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Diet has a major influence on the composition and metabolic output of the gut microbiome. Higher-protein diets are often recommended for older consumers; however, the effect of high-protein diets on the gut microbiota and faecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) of elderly participants is unknown. The purpose of the study was to establish if the faecal microbiota composition and VOC in older men are different after a diet containing the recommended dietary intake (RDA) of protein compared with a diet containing twice the RDA (2RDA). Healthy males (74⋅2 (sd 3⋅6) years; n 28) were randomised to consume the RDA of protein (0⋅8 g protein/kg body weight per d) or 2RDA, for 10 weeks. Dietary protein was provided via whole foods rather than supplementation or fortification. The diets were matched for dietary fibre from fruit and vegetables. Faecal samples were collected pre- and post-intervention for microbiota profiling by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing and VOC analysis by head space/solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS. After correcting for multiple comparisons, no significant differences in the abundance of faecal microbiota or VOC associated with protein fermentation were evident between the RDA and 2RDA diets. Therefore, in the present study, a twofold difference in dietary protein intake did not alter gut microbiota or VOC indicative of altered protein fermentation.
Recent trends in the area of catalytic applications of metal–organic framework (MOF)-derived nanocarbons are covered. These highly porous nanostructures, convenient for the green chemistry processes, are generally formed by the direct carbonization of a variety of MOF, mainly MOF-5, ZIF-8, ZIF-67, UiO-66-NH2, MIL-101-NH2 at 700–1000 °C in argon or nitrogen flow. Differences between conventional porous carbons and MOF-derived carbons are in pore volumes, surface area, and presence of ad-atoms. The morphology of the MOF-derived nanocarbons can be adjustable with uniform dopant distribution. Resulting nanocarbons are widely applied in heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis and are very promising as electrocatalysts, having excellent performance in oxygen evolution reaction, oxygen reduction reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. Catalytic applications for environmental purposes are also discussed. Good catalytic performance is related with highly dispersed heteroatoms, density of catalytic active sites, controllable porosity, and high surface area. Opportunities for further research are indicated, in particular, the creation of low pH-stable electrocatalysts and novel strategies for the preparation of 1÷3D single-atom catalysts.
The psychiatric manifestations of Huntington's disease are myriad and difficult to control. The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not commonly considered for this condition. We describe a patient with severe depression, psychomotor retardation, delusions and weight loss who responded to ECT with good control of her symptoms.
Both our case and the literature appear to confirm the efficacy of ECT in the treatment of depression in Huntington's disease and suggest that other psychiatric manifestations of Huntington's are also responsive.
ECT is an effective and safe treatment that should be considered earlier in the course of the disease in cases that show limited response to pharmacological therapy. It should also be considered as an adjunct to medical therapy that may simplify polypharmacy and allow better control in patients with debilitating psychiatric manifestations of the disease. There is limited and conflicting evidence for its efficacy in chorea.
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) possess tuneable properties and a variety of important applications in the areas of catalysis, adsorption, gas storage, and separation, among others. Herein, recent computational studies by density functional theory (DFT) applied for simulations of MOF structure and complex architecture determination, prediction of properties, and computational characterization, including large-scale screening and geometrical properties of hypothetical MOFs, diffusion and adsorption processes in MOFs, are reviewed. DFT calculations have been applied in the MOF area to study chemical stability; mechanical, photophysical, optical, and magnetic properties; photoluminescence; porosity; and semiconductor or metallic character. The prediction of MOF analogs with open-metal sites, studies of chemical bonding and the prediction of energies by quantum mechanics allows reducing experimental efforts in the creation of MOF/polymer membranes, adsorbents for CO2 uptake, separation of C2H2/CH4, C2H2/CO2, and inert gases, radionuclides sequestration, and water adsorption, as well as other promising advances. For the MOF-derived carbons, a lack of profound DFT investigations is currently observed, being mainly restricted to the electrocatalysis area (nitrogen reduction reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction), resulting applications in batteries and other storage devices, CO2 sequestration, and absorbance of organic substances.
Manufactured biobased mulch (biomulch) films and fabrics are useful non-chemical weed management tools, but are not typically used for high-density plantings of vegetables such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus). However, it may be possible for crop roots to grow through a permeable biomulch membrane. Our objective was to demonstrate the potential for lettuce and carrot to germinate on and grow through biomulch, and assess changes in crop growth and yield. Biomulches included a 100% polylactic acid (PLA) biofabric and a PLA (37%) + soybean meal (63%) biofabric (PLA + SOY). Seeds were placed directly on biomulch and top-dressed with a soil mix or compost. Crop roots grew through the biomulch (despite visible constriction in carrot), and total yields were either the same or greater than those in the no-mulch control. PLA + SOY increased lettuce yield by 72% and also degraded faster than the PLA mulch. Results hold promise for improving weed control and reducing labor in high-density vegetable plantings.
Changes in soil bulk density (BD), soil organic carbon (SOC) content, SOC stocks and soil labile organic C fractions (mineralizable C (Cmin), microbial biomass C (MBC), dissolved organic C (DOC), particulate organic C (POC), light fraction organic C (LFOC) and permanganate oxidizable C (KMnO4-C)) were explored over 3 years in a double-cropping rice system of southern China. Five organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) inputs were used: (1) 100% from chemical fertilizer (M0), (2) 30% from organic manure, 70% from chemical fertilizer (M30), (3) 50% from organic manure, 50% from chemical fertilizer (M50), (4) 100% from organic manure (M100) and (5) without N fertilizer input, as control (CK). All organic manure treatments decreased BD significantly in the 0–20 cm soil layer compared with CK. The SOC content and stocks with organic manure were significantly higher than in M0 or CK; also, the cumulative amount of SOC stocks in M30 and M50 increased at the plough layer, compared with CK. The non-labile C content increased significantly and the percentage of labile C were significantly higher with organic manure application than in M0 or CK. The soil carbon management index (CMI) also increased significantly under the application of organic manure. Therefore, application of organic manure can increase the pool of stable C in surface layers, and increase content and percentage of labile C. Based on soil carbon storage and CMI, the combined application of 30 or 50% N of organic manure with chemical fertilizer improves carbon cycling services and soil quality in southern China paddy soil.
Green manures are a promising alternative for achieving the sustainable production of maize in the face of low soil fertility and increasingly long canicule periods, particularly in rainfed systems associated with the reproduction of local agrobiodiversity. However, it is necessary to investigate what are the advantages and disadvantages associated with different species of native and exotic pulse, as well as their overall contribution to the sustainable production of maize landraces. In order to do so, we followed the MESMIS method to assess five species of pulse (three native and two exotic) grown with maize in two plots with different soil conditions. This was done in the seasons of 2017 and 2018 the municipality of Villa de Zaachila, Oaxaca, a site with remarkable biological, agricultural and cultural diversity. A fully randomized complete block design was implemented with 11 treatments and three repetitions in the two plots. The output variables of the experiment were: land equivalence ratio, interspecific aggressiveness, content of soil organic matter, decomposition rate, plant survival rate and plant dry biomass. We also evaluated quantitative or qualitative indicators of cost, adaptability and contribution to food security. For all the possible maize-pulse combinations, except for one, polyculture outperformed maize and pulse monocultures. Exotic pulses (Crotalaria junscens spp. and Dolicho lablab) had a better performance in biomass, reincorporation of organic matter and possible nitrogen fixation, as well as greater resistance to drought in the second cycle. The native pulses (Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus coccineus), however, had a greater acceptance and economic output and are important for the food security in our study site. Our results provide quantitative and qualitative elements to design combined schemes of green manures associated with maize that would help tackle current challenges regarding maize productivity, food security and response to climate change.
The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 and the ensuing Fukushima nuclear disaster created huge challenges for Japanese society, and led to renewed interest in diverse forms of informal life politics. This chapter examines how communities in Fukushima Prefecture, Hokkaido and elsewhere responded to the crisis by developing citizens’ radiation measurement schemes, organic agriculture projects and projects to support those who sought refuge from areas affected by nuclear radiation. Though some of these responses were short-lived, the longer term impact of the disaster can, I argue, be seen in the rising interest within Japan in Transition Town and grassroots alternative energy schemes, and in forms of social action which combine artistic with political modes of expression. In examining these developments, this chapter also notes how aspects of the new, post-Fukushima grassroots activism links back to themes embraced by earlier generations of Japanese informal life politics.
The prewar activities of the White Birch teachers, and the related postwar activities of rural youth groups and social educators, provided the basis which sustained a new wave of informal life politics from the 1980s onward. As rural areas began to suffer acutely from problems of depopulation and aging, and as schemes to disperse industrial activities to the regions led to environmental conflicts, local communities looked to alternative forms of endogenous development to secure their own futures. This chapter explores examples of the search for ‘development from within’, focusing particularly on the cases of the Shinshū Miyamoto School (Shinshū Miyamoto Juku) in Nagano Prefecture and other environmental, cooperative and alternative currency projects which are linked to the school through a regional network of self-help action.
As electrode materials, metal-organic frameworks always have low electrical conductivity and poor structural stability, which limits its applications in electrochemical fields. Here, Ni-BPDC/GO composites are synthesized using graphene oxide (GO) as a substrate and 4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (BPDC) as an organic ligand via a hydrothermal approach. The growth mechanism of the Ni-BPDC and Ni-BPDC/GO composites is proposed. In the composites, highly dispersed Ni-BPDC macro-nanostrips are supported on the GO surface in parallel. The presence of GO does not affect the growth and crystalline structure of Ni-BPDC. Compared with the Ni-BPDC, Ni-BPDC/GO composites exhibit higher specific capacitance, rate capability, and operating current density through lowering intrinsic resistance, charge-transfer resistance, and ion diffusion impedance. Moreover, the assembled Ni-BPDC/GO-3//reduced graphene oxide (rGO) asymmetric supercapacitor has large specific capacitance, good cycling stability, and high energy density (16.5 W h/kg at 250 W/kg). Hence, Ni-BPDC/GO composites are a potential electrode material for supercapacitors.
X-ray powder diffraction data for new metal-organic compounds: tetrakis(3-ethylanilinium) octamolybdate Mo8O26(C8H12N)4 [a = 10.682(4), b = 16.589(5), c = 7.307(2) Å, α = 92.79(2)°, β = 97.99(3)°, γ = 103.89(3)°, V = 1240.27 Å3, Z = 1, space group P−1]; tetrakis(3-ethylanilinium) octamolybdate tetrahydrate Mo8O26(C8H12N)4·(H2O)4 [a = 18.801(7), b = 17.943(6), c = 7.334(3) Å, β = 98.50(5)°, V = 2446.99 Å3, Z = 2, space group P21/m] and bis(3-ethylanilinium) pentamolybdate Mo5O16(C8H12N)2 [a = 34.643(6), b = 5.5796(7), c = 14.200(3) Å, β = 96.20(2)°, V = 2728.69 Å3, Z = 4, space group I2/a] are reported in this paper. The investigated compounds were synthesized from molybdic acid and 3-ethylaniline in acidic solution. In the first two cases, we obtained octamolybdates, while the last compound crystallized as pentamolybdate.
New information on acritarchs from the Duolbagáisá Formation, Digermulen Peninsula, Arctic Norway, enable recognition of the three Cambrian Series 2 acritarch-based zones: the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea, Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa and Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana Assemblage zones. Acritarchs of the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea Zone (Cambrian Stage 3) appear near the base of the unit, close to an undetermined trilobite. In the Upper Member of the Duolbagáisá Formation, in levels with Kjerulfia n. sp. and Elliptocephala n. sp., appears an assemblage with abundant Skiagia ciliosa, indicative of the Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa Zone. A few metres higher appear Liepaina plana, Heliosphaeridium notatum and Retisphaeridium dichamerum, which indicate the Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana Zone (Cambrian Stage 4). The transition between the Duolbagáisá Formation and the overlying Kistedalen Formation is marked by the appearance of Comasphaeridium longispinosum, Multiplicisphaeridium llynense and Eliasum llaniscum, diagnostic of the Miaolingian Series. This coincides with the disappearance of Skiagia; occurrences of Skiagia in Miaolingian strata consist of reworked material related to the Hawke Bay regression at the Cambrian Stage 4–Wuliuan transition. The absence of Skiagia in higher levels of the Duolbagáisá Formation and Kistedalen Formation suggests that no unconformity formed during the Hawke Bay regression in this area. The chronostratigraphical significance of the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea, Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa and Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana zones is critically analysed. Correlation of the Duolbagáisá Formation with peri-Gondwanan terrains of Avalonia and Iberia is established. The Digermulen Peninsula has great potential as a reference section for establishing a Cambrian chronostratigraphy based on acritarchs.
Dietary fibre fermentation in humans and monogastric animals is considered to occur in the hindgut, but it may also occur in the lower small intestine. This study aimed to compare ileal and hindgut fermentation in the growing pig fed a human-type diet using a combined in vivo/in vitro methodology. Five pigs (23 (sd 1·6) kg body weight) were fed a human-type diet. On day 15, pigs were euthanised. Digesta from terminal jejunum and terminal ileum were collected as substrates for fermentation. Ileal and caecal digesta were collected for preparing microbial inocula. Terminal jejunal digesta were fermented in vitro with a pooled ileal digesta inoculum for 2 h, whereas terminal ileal digesta were fermented in vitro with a pooled caecal digesta inoculum for 24 h. The ileal organic matter fermentability (28 %) was not different from hindgut fermentation (35 %). However, the organic matter fermented was 66 % greater for ileal fermentation than hindgut fermentation (P = 0·04). Total numbers of bacteria in ileal and caecal digesta did not differ (P = 0·09). Differences (P < 0·05) were observed in the taxonomic composition. For instance, ileal digesta contained 32-fold greater number of the genus Enterococcus, whereas caecal digesta had a 227-fold greater number of the genus Ruminococcus. Acetate synthesis and iso-valerate synthesis were greater (P < 0·05) for ileal fermentation than hindgut fermentation, but propionate, butyrate and valerate synthesis was lower. SCFA were absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract location where they were synthesised. In conclusion, a quantitatively important degree of fermentation occurs in the ileum of the growing pig fed a human-type diet.
The atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine has been proposed for treatment of dopaminergic psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). We report on a 68-year-old patient who developed a severe akinetic-rigid extrapyramidal syndrome, accompanied by additional paranoid symptoms, following olanzapine treatment of optic hallucinosis in PD. Olanzapine may also induce clinically relevant extrapyramidal side effects in PD patients.
The objective of the survey was to compare depressive symptoms in depression with and without a concomitant organic disease. The results based on the HAD and CES-D scales showed that, compared to those with an isolated depression, the patients with an associated chronic organic disease have a higher score on two items on the HAD. Three variables on the CES-D scale also helped to differentiate the two groups of depressed patients. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of anxiety or cognitive symptoms, fatigue or feelings of disability. Our results do not indicate any symptom that is specific to a combination of depression and somatic diseases. Guilt and hostility showed a lower level in depression associated with a concomitant somatic disease than in isolated depression.
Clinically, Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) is often overlooked as its occurrence in Western countries is rare. However, its neurological, cognitive and psychiatric sequelae constitute a major public health problem in the Far East where JBE is endemic. European and American subjects may however experience the JBE when returning from a Far East journey. In such cases, misdiagnosis is frequent because of the unawareness of psychiatrists and physicians. The present review, therefore, documents the behavioural and cognitive sequelae of JBE. This reactivates the debate concerning the vaccination against the virus all the more that the literature enlightens the importance of the vaccination for those who undertake frequent and extensive tourist excursions to the Orient but still discusses it for occasional travellers. Following is a case-report of a young western European post-graduate student who has contracted JBE by experiencing an acute febrile delirium during an unusual short stay in South East Asia. Pyramidal syndrome, Parkinsonism and amnesia were the prominent acute deficits. Whereas these faded in great part during convalescence, emotional and behavioural instability associated with affective involvement, obsessive–compulsive symptoms and cognitive impairments appeared. A partial recovery was however obtained with neuroleptics, lithium and following electro-convulsive therapy. Organic personality syndrome was persistent and thereafter constituted the main sequelae syndrome. Hypersomnia and several enuretic episodes persisted.
Phase-transfer catalysis involves chemical reactions which occur in a two-phase liquid–liquid system and it has been shown to provide an effective method for organic synthesis. Phase-transfer catalytic reactions can facilitate high conversions and reaction selectivity and thus are consistent with the principles of green chemistry and process intensification. The basic mechanisms involved in phase-transfer catalysis and the related suite of reactions that involve catalytic transfer hydrogenations are briefly described and reviewed. The requirements and benefits of phase-transfer catalytic systems are summarized. Organic syntheses which exploit the principles of phase-transfer catalysis are described as examples of intensification. These include: synthesis of phenyl alkyl acetonitriles, transfer hydrogenations, alkyl oxidation and sulfonation reactions, etherification of cresols in a three-phase system, organic oxidations, nitrations, polymerizations, and organic condensation reactions. The enhancement of phase-transfer catalysis using other intensification methods, such as ultrasonics, is also described.
Among HIV patients treated for AIDS-related adjustment, major depressive disorders and other affective disorders, we assessed in an open study the feasibility of using a serotonergic antidepressant (fluvoxamine). Thirty-five seropositive patients with the above conditions (22 men and 13 women) were followed over a minimum period of four weeks. At the end of the treatment, a large number of patients (77%) showed marked improvement. “Nuclear” depressive and anxiety symptoms remitted, while the “somatic” ones seemed less sensitive to treatment. Treatment had to be terminated prematurely due to side effects in only two patients (6%).
Insomnia in psychiatric patients is frequently underestimated in clinical practice. Usually drugs are prescribed for the treatment of this disorder but non-pharmacological intervention can be successfully used. The present study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a two-session psychoeducational intervention in improving persistent non-organic insomnia and reducing the administration of PRN therapy in severely mentally ill patients.
A pre-post study was performed on 36 psychiatric patients admitted to a residential psychiatric unit. The Nocturnal Sleep Onset Scale (NSOS) and Daytime Sleepiness Scale (DSS), the sleep onset latency, the time awake after sleep onset and the numbers of awakenings were gathered 2 weeks before the intervention (T0), immediately prior the intervention (T1), 2 weeks after the last session of the intervention (T2) and a 3-month follow-up (T3). The total number of administrations of PRN therapy from T0 toT1 and from T1 to T2 were also examined. A significant reduction was shown on the NSOS, the sleep onset latency and in the time awake after sleep onset from T1 to T2 and from T1 to T3, while no significant difference was found between T0 and T1. A significant decrease on the mean number of administrations of PRN therapy was also found between 15 days before the intervention (T0–T1) and 15 days after intervention (T1–T2). The initial results of this study seems to suggest the possible efficacy of a short-term psychoeducational intervention on improving persistent non-organic insomnia in severely mentally ill patients. Further control studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
We report a 27-year-old female patient with prior history of Graves' disease and relapsing episodes of tachycardia, hyperpyrexia, muscular rigidity and coma. With the subsequent manifestation of an acute schizophreniform psychotic disorder unresponsive to neuroleptics, the primary syndrome was re-classified as febrile catatony. Hyperthyroidism was ruled out with normal serum thyroid hormone levels, as were toxic effects of thyrostatic treatment, drug-induced hypothyroidism and a malignant neuroleptic syndrome. All psychiatric symptoms subsided completely following subtotal thyroidectomy. Febrile catatatony has to be added to the spectrum of psychotic phenomena that may be caused by Graves' disease, irrespective of serum thyroid hormone levels.