, and US versus Canada (P<0.001). Overall, awareness was higher among males versus females and respondents with medium or high versus low education (P<0.001 for all). Similar results were found in stratified models, although no sex difference was observed in Australia or UK (P>0.05), and age was associated with campaign awareness in UK (P<0.001). Common key words in all countries included sugar/sugary drinks, fruits and vegetables, and physical activity. The top five campaigns recalled were Chécate, mídete, muévete (Mexico), PrevenIMSS (Mexico), Change4Life (UK), LiveLighter® (Australia), and Actívate, Vive Mejor (Mexico).
In Mexico, UK and Australia, comprehensive campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles appear to have achieved broad, population-level reach.
There is conflicting empirical evidence regarding the role of awareness in second language learning. Possible explanations for the contradictory results include the modality in the exposure and assessment phases of previous experiments. Our study investigated the acquisition of a novel determiner system under incidental exposure conditions and examined the effect of modality in both exposure and assessment phases. Animacy served as a hidden regularity in the determiners, which were embedded in sentences and presented to Chinese speakers of English either in auditory or in visual mode. Learning was assessed by a two-alternative forced-choice test either auditorily or in writing. Implicit and explicit knowledge were measured using retrospective verbal reports and source judgements. Bayesian analysis provided moderate evidence for above chance level learning. Significant learning effects were observed regardless of whether participants based their accuracy judgements on explicit or implicit knowledge. Bayesian analysis showed moderate evidence for above chance learning effects for aware participants. Generalized linear mixed-effects modeling revealed a small-size significant benefit of the auditory exposure modality over the written modality but indicated no significant effect of the modality of assessment or awareness. Our research underscores the importance of considering the role of modality of exposure in incidental second language learning contexts.
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global pandemic with no therapy, and pharmacists being a part of the health care system have a vital role in the management of COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of community pharmacists (CPs) regarding COVID-19.
An online survey was conducted among 393 CPs in 2 provinces of Pakistan during the lockdown period. A validated questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha, 0.745) was used for data collection. All statistical analyses were analyzed by using SPSS, version 21 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).
Among 393 participants, 71.5% (n = 281) had good knowledge, 44% (n = 175) had a positive attitude, and 57.3% (n = 225) had good practices regarding COVID-19. Social media (45.29%, n = 178) were reported as the main source to seek information of COVID-19. Good knowledge, age ≥ 26 years, and a PhD degree level were the substantial determinants (P = < 0.05) of a good attitude. Similarly, a CP with experience of > 5 years, a PhD degree, good knowledge, and a good attitude has higher odds of having good practices as compared with reference categories (P = < 0.05).
In short, a majority of the CPs had good knowledge but had a poor attitude and practice toward the management of COVID-19. Standard-structured educational and counseling programs for CPs regarding COVID-19 are needed for effective management.
To validate the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) and determine factors associated with the presence of food neophobia (FN) in a sample of Lebanese children.
Cross-sectional study conducted between July and December 2019.
All Lebanese governorates.
Parents of Lebanese children aged 2 to 10 years.
Out of 850 questionnaires, 194 were excluded. The mean age of children was 5·34 ± 2·20 years (50·8 % females); 238 (36·4 %) had low neophobia scores (≤37), whereas 219 (33·5 %) and 197 (30·1 %) had, respectively, moderate (between 38 and 41) and severe neophobia scores (≥42). All items of the FNS were extracted except item 8 and yielded a two-factor solution with Eigenvalues > 1 (variance explained = 51·64 %; Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) test = 0·746; Bartlett’s sphericity test P < 0·001; αCronbach = 0·739). Children who refused initially to eat vegetables (β = 5·51), fish (β = 4·57), fruits (β = 4·75) or eggs (β = 2·99) and higher parents’ instrumental feeding scores (β = 0·3) were significantly associated with higher neophobia scores, whereas higher parents’ encouragement scores (β = -0·21) were significantly associated with lower neophobia scores in children.
FN is common in children. Neophobic children tend to have lower variety in their diets. One of the ways to lower the levels of neophobia is the use of encouragement by the parents. In contrast, offering a reward to children for them to eat a certain food was associated with more signs of avoidance. More studies should be conducted to evaluate awareness levels concerning FN.
Observational studies in Ethiopia have identified a positive association between hot wheat porridge consumption and oesophageal carcinoma. However, a single dietary intake cannot be a sufficient predictor of cancer among populations that have diverse dietary practices. The present study was carried out to explore the community's perspectives on the role of hot foods in the pathogenesis of oesophageal cancer in Ethiopia. Focus group discussions were conducted from May to August 2019 among purposefully selected 112 participants. Data were collected by using open-ended questions; memo writing, audio recordings and photo pictures. All tape-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and inductively coded using Atlas.ti Version 7.0.71 software. Finally, the analysis was performed according to the standard thematic framework analysis techniques. The finding showed that hot foods (porridge, coffee and soup) consumption patterns were perceived as the principal dietary risk of oesophageal cancer. Cooking in unventilated rooms, monotonous cereal-based foods, poor vegetable, and fruit intake, not taking milk with porridge, eating fast, swallowing large bolus of hot porridge and exposure to carcinogens in foods were regarded as predisposing dietary practices to oesophageal carcinoma. Socio-demographic, economic and cultural backgrounds were reported as the underlying risk factors associated with oesophageal cancer. There was a strong perception within the community that oesophageal cancer is linked to several but sequentially interlinked dietary and related practices. Cumulative thermal injuries from the consumptions of hot food could be the immediate dietary risk factors associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer.
Patient Support Programs (PSPs) have become a trend among pharmaceutical companies and a standard service offering to patients. The objective of the present study is to describe the status of PSPs in Lebanon and to assess the extent of knowledge and awareness among Lebanese patients about the PSPs.
A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and July 2017. A convenient sample of patients was randomly selected from outpatient clinics at four hospitals within the Greater Beirut Area. A questionnaire was used to address the study objective. Bivariate analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 23.
Out of 385 patients who participated in the study, 45.45 percent were aged between 46 and 66 years. None of them indicated that they were enrolled in a PSP, and only 13 percent of the respondents were aware of the existence of such a program. In terms of adherence habits, 55.6 percent of the patients self-reported that they do not skip any dose of their medication and consume their medication as prescribed by their healthcare providers. The main reason for nonadherence reported by the majority of nonadherent participants 144 (84.2%) was simple forgetfulness.
There is a severe lack of awareness of PSPs in Lebanon. Given the important role that PSPs play in creating value for patients—in terms of healthcare follow-up practices, improved adherence habits, and cost savings—there should be a more substantial effort by pharmaceutical companies to expand and promote their PSPs in the Lebanese market.
This study aims to assess the knowledge and awareness, and to identify the practice reflection of knowledge concerning Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) on hospital visitor’s daily life.
A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2 tertiary referral hospitals in Riyadh Saudi Arabia, from February 2015 to February 2016. A total random sample of 305 hospital visitors consented to participate. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions regarding awareness and practice of measures to prevent the spread of infection.
Study showed that participants have a fair knowledge regarding the cause of MERS (N = 228; 74.8%). Nearly half of them (47%) stated that camels are the source of the spread of MERS. Approximately 70% of the participants preferred both sanitization and wearing facemasks as preventive measures for MERS. However, only 3.95% practiced not eating camel products, such as milk and meat.
Although hospital visitors showed some knowledge and positive awareness in several aspects of MERS awareness, there are weak areas where knowledge and awareness were not up to recommended guidelines. Continued educational programs are needed to improve awareness and knowledge of all the public toward MERS-coronavirus infection. This study may assist in the development of future strategies on preventive measures of the disease.
A correct understanding of the dynamics and mechanisms that make it possible for a woman to become a victim of intra-family violence allows the necessary measures to be taken so that she can escape from the situation of victimization. Emilio C. Viano, President of the International Society of Criminology, defines the victim of an abuse as “any subject injured or that has suffered wrongdoing on the part of others, who perceives herself to be a victim, who shares the experience with others looking for help, assistance and compensation, who is recognized as a victim and who presumably is being helped by public, private or collective agencies/structures”. Before the birth of Anti-Violence Centers it was believed that the awareness of being a victim was the necessary condition for a woman to ask for help. Experience has shown that, in reality, it is the request for help that allows her to begin a process of awareness together with the operators in the Anti-Violence Centers. This reflection has led to the creation of a theoretical model called “The Circular Model of Victimization”. The aim of the research, and which is presented here, was to verify whether the Italian Anti-Violence Centers recognize the Circular Model in the daily operational reality, and thus to ascertain whether this model can be considered a real empirical model, as well as a theoretical explanatory model. In conclusion, the revisited Circular Model of Victimization will be presented, in which it is assumed that the way out of the circuit of violence passes from a first moment of perception of victimization to arrive at a real awareness of the same.
According to the safety principle, if one knows that p, one's belief that p could not easily have been false. One problem besetting this principle is the lottery problem – that of explaining why one does not seem to know that one will lose the lottery purely based on probabilistic considerations, prior to the announcement of the lottery result. As Greco points out, it is difficult for a safety theorist to solve this problem, without paying a heavy price. In this paper, I first reject three existing safety-based solutions to the lottery problem, due to Pritchard, Sosa, and Broncano-Berrocal. Failure of these accounts reveals that there is something crucial missing in the safety principle. By way of remedying this, I propose to integrate a safety principle with a condition regarding one's own awareness of (nearby) error-possibilities. The resulting account, as I argue, enjoys a number of theoretical advantages, including its capacity to handle the lottery problem.
Awareness of dementia is examined in different scientific fields as significant for assessment of diagnosis, and for treatment and adaptation to the disease. There are very few longitudinal studies of individual experiences of awareness among people with dementia, related to quality of life.
To examine how younger people (< 65 years) with dementia (YOD) express awareness of the dementia and how, over time, they seem to handle awareness as a strategy to preserve quality of life.
A longitudinal qualitative study with individuals with YOD was performed with interviews every six months over five years for a maximum of ten interviews. The interviews were analysed by modified grounded theory.
Awareness is a complex, multidimensional concept. Awareness of dementia is predisposed by personality, life history and established coping styles. The main coping styles – live in the moment, ignore the dementia, and make the best of it – seem to be rather consistent throughout the progression of the disease. Transitions in life situation, such as moving to a nursing home, may change the individual’s awareness of dementia.
Unawareness of dementia may have an important adaptive function to preserve quality of life. To increase awareness must be approached with reflexivity and the utmost sensitivity.
The outbreak of COVID-19 generated severe emotional reactions, and restricted mobility was a crucial measure to reduce the spread of the virus. This study describes the changes in public emotional reactions and mobility patterns in the Chinese population during the COVID-19 outbreak.
We collected data on public emotional reactions in response to the outbreak through Weibo, the Chinese Twitter, between 1st January and 31st March 2020. Using anonymized location-tracking information, we analyzed the daily mobility patterns of approximately 90% of Sichuan residents.
There were three distinct phases of the emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 outbreak. The alarm phase (19th–26th January) was a restriction-free period, characterized by few new daily cases, but a large amount public negative emotions [the number of negative comments per Weibo post increased by 246.9 per day, 95% confidence interval (CI) 122.5–371.3], and a substantial increase in self-limiting mobility (from 45.6% to 54.5%, changing by 1.5% per day, 95% CI 0.7%–2.3%). The epidemic phase (27th January–15th February) exhibited rapidly increasing numbers of new daily cases, decreasing expression of negative emotions (a decrease of 27.3 negative comments per post per day, 95% CI −40.4 to −14.2), and a stabilized level of self-limiting mobility. The relief phase (16th February–31st March) had a steady decline in new daily cases and decreasing levels of negative emotion and self-limiting mobility.
During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the public's emotional reaction was strongest before the actual peak of the outbreak and declined thereafter. The change in human mobility patterns occurred before the implementation of restriction orders, suggesting a possible link between emotion and behavior.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), founded on the meditation practices outlined in the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program and historically rooted in contemplative traditions, offer one mental framework to address the unique needs of individuals suffering from the causes and consequences of substance and behavioral addictions. MBIs are considered a third wave of empirically tested psychotherapies following behavioral therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy, respectively. MBI-proposed targets of change include self-regulation, self-exploration, and self-liberation; together, an important set of mental capacities or skills to break the cycle of addiction. In this chapter, we describe the development of MBIs adapted for a variety of addictions. We focus on MBIs for substance use disorders (SUD) and binge-eating disorder (BED) due to similarities in addictive and neurobiological processes (both may be considered substance addictions, BED as a proxy for food addiction), though other behavioral addictions are also discussed. We then critically review leading experimental trials that test the efficacy of MBIs on mechanisms of addiction and substance use behavior among people diagnosed with SUD and BED. Based on results available to date, treatment effects from MBIs are on par with other clinically accepted treatments. However, several methodological limitations make interpretation of the internal validity and reliability of these results difficult to assess. We discuss strengths and limitations of the state of evidence to date and provide suggestions for future research with an emphasis on treatment fidelity and its role in improving the validity of future study findings. We expect our synthesis to inform the public on the value of applying MBIs to remediate the causes and consequences of addictive behavior.
Hypnosis involves the use of verbal suggestion to modulate behavior and experience. Hypnosis and imagination have long been associated and the view that hypnotic suggestion effects changes in experience through imagination is a persistent one. In this review, we first present a brief overview of hypnosis and then turn to its potential relationship to imagery and imagination. We consider whether individual differences in imagination may relate to hypnotic suggestibility and the extent to which imagery is recruited during response to hypnotic suggestions in psychological and neuroimaging studies. Finally, we briefly consider the roles of imagery and suggestion in clinical applications of hypnosis. We conclude that while hypnotic suggestibility may relate to variability in imagination, hypnotic suggestion and voluntary forms of imagery are subserved by dissimilar neurocognitive mechanisms.
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a disaster of unprecedented proportions with global repercussions. Psychological preparedness, the primed cognitive awareness and anticipation of dealing with emotional responses in an adverse situation, has assumed a compelling relevance during a health disaster of this magnitude.
An anonymized eSurvey was conducted in India to assess psychological preparedness toward the ongoing pandemic with a focus on knowledge, management of own and others’ emotional response, and anticipatory coping mechanisms among the survey population. An adapted version of the qualitative Psychological Preparedness for Natural Disaster Scale validated by the World Health Organization was widely circulated over the Internet and various social media platforms for assessment. Results are expressed as median ± standard deviation. Descriptive statistics were used and figures downloaded from surveymonkey.com.
Of the 1120 respondents (M:F 1.7:1, age 35 years ±14.1), most expressed a high level of perceived knowledge and confidence of managing COVID-19, such as awareness of the symptoms of the illness (95.1%), actions needed (94.4%), hospital to report to (88.9%), and emergency contact number (89.1%). A majority (95%) monitored regularly the news bulletins and scientific journals regarding COVID-19. However, nearly one-third (29.2%) could not assess their likelihood of developing COVID-19, and 17.5% were unaware of the difference between a mild and severe infection. Twenty-three percent (23.3%) were unfamiliar with the materials needed in an acute illness situation.
Psychological disaster preparedness is reasonable, although lacking in specific domains. Timely but focused interventions can be a cost-efficient administrative exercise, which federal agencies may prioritize working on.
This chapter explores some of the main concepts connected to mindfulness by covering key terms and ways of being mindful. Readers are introduced to Western research into mindfulness, such as self-compassion, and are invited to explore formal and informal mindfulness practices.
Awareness and attentiveness have implications for the acceptance and adoption of disease prevention and control measures. Social media posts provide a record of the public’s attention to an outbreak. To measure the attention of Chinese netizens to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pre-established nationally representative cohort of Weibo users was searched for COVID-19-related key words in their posts.
COVID-19-related posts (N = 1101) were retrieved from a longitudinal cohort of 52 268 randomly sampled Weibo accounts (December 31, 2019–February 12, 2020).
Attention to COVID-19 was limited prior to China openly acknowledging human-to-human transmission on January 20. Following this date, attention quickly increased and has remained high over time. Particularly high levels of social media traffic appeared around when Wuhan was first placed in quarantine (January 23–24, 8–9% of the overall posts), when a scandal associated with the Red Cross Society of China occurred (February 1, 8%), and, following the death of Dr Li Wenliang (February 6–7, 11%), one of the whistleblowers who was reprimanded by the Chinese police in early January for discussing this outbreak online.
Limited early warnings represent missed opportunities to engage citizens earlier in the outbreak. Governments should more proactively communicate early warnings to the public in a transparent manner.
To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and effectiveness of PEGASUS, a group-based structured psychoeducation for adults with ADHD and their significant others.
A pragmatic parallel group add-on design multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing an 8-session treatment with PEGASUS (allocated n = 97; 48 with ADHD and 49 with significant others) to treatment as usual (TAU, allocated n = 82; 39 with ADHD and 43 significant others). Participants (individuals with ADHD and significant others) were recruited from five psychiatric outpatient departments and block randomized to PEGASUS or TAU. Knowledge about ADHD was measured using the ADHD 20 scale pre- and post-intervention and served as primary outcome.
Knowledge about ADHD (d = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.61–1.31]) increased following PEGASUS participation compared to TAU. Improvements were also observed in secondary outcomes e.g. global life satisfaction (d = 0.25 [95% CI: from –0.09 to 0.59]). Overall treatment satisfaction was good. Over 90% of the participants completed the program. Post-intervention data was obtained from n = 89 in PEGASUS group and n = 70 in TAU group and analyses were conducted per protocol. No important adverse effects or side effects were observed.
Group-based structured psychoeducation PEGASUS for adults with ADHD and their significant others is a feasible, efficacious, and effective treatment option to increase ADHD knowledge and general life satisfaction in psychiatric outpatient care.