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Resource development in unconventional oil and gas plays is sometimes accompanied by unintended earthquakes, known as induced seismicity. To date, the largest such induced events have been the September 2016 5.8 MW Pawnee earthquake in Oklahoma, and the December 2018 5.2 MW earthquake in the Sichuan Basin. These earthquakes were triggered by different industrial processes, namely saltwater disposal (Pawnee) and hydraulic fracturing (Sichuan Basin). Current models indicate that such induced earthquakes occur by activation of a pre-existing fault system due to some combination of increased pore pressure, a change in fault-loading conditions arising from poroelastic effects, or precursory slow fault slip. This chapter provides a tutorial and review of basic underlying principles of induced seismicity and an overview of regulatory measures, along with several current research themes including tools for screening risk and forecasting maximum magnitude. These concepts are illustrated by case studies from the USA and western Canada.
Risk is an innate and integral part of everyday life and is present in simple, everyday occupations and complex actions. Age-related stereotypes can mean older people have little opportunity to engage in activities that present some degree of risk. The present study explores the discourse around risk and older people in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated news media as a reflection of the dominant public discourse around older people's behaviour to identify how risk is represented in relation to occupational engagement. Texts relating to older people and COVID-19 were sourced from the West Australian newspaper for a period of two months. Seventy texts were subject to Foucauldian discourse analysis to identify subject positions, location of risk and discursive features. Findings indicate that older people were segregated from the rest of society, with their behaviours framed in mostly negative ways. We identified three areas of discourse: vulnerable, and in need of protection; recalcitrant, and in need of management; and resilient, deserving of respect. While we recognise competing representations, implicit within the dominant discourse was the premise that older people were not capable of mediating risks and required ‘management’. These findings highlight the role of surveillance in restricting occupational engagement for older people and carry implications for older people, the public and therapists.
The emerging society of networks is no longer tied to territorial differentiation. The network form causes a rupture with established models of liability (individual or organisational liability), undermines the public/private liability divide, and also their regulation, now beyond the state. This third rupture in the knowledge base of society creates profound challenges for tort law. So far, the response in tort law has largely been deferential to definitions of acceptable risk that emerge from governance networks beyond territorial borders. This is explained by the uneven de-territorialisation of functional systems (economy vs law, and politics), and in particular by the failure of tort law to develop a convincing model of ascription for network failures. The chapter has two main tasks; first, it locates these problems within EU law because it is considered an avant-garde experiment in governing a society of networks. It is claimed that its product liability law offers novel solutions to problems of risk-responsibility under conditions of uncertainty. It also deepens our understanding of tort law as a venue for providing contestory, discursive spaces when systems discourses collide.
In this chapter Adam Hanna notes that “From the lonely farm-redoubts of John Hewitt, to the flooded demesnes imagined by Seamus Heaney to, more recently, the imperiled familial spaces that appear in the work of Sinéad Morrissey, the homes and other refuges of Northern Irish poetry have often been isolated, watchful, and precarious ones.” Apart from the threat of political violence arising from the Troubles (1968–98) in Northern Ireland, Hanna detects a complex dialogic between domestic spaces (which are immediately beholden to local pressures) and the wider environment (which is endangered by rising seas, violent storms, and overflowing rivers). Hanna deconstructs this interplay between the effects of climate change and the “discourses about both the established order of the province and the subversive energies that might undermine this order” and defines a distinctive “Northern Irish ecological poetics” in which “global anxieties and local pressures entwine.”
The second phase in tort law develop relates to its reception of the society of organisations, which represents an evolution in the law's knowledge base by which large public and private organisations become central to knowledge generation and management. This is accompanied by the rise of expertise and insurance, and a break between expert knowledge and distributed experience as the knowledge base of society. This is patterned onto the law by the rise in 'vertical vicarious liability' or organisational liability, whatsoever its doctrinal nomenclature at the turn of the twentieth century. Calculable risk replaces fault as a key legal concept in the attribution of acts and omissions, and tort law is increasingly conceptualised as concerned with risk management against a background of the providential state. However, the model of organisational liability that develops remains a model of responsibility and should be characterised as a form of weak corrective justice or organisational moral responsibility. These changes have a profound impact on the law, which is documented by reference public and private liability in French, UK and German law, but reach their limits with the rise of network governance.
This chapter develops an analytically functional concept of EV and begins to identify its sources, pathways, and outlets into the global ecosystem and everyday life. The chapter then expands on the core concepts of Earth Systems theory, complex adaptive systems and human niche construction to address topics such as vulnerability and violence, especially cultural, structural, and direct violence. The next step will be to build and parse a heuristic model that conveys the range of the concept’s applications and traces EV’s production, pathways, mediators, and outlets, as well as its facilitators and effects throughout its cycling. Next, the chapter examines previously developed and related concepts of ecologically associated violence. The purpose of this is not to take issue with them, but rather to synthesize and build upon previous iterations. The chapter closes with a brief discussion of the nuances and politics of EV. These ideas will be developed further in Chapter 6. Nevertheless, a brief presentation is useful here because it helps to understand how EV has become normalized and ingrained in the everyday life of the contemporary human niche.
I argue that life insurance and imperial meaning making are deeply implicated in each other. As life insurance expanded internationally in the nineteenth century, and as insurers became advocates of White settlement, they grappled with what actuarial science meant in the context of their orientalist conceptions of colonial populations. In particular, actuaries were concerned with tropical markets and the racialized/exceptionalized differences they perceived in those markets. To address these tensions, insurers attempted two strategies: (1) incorporating tropical rates as additional premiums designed to cover the “extra mortality” of tropical markets; and (2) advocating for social practices of “sanitary progress” related to public health and sanitation. These practices, framed in orientalist terms, were not adopted in any smooth manner but in fumbling and meandering ways as insurers tried to understand what kinds of lives tropical settlers might be and how those lives might be priced. They eventually liberalized life insurance rates for White settlers in tropical settings, but insurers then confronted questions on how newly socialized “native” lives might be rendered calculable. This story of tropical exposure in globalizing actuarial discourse reinforces the ways in which race and racialized/exceptionalized differences were at the core of life insurance and the calculative devices it assembled between 1852 and 1947.
This chapter explores the preceding theory-based propositions, concerning the narrative roles of personal bioinformation, in light of people’s attitudes to and experiences of encountering three categories of bioinformation about themselves, as reported by empirical studies. These three categories are: information revealing conception using donor gametes, results from genetic tests indicating disease susceptibility, and findings from mental health applications of neuroimaging. These findings help illustrate the theory-based claims presented in Chapter 4 while also sense-testing and refining these claims with the benefit of insights into information subjects’ lived experiences. This chapter first outlines a sample of relevant findings, casting the net wider than those that explicitly frame subjects’ experiences in terms of identity. It then analyses these findings through the lens of embodied and relational narrative self-constitution, highlighting the range of positive and detrimental impacts that bioinformation can have on recipients’ identity narratives. These impacts include playing enabling, explanatory, practical, revisionary, and restrictive roles. The chapter concludes by identifying common and divergent themes across the three examples. This equips us better to understand diversity amongst recipients’ reactions to different information and also to extrapolate beyond specific observations relating to the three illustrative examples.
Additional to a child's genetic inheritance, environmental exposures are associated with schizophrenia. Many are broadly described as childhood adversity; modelling the combined impact of these is complex. We aimed to develop and validate a scale on childhood adversity, independent of genetic and other environmental liabilities, for use in schizophrenia risk analysis models, using data from cross-linked electronic health and social services registers.
A cohort of N = 428 970 Western Australian children born 1980–2001 was partitioned into three samples: scale development sample (N = 171 588), and two scale validation samples (each N = 128 691). Measures of adversity were defined before a child's 10th birthday from five domains: discontinuity in parenting, family functioning, family structure, area-level socioeconomic/demographic environment and family-level sociodemographic status. Using Cox proportional hazards modelling of follow-up time from 10th birthday to schizophrenia diagnosis or censorship, weighted combinations of measures were firstly developed into scales for each domain, then combined into a final global scale. Discrimination and calibration performance were validated using Harrell's C and graphical assessment respectively.
A weighted combination of 42 measures of childhood adversity was derived from the development sample. Independent application to identical measures in validation samples produced Harrell's Concordance statistics of 0.656 and 0.624. Average predicted time to diagnosis curves corresponded with 95% CI limits of observed Kaplan–Meier curves in five prognostic categories.
Our Early Adversity Scale for Schizophrenia (EAS-Sz), the first using routinely collected register data, predicts schizophrenia diagnosis above chance, and has potential to help untangle contributions of genetic and environmental liability to schizophrenia risk.
The Introduction provides an overview of the themes and arguments of the book. It first situates this book within the larger literature on foreign banks in modern China, the history of globalization and the history of international and multinational banking. It then presents the ‘frontier bank’ and the Chinese frontier as a conceptual framework for understanding the activities of foreign banks in modern China. Then it introduces the four main themes of the book: financial internationalization, transnational networks, the conflict between nationalism and economic globalization, and risk. Finally, the Introduction discusses how this book fits into larger discussions about modern China’s relations with the global economy, modern Chinese economic development and economic globalization. The Introduction concludes with an overview of the book’s chapters.
Little is known about risk management in homecare for people with dementia. We aimed to gain an understanding of the ways in which homecare workers assess and manage risk whilst caring for people with dementia in their own homes. We conducted a qualitative interview study with 17 homecare workers assisting people with dementia with their personal care. Interviews were face-to-face, semi-structured, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was inductive and thematic. A key theme of risk was identified, with three main sources: the client as a source of risk to the homecare worker, the clients' home and behaviours as a risk to the client, and the wider health and social care system as a risk to both clients and homecare workers. Three interrelated aspects of risk were found to influence homecare workers' decision making and actions: homecare workers' perception of the level of risk, their perceived ability to control the risk and their tolerability of risk. The higher the perceived risk, the stronger the action taken by the worker or agency to mitigate it and the greater the impact on the client. To support effective development of this workforce there is a need to devise training that incorporates the use of tacit knowledge and experiential learning. Risk management policies for homecare should acknowledge and utilise the expertise, experiences and values of homecare workers.
This chapter provides an overview of the components of the evolving conceptual model since the 1988 Spitak earthquake that guided the intervention and research arms of our work in Armenia. With the concept of traumatic stress as the gateway to post-trauma sequelae and recovery, we recognized the important contributions made by post-trauma adversities and the pervasiveness of trauma and loss reminders in the aftermath. Individual and ecological factors were seen as making powerful contributions to the impact and course of recovery, especially in terms of factors associated with resistance, resilience, vulnerability, adjustment, maladjustment, and pathology. The traumatic stress pathway is embedded in a developmental perspective, with the understanding that child, adolescent, and adult development plays an overarching role across all aspects of the conceptual framework. In addition, cultural and religious factors are also seen as integral. Implications of the conceptual model for data collection metrics and methodology, as well as intervention strategies are also discussed.
Description: Governments and individuals take actions and adopt policies and behavior to deal with current needs and also to have protection against some future dangers. Future dangers may come in two different forms: those that, at least in principle, can be statistically predicted; and those that are too uncertain, in time and in intensity, to be predicted statistically. For the first, called “risky events,” policies and markets can be developed, and actions can be taken to deal with them. The “uncertain events” are difficult to deal with. J. M. Keynes and Frank Knight, in 1921, each wrote a books that somehow dealt with this distinction. It has continued to be difficult to deal with “uncertain events,” those that include various natural disasters, pandemics, and global warming. Because of that, societies tend to overinvest in protection against risky events and to underinvest in protection against “uncertain events.”
Chapter 7 is the conclusion. We provide a short and selective synopsis of our argument and briefly review, and elaborate on, the empirical illustrations from previous chapters. Theoretically, we suggest that cross-class solidarity, which has sometimes been linked to dense networks of civic associations, is likely to originate in low information and encompassing social insurance programs. The chapter also discusses promising avenues for future research.
Chapter 1 introduces the topic and motivates our study. It explains the general logic of our argument and introduces the methods and evidence we rely on. The chapter gives an overview of the book’s organization and main insights and hence serves as a preview.
A core principle of the welfare state is that everyone pays taxes or contributions in exchange for universal insurance against social risks such as sickness, old age, unemployment, and plain bad luck. This solidarity principle assumes that everyone is a member of a single national insurance pool, and it is commonly explained by poor and asymmetric information, which undermines markets and creates the perception that we are all in the same boat. Living in the midst of an information revolution, this is no longer a satisfactory approach. This book explores, theoretically and empirically, the consequences of 'big data' for the politics of social protection. Torben Iversen and Philipp Rehm argue that more and better data polarize preferences over public insurance and often segment social insurance into smaller, more homogenous, and less redistributive pools, using cases studies of health and unemployment insurance and statistical analyses of life insurance, credit markets, and public opinion.
East of England is considered the “bread basket” of the UK, supplying domestic and global food markets but it is under pressures from policy, economic and environmental challenges. This chapter studies with a mixed-method approach the risks affecting the arable farming sector in the East of England, describing the role of knowledge networks and learning for resilience.
In this chapter, we present an overview of enterprise risk management (ERM). We begin by discussing the concepts of risk and uncertainty. We then review some of the more important historical developments in different areas of risk management, propose a definition for ERM, and show how ERM has its origins in all of the individual areas of risk management that came before. We discuss how ERM can be implemented as an ongoing process, which is optimally built into the operations of an organization from the top down, through a risk governance framework. Stages of the ERM cycle include risk identification and analysis, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. Each of these stages is introduced in this chapter, and then developed in more detail in subsequent chapters.
Risks and uncertainties of increasing severity and variety characterise the operating environments of most multinational enterprises (MNEs). Surprisingly limited attention has been given to understanding the antecedents and nature of risk and uncertainty management capabilities. In this study, we contribute to the organisational capability research, by examining the antecedents of risk and uncertainty management capabilities and theorising how MNEs develop and transfer risk and uncertainty management capabilities across borders. By drawing on empirical evidence from MNEs operating in New Zealand, we conceptualise the role of environmental factors – including country risk profile and regulatory environment – in shaping firms' risk and uncertainty management capabilities. We also inductively theorise about the organisational factors that support the development of risk and uncertainty management capabilities in MNEs, and explain which factors influence their cross-border transferability. Finally, we discuss our study's limitations and offer future research directions.
This article evaluates Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) and Revenue Protection (RP) used in conjunction as an optimal risk management strategy for representative producers in the Corn Belt and Mississippi Delta. Using a simulation procedure to produce representative farm revenues, we find it is optimal under expected utility for producers to enroll in RP, despite having RP through ARC. Results are robust across alternative sampling methods and regions. These findings imply that ARC is better suited as a complementary program, and that it is optimal for a producer to enroll in higher coverage levels than we currently observe.