To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter examines the complex entanglements of commerce and sovereignty in the modern artifact of cross-border trade that was inaugurated in 2008 between the India- and Pakistan-controlled parts of Kashmir. The exchange was devised as a nontaxable, nonmonetized form of barter, and strange customs evolved to ensure that the trade could be neither “internal” nor “external.” Yet for traders who engaged cross-border commerce in all its absurdity and elasticity, its artifactual form served as an opportunity for activating transversal ideas of autonomy, community, and profit otherwise not permissible under the regulatory regimes of nation states. Drawing on the historical emergence of markets as sites of political claims-making, I examine recent boundary wars between licit and illicit trade at the Line of Control to show how both traders and the state continually improvise law and exchange express distinct - and often incongruous - ideas of fairness and freedom.
Since the 1950s, public discourse in India has referred to black money: undeclared or illicit income, sometimes in foreign accounts. Black money - so as to circumvent state taxes and controls - pervaded ordinary exchange and political financing. Today, large purchases have white and black ratios; public figures vow to retrieve black money in Swiss accounts. Black money is, at once, a means to transact business, a barometer of value, an elusive specter, and a moral outrage. It suggests how money can be differentiated, converted, corrupted, and disguised. This chapter is based on an ethnographic study of a Mumbai neighborhood marked by migration and informality. It examines the generation of black money from the diversion of publicly subsidized goods, the community’s assessment of these practices, and possible conduits for such income. Black money, I suggest, can be understood as a moral critique of money’s spectral and pernicious character, as well as a productive hinge between transactional orders and an expression of relational ties.
This chapter explores the role and function of occult forces in South Asian bazaars. Drawing mainly, but not exclusively, on material from eastern South Asia, it challenges the repeated attempts by scholars to read these forces along functionalist lines. Instead, it demonstrates that there is a substantial body of formalized textual knowledge which theorizes the nature, role, and application of these forces. This knowledge is available, in the bazaar itself, in a specialized genre of printed books. The chapter argues against mapping the knowledge produced in these books within the category of “religion,” since the emphasis on belief and bounded identities that have become germane to modern ideas of “religion” are inapplicable to the practices of the occult bazaar. The occult bazaar, it is argued, should be treated as a distinctive sphere of abstraction that is separate from, though interacting with, the more formalized and well-known abstraction of “the economy.”
“From the outside, the market in India is often seen as an exchange arena bound by state-imposed rules. Those within - buyers and sellers, producers and consumers, brokers and advertisers, financiers and debtors, police and inspectors - understand it differently. Such parties collude and compete in myriad everyday activities. These include those of accumulation and circulation, of production and speculation, and of arbitrage and management.
Involved actors, in short, experience the Indian market dissimilarly from the ways in which many planners and policymakers comprehend it. This market is best understood as an ensemble of practices and institutions. It has active and reactive patterns of economic and sociocultural practices, flexible adjustment and coping mechanisms, unforeseen contingencies and aberrations, and strategies of ambiguity and transgression. Transactional agents navigate gray areas and tacit understandings. They reproduce durable informal relations and customary practices. These dynamics only partially relate to state-led market-framing processes.”
This chapter studies the operation of trust on financial markets in the North Indian city of Banaras (Varanasi). It emphasizes an interpretation of trust on markets as an artifact and artifice based on an experiential category of practical knowledge used to handle exchange under conditions of high uncertainty, and identifies two distinct patterns in its handling, marked as procedural and reputational registers of (handling) trust. The first case analyzes the difficulties faced by locally operating banks in the mid-twentieth century to shift from reputational to procedural registers of handling trust, using banking advertisements and other archived material. The second case outlines the shifts in the manner reputational registers of trust are used in extra-legal money lending in the wake of Indian legislation against these financial practices, contrasting an ethnographic study of contemporary practices to historical sources on money lending in the first half of the twentieth century.
The “APMC Act” remains among the most widely commented upon and most deeply misunderstood laws governing Indian economic life. APMCs - Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees, more commonly known as mandis - are notified, physical primary markets designated as the main and, in some cases, the only state-sanctioned sites for the regulation of the critical “first transaction” between the primary producer and the buyer of his or her agricultural produce. The APMC is not the regulated market itself, but the local body constituted to oversee its regulation, and this is only one of many conceptual and practical confusions generated under the diverse state-specific agricultural marketing acts, which have been implemented with even greater diversity across varied agro-ecological, political-economic, and administrative contexts. Drawing on long-term archival and ethnographic research in a mandi and market town in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, this chapter sketches out the regulatory biography of an agricultural market, the diverse narratives and experiences of legislative amendment and yard-level market “reform,” and illustrates the empirical and analytical purchase of embedded exchange and contested jurisdiction of markets on the ground.
Is economic development a prerequisite for concern over environmental issues? The existing literature has yet to reach an empirical consensus on this question. To revisit this important topic, we offer new experimental evidence by conducting online survey experiments in one developed country (the United States) and one developing country (India). We investigate how providing information on the negative environmental costs of foreign direct investment (FDI) affects people’s support of FDI, and how these effects differ between residents of the United States and India. The results of our experiment show that among residents of the United States, being presented with information about the environmental costs of FDI sharply reduces support for FDI, while a substantially weaker effect of the environmental costs of FDI was observed among residents of India. Also, respondents from the United States are more concerned about environmental damage caused by FDI in their own city than in a distant location, while this pattern is not observed among respondents from India. These results are consistent with the claim that economic prosperity and wealth are prerequisites for environmental concern.
This chapter examines the way small manufacturing firms in western India began to use advertisement in the print media to develop markets for their goods during the early twentieth century. The chapter suggests that advertising gave small producers an opportunity to create the cultural meanings of commodities far away from the point of production. In many cases, they sought to usurp the role of local mercantile actors in fashioning product meanings; that is, they attempted to disembed the process of meaning construction from their local contexts. The chapter explores how advertisements became central to the operations of three firms involved in making indigenous medicines: Amritdhara, Jadibuti, and Dhootapapeshwa. Though the efforts of small manufacturers to undercut the role of local agents were only partially successful and often led to new forms of embedment, advertising was crucial to the creation of a “vernacular capitalism” that has largely been ignored by scholars.
This chapter focuses on lotteries in the Indian state of Punjab to examine how regulation can shape markets in India. The legal market for lotteries in Punjab is subject to the varying regulatory practices of several Indian states, the central government, a consortium of lottery corporations, and police. The increasing regulation of the lottery market in India since the late 1960s is not a straightforward modernization story of the incorporation of unregulated economic activities into regulated arrangements. In Punjab, efforts to increase the regulation of lotteries fostered the growth of new, less regulated activities, including outright illegal ones. The market for lotteries in Punjab shows how regulation can significantly format even activities that escape one or another component of its regulatory apparatus. The chapter argues that some markets are more insightfully analyzed in terms of degrees of regulation rather than the conceptual binaries of formal/informal or legal/illegal.
This chapter describes the export of the model of parliamentary public finance developed in the UK to the colonies, dominions and independent states which emerged from the British Empire. It opens by surveying the critical similarities and differences between public finance in the British and US constitutional traditions, before moving to explain how finance was treated in Canadian and Australasian colonial constitutions. Thereafter, the chapter explains how finance provisions became a form of 'constitutional boilerplate', adopted by independent dominions and republics in the twentieth century. By the conclusion of that constitutional itinerary, it is observed that the distribution of financial authority between Parliament and the executive government in nineteenth century Britain became the norm prevailing in the parliamentary constitutional world. Close attention is paid to the drafting history and provisions of constitutional documents from a number of parliamentary jurisdictions (including Australia, Canada, Indian, Malaysia, Nepal and Nigeria), as well as judicial decisions on public finance throughout the Commonwealth of Nations.
From the earliest decades of British colonisation of India to Indian independence in 1947, dictionaries of English in India focused exclusively on the English spoken by the British who were resident in India, and not on English as it was spoken by Indians. Not until the late twentieth century did dictionaries begin to document true Indian English. Yet despite the continuing role of English as an official language, as the language of choice in higher education, and as a lingua franca between speakers of different mother tongues, the lexicography of Indian English remains underdeveloped, and no current comprehensive dictionary of this variety exists, nor has any standard been established for Indian English.
Households were dynamic economic units organized for their collective well-being. The nature of this dynamic organization is discussed and illustrated using information on household diversification in 16th-century Central Mexico and the role of Indian households in trans-Asian textile exchange. Finally, the house model of society is discussed as a template for organizing formal institutions in early complex societies.
This chapter summarises the findings of a mixed methods research project carried out with 639 young women from across Rajasthan, India, in 2014. We examine the experiences of young women who progressed to tertiary level education despite having parents with little or no formal education. We classify this cohort as the ‘College’ group. We compare their experiences with other girls, matched by age, location and parental education level, who dropped out during lower secondary school. We identify the triggers of educational success, paying particular attention to how the two groups differ in individual and family characteristics. The College group reported higher perceived levels of emotional support from one or both parents, more flexible familial attitudes towards marriage arrangements, as well as some reductions in expectations for household work. In addition, the College group were more than two times less likely to have grandparents or extended family that strongly disapproved of their continuing education than their non-College counterparts. Despite parental engagement, the College group reported experiencing acute financial strain and difficulties navigating the educational system in areas such as institution and subject choice. These challenges were exacerbated by a lack of formal institutional supports for these first-generation learners.
There is growing recognition of the role of the mCessation service (MCS) in promoting tobacco cessation in India.
To examine the potential for expanding the utilization of the MCS for tobacco cessation in India after assessing the dimensions related to literacy, mobile phone access, intention to quit, and advice to quit from the second round of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.
A cross-sectional analysis of the data collected during the second round of the nationally-representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) (2016–17) was conducted.
Current tobacco smokers, smokeless tobacco, and dual users compromised 10.7%, 21.4%, and 3.4% of the survey participants, respectively. Quit attempts were reported by 36.3% of the existing tobacco smokers, of whom nearly 72% tried to quit without any assistance, while only 0.3% used the MCS. However, the potential expansion of the MCS was likely among 11.2% tobacco users with an existing intention to quit, being literate, Hindi-speakers and having cell-phone access.
The utilization of the MCS can be considerably expanded among tobacco users in India by enabling multilingual usage and incorporation as standard care practice to allow the opportunistic promotion of tobacco cessation by healthcare providers at their health clinics.
Originated in China in December 2019 Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to around 216 countries in the world by May 2020. Dentists being at a higher risk of contacting the disease, the present study assessed the fear and anxiety among dental practitioners of COVID-19.
An online cross-sectional questionnaire survey comprising of nine questions was conducted among dental practitioners of Telangana. Age, gender, qualification, type of practice, years of practice, place of residence were the demographic variables recorded. The response to each question was recorded in a YES or NO format, mean fear score calculated to categorize into low and high levels of fear. Comparison of mean fear score was done using t- test for two variables and ANOVA for three or more than three variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the levels of fear with demographic variables was done. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The mean fear and anxiety score of this study population reported was high 6.57 +2.07, with 58.31% of the population presenting with a low level of fear and anxiety. Only qualification (p=0.045)and gender (p=0.035) revealed a significant difference in fear to Q7and Q8 respectively. Irrespective of the age, gender, qualification, type of practice and years of practices the levels of fear reported in the present study was high similar. Respondents between 41- 60 yrs age (6.70+ 2.01) and those with individual practices (6.70+2.06) exhibited high level of fear score.
The present study demonstrates a cross sectional data of fear and anxiety among dental practitioners during the COVID-19 outbreak. Heightened levels of fear observed call for a nationwide analysis of fear among dentists and deliberate management strategies for the same.
The COVID-19 has emerged as a global pandemic for public health due to large scale outbreak, therefore there is an urgent need to detect the infected cases quickly and isolate them in order to suppress the further spread of the disease. This study tries to identify a suitable pool testing method and algorithm for COVID-19.
This study tries to derive a general equation for the number of tests required for a pooled sample to detect every infected individual in the specific pool. The gain in pool testing over normal procedure is quantified by the percentage of tests required compared to individual testing.
The percentage of tests required by the pool testing strategy varies according to the different splitting procedures, the size of the pooled sample, and the probability of an individual being infected in the population. If the probability of infection is 0.05, then for a pool size of 32, only 14 tests, are sufficient to detect every infected individual.
The number of tests required to detect infected individuals by the pooling method is much lower than individual testing. This may help us in increasing our testing capacity for COVID-19 by testing a large number of individuals in less time with limited resources.
In the early eighteenth century, Pietist networks in Germany initiated missionary projects in South India and over the years in different parts of the world. Millenarian expectations and their distinctive concept of the future, shaped the Protestant mission to South India in every respect from planning and communication, medialization and fundraising, right down to the local missionary work. Four dynamics of the globalization of Protestantism are central to the contribution: (1) transregional and transnational network building with the participation of women and men in Protestant Europe; (2) the transfer of knowledge and objects from Europe to India and vice versa; (3) transcultural interactions and the importance of converted Indians for the local missionary work; (4) the consolidation of the European religious Identity through the medialization of the mission with the narrative of progress. The article examines letters between the organizers of the mission to South India in Halle, London, and at the Danish court; the correspondence between Halle and male and female donators for the mission in Europe; and the published mission journal.
This essay traces the evolution of Dutch Calvinists’ attitudes towards Islam in the East Indies. Initially, Calvinists went into the mission field with a dismissive attitude towards Islam, expecting large-scale conversions upon proclaiming the Word of God. After failing to attract a significant number of Muslims, theologians at the universities of Utrecht and Leiden in the mid-1600s undertook comprehensive investigations into Islamic theology in order to better equip pastors overseas. This academic impetus aimed at undermining the authority of the Qur’an through comparative analyses with the Old and New Testaments, which inaugurated a new phase in East Indies missions. To discredit the Qur’an, Calvinist and indigenous linguists worked assiduously to translate biblical texts, culminating in a Malay Bible in 1730. About this time, however, the Calvinist missionary enterprise seemed to run out of steam because of the failure to convert Muslims and because of the VOC’s economic contraction. A number of Calvinist theologians in the Netherlands and pastors in East Asia began to take a rather sympathetic attitude toward Islam, as they regarded religious boundaries as a marker of cultural difference.
We study the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India and model the epidemic to guide those involved in formulating policy and building healthcare capacity.
This effect is studied using the SEIR compartmental model. We estimate the infection rate using a least square method with Poisson noise and calculate the reproduction number.
The infection rate is estimated to be 0.270 and the reproduction number to be 2.70. The approximate peak of the epidemic will be August 9, 2020. A 25% drop in infection rate will delay the peak by 11 days for a 1 month intervention period. The total infected individuals in India will be 9% of the total population.
The predictions are sensitive to changes in the behaviour of people and their practice of social distancing.
This article rethinks the relationship between trade and industry in the development of Indian capitalism, focusing on Tata, pioneers in textile and steel production. It shows how two little-known affiliated trading companies, R.D. Tata & Co. in Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Kobe, and Tata Limited in London, played a crucial intermediary role in securing financing and market access for the parent firm in Bombay while simultaneously increasing its exposure to the effects of global crises. Tata's ultimately dominant position in a protected national economy was due to the contingent failure of these trading companies rather than a foregone conclusion.