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The objective of this work is to investigate linear modal and algebraic instability in Poiseuille flows with fluids close to their vapour–liquid critical point. Close to this critical point, the ideal gas assumption does not hold and large non-ideal fluid behaviours occur. As a representative non-ideal fluid, we consider supercritical carbon dioxide ( $\text{CO}_{2}$ ) at a pressure of 80 bar, which is above its critical pressure of 73.9 bar. The Poiseuille flow is characterized by the Reynolds number ( $Re=\unicode[STIX]{x1D70C}_{w}^{\ast }u_{r}^{\ast }h^{\ast }/\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}_{w}^{\ast }$ ), the product of the Prandtl ( $Pr=\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}_{w}^{\ast }C_{pw}^{\ast }/\unicode[STIX]{x1D705}_{w}^{\ast }$ ) and Eckert numbers ( $Ec=u_{r}^{\ast 2}/C_{pw}^{\ast }T_{w}^{\ast }$ ) and the wall temperature that in addition to pressure determine the thermodynamic reference condition. For low Eckert numbers, the flow is essentially isothermal and no difference with the well-known stability behaviour of incompressible flows is observed. However, if the Eckert number increases, the viscous heating causes gradients of thermodynamic and transport properties, and non-ideal gas effects become significant. Three regimes of the laminar base flow can be considered: the subcritical (temperature in the channel is entirely below its pseudo-critical value), transcritical and supercritical temperature regimes. If compared to the linear stability of an ideal gas Poiseuille flow, we show that the base flow is modally more unstable in the subcritical regime, inviscid unstable in the transcritical regime and significantly more stable in the supercritical regime. Following the principle of corresponding states, we expect that qualitatively similar results will be obtained for other fluids at equivalent thermodynamic states.
Direct numerical simulations are used to characterize wind-shear effects on entrainment in a barotropic convective boundary layer (CBL) that grows into a linearly stratified atmosphere. We consider weakly to strongly unstable conditions $-z_{enc}/L_{Ob}\gtrsim 4$ , where $z_{enc}$ is the encroachment CBL depth and $L_{Ob}$ is the Obukhov length. Dimensional analysis allows us to characterize such a sheared CBL by a normalized CBL depth, a Froude number and a Reynolds number. The first two non-dimensional quantities embed the dependence of the system on time, on the surface buoyancy flux, and on the buoyancy stratification and wind velocity in the free atmosphere. We show that the dependence of entrainment-zone properties on these two non-dimensional quantities can be expressed in terms of just one independent variable, the ratio between a shear scale $(\unicode[STIX]{x0394}z_{i})_{s}\equiv \sqrt{1/3}\unicode[STIX]{x0394}u/N_{0}$ and a convective scale $(\unicode[STIX]{x0394}z_{i})_{c}\equiv 0.25z_{enc}$ , where $\unicode[STIX]{x0394}u$ is the velocity increment across the entrainment zone, and $N_{0}$ is the buoyancy frequency of the free atmosphere. Here $(\unicode[STIX]{x0394}z_{i})_{s}$ and $(\unicode[STIX]{x0394}z_{i})_{c}$ represent the entrainment-zone thickness in the limits of weak convective instability (strong wind) and strong convective instability (weak wind), respectively. We derive scaling laws for the CBL depth, the entrainment-zone thickness, the mean entrainment velocity and the entrainment-flux ratio as functions of $(\unicode[STIX]{x0394}z_{i})_{s}/(\unicode[STIX]{x0394}z_{i})_{c}$ . These scaling laws can also be expressed as functions of only a Richardson number $(N_{0}z_{enc}/\unicode[STIX]{x0394}u)^{2}$ , but not in terms of only the stability parameter $-z_{enc}/L_{Ob}$ .
Both in rheometry and in fundamental fluid mechanics studies, the Taylor–Couette geometry is used frequently to investigate viscoelastic fluids. In order to ensure a constant shear rate in the gap between the inner and outer cylinders, such studies are usually restricted to the small-gap limit where the assumption of a linear velocity distribution is well justified. In conjunction with a sufficiently large aspect ratio $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6EC}$ (i.e. ratio of cylinder height to gap), the flow is then assumed to be viscometric. Here we demonstrate, using a perturbation technique with the curvature ratio (i.e. ratio of the half-gap to the mid-radius of the cylinders) as the perturbation parameter, full nonlinear simulations using a finite-volume technique, and supporting experiments, that, even in the creeping-flow (inertialess) narrow-gap limit, for viscoelastic fluids end effects due to finite aspect ratio always give rise to a secondary motion. Using the constant-viscosity Oldroyd-B model we are able to show that this secondary motion, as has been observed in related pressure-driven flows with curvature, such as the viscoelastic Dean flow, is solely a consequence of the combination of gradients of the first normal-stress difference and curvature. Our results show that end effects can significantly change the flow characteristics, especially for small aspect ratios, and this may have important consequences in some situations such as the onset criteria for purely elastic instabilities.
The presence and the microscopic origin of normal stress differences in dense suspensions under simple shear flows are investigated by means of inertialess particle dynamics simulations, taking into account hydrodynamic lubrication and frictional contact forces. The synergic action of hydrodynamic and contact forces between the suspended particles is found to be the origin of negative contributions to the first normal stress difference $N_{1}$ , whereas positive values of $N_{1}$ observed at higher volume fractions near jamming are due to effects that cannot be accounted for in the hard-sphere limit. Furthermore, we found that the stress anisotropy induced by the planarity of the simple shear flow vanishes as the volume fraction approaches the jamming point for frictionless particles, while it remains finite for the case of frictional particles.
Internal gravity wave energy contributes significantly to the energy budget of the oceans, affecting mixing and the thermohaline circulation. Hence it is important to determine the internal wave energy flux $\boldsymbol{J}=p\,\boldsymbol{v}$ , where $p$ is the pressure perturbation field and $\boldsymbol{v}$ is the velocity perturbation field. However, the pressure perturbation field is not directly accessible in laboratory or field observations. Previously, a Green’s function based method was developed to calculate the instantaneous energy flux field from a measured density perturbation field $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70C}(x,z,t)$ , given a constant buoyancy frequency $N$ . Here we present methods for computing the instantaneous energy flux $\boldsymbol{J}(x,z,t)$ for an internal wave field with vertically varying background $N(z)$ , as in the oceans where $N(z)$ typically decreases by two orders of magnitude from the pycnocline to the deep ocean. Analytic methods are presented for computing $\boldsymbol{J}(x,z,t)$ from a density perturbation field for $N(z)$ varying linearly with $z$ and for $N^{2}(z)$ varying as $\tanh (z)$ . To generalize this approach to arbitrary $N(z)$ , we present a computational method for obtaining $\boldsymbol{J}(x,z,t)$ . The results for $\boldsymbol{J}(x,z,t)$ for the different cases agree well with results from direct numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations. Our computational method can be applied to any density perturbation data using the MATLAB graphical user interface ‘EnergyFlux’.
Oceanic internal tides and other inertia–gravity waves propagate in an energetic turbulent flow whose length scales are similar to the wavelengths. Advection and refraction by this flow cause the scattering of the waves, redistributing their energy in wavevector space. As a result, initially plane waves radiated from a source such as a topographic ridge become spatially incoherent away from the source. To examine this process, we derive a kinetic equation which describes the statistics of the scattering under the assumptions that the flow is quasigeostrophic, barotropic and well represented by a stationary homogeneous random field. Energy transfers are quantified by computing a scattering cross-section and shown to be restricted to waves with the same frequency and identical vertical structure, hence the same horizontal wavelength. For isotropic flows, scattering leads to an isotropic wave field. We estimate the characteristic time and length scales of this isotropisation, and study their dependence on parameters including the energy spectrum of the flow. Simulations of internal tides generated by a planar wavemaker carried out for the linearised shallow-water model confirm the pertinence of these scales. A comparison with the numerical solution of the kinetic equation demonstrates the validity of the latter and illustrates how the interplay between wave scattering and transport shapes the wave statistics.
We study the shape and motion of gas bubbles in a liquid flowing through a horizontal or slightly inclined thin annulus. Experimental data show that in the horizontal annulus, bubbles develop a unique ‘tadpole-like’ shape with a semi-circular cap and a highly stretched tail. As the annulus is inclined, the bubble tail tends to vanish, resulting in a significant decrease of bubble length. To model the bubble evolution, the thin annulus is conceptualised as a ‘Hele-Shaw’ cell in a curvilinear space. The three-dimensional flow within the cell is represented by a gap-averaged, two-dimensional model, which achieved a close match to the experimental data. The numerical model is further used to investigate the effects of gap thickness and pipe diameter on the bubble behaviour. The mechanism for the semi-circular cap formation is interpreted based on an analogous irrotational flow field around a circular cylinder, based on which a theoretical solution to the bubble velocity is derived. The bubble motion and cap geometry is mainly controlled by the gravitational component perpendicular to the flow direction. The bubble elongation in the horizontal annulus is caused by the buoyancy that moves the bubble to the top of the annulus. However, as the annulus is inclined, the gravitational component parallel to the flow direction becomes important, causing bubble separation at the tail and reduction in bubble length.
Very low Reynolds number propulsion is a topic of enduring interest due to its importance in biological systems such as sperm migration in the female reproductive tract. Motivated by the fibrous nature of cervical mucus, several recent studies have considered the effect of anisotropic rheology; these studies have generally employed the classical swimming sheet model of G. I. Taylor. The models of Cupples et al. (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 812, 2017, pp. 501–524) and Shi & Powers (Phys. Rev. Fluids vol. 2, 2017, 123102) consider related problems which in a common limit (passive, slightly anisotropic) make different predictions regarding how swimming speed depends on alignment angle. In the present paper we find that this discrepancy is due to missing terms in the analysis of Cupples et al., and that when these terms are correctly included, the models agree in their common limit. We further explore the predictions of the corrected model for both passive and active cases; it is found that for certain combinations of alignment angle and activity parameter, propulsion is halted; in other cases the small amplitude asymptotic expansion is no longer valid, motivating future numerical study.
Instability evolution in a transitional hypersonic boundary layer and its effects on aerodynamic heating are investigated over a 260 mm long flared cone. Experiments are conducted in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering flow visualization, fast-response pressure sensors, fluorescent temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Calculations are also performed based on both the parabolized stability equations (PSE) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). Four unit Reynolds numbers are studied, 5.4, 7.6, 9.7 and $11.7\times 10^{6}~\text{m}^{-1}$ . It is found that there exist two peaks of surface-temperature rise along the streamwise direction of the model. The first one (denoted as HS) is at the region where the second-mode instability reaches its maximum value. The second one (denoted as HT) is at the region where the transition is completed. Increasing the unit Reynolds number promotes the second-mode dissipation but increases the strength of local aerodynamic heating at HS. Furthermore, the heat generation rates induced by the dilatation and shear processes (respectively denoted as $w_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}}$ and $w_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}$ ) were investigated. The former item includes both the pressure work $w_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}1}$ and dilatational viscous dissipation $w_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}2}$ . The aerodynamic heating in HS mainly arose from the high-frequency compression and expansion of fluid accompanying the second mode. The dilatation heating, especially $w_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}1}$ , was more than five times its shear counterpart. In a limited region, the underestimated $w_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}2}$ was also larger than $w_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}$ . As the second-mode waves decay downstream, the low-frequency waves continue to grow, with the consequent shear-induced heating increasing. The latter brings about a second, weaker growth of surface-temperature HT. A theoretical analysis is provided to interpret the temperature distribution resulting from the aerodynamic heating.
Motivated by the problem of jet–flap interaction noise, we study the tonal dynamics that occurs when an isothermal turbulent jet grazes a sharp edge. We perform hydrodynamic and acoustic pressure measurements to characterise the tones as a function of Mach number and streamwise edge position. The observed distribution of spectral peaks cannot be explained using the usual edge-tone model, in which resonance is underpinned by coupling between downstream-travelling Kelvin–Helmholtz wavepackets and upstream-travelling sound waves. We show, rather, that the strongest tones are due to coupling between Kelvin–Helmholtz wavepackets and a family of trapped, upstream-travelling acoustic modes in the potential core, recently studied by Towne et al. (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 825, 2017) and Schmidt et al. (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 825, 2017). We also study the band-limited nature of the resonance, showing the high-frequency cutoff to be due to the frequency dependence of the upstream-travelling waves. Specifically, at high Mach number, these modes become evanescent above a certain frequency, whereas at low Mach number they become progressively trapped with increasing frequency, which inhibits their reflection in the nozzle plane.
An oblique shock wave is generated in a Mach 2 flow at a flow deflection angle of $12^{\circ }$ . The resulting shock-wave–boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) at the tunnel wall is observed. A novel traversable shock generator allows the position of the SWBLI to be varied relative to a downstream expansion fan. The relationship between the SWBLI, the expansion fan and the wind tunnel arrangement is studied. Schlieren photography, surface oil flow visualisation, particle image velocimetry and high-spatial-resolution wall pressure measurements are used to investigate the flow. It is observed that stream-normal movement of the shock generator downwards (towards the floor and hence the point of shock reflection) is accompanied by (1) growth in the streamwise extent of the shock-induced boundary layer separation, (2) upstream movement of the shock-induced separation point while the reattachment point remains nearly fixed, (3) an increase in separation shock strength and (4) transition between regular and irregular (Mach) reflection without an increase in incident shock strength. The role of free interaction theory in defining the separation shock angle is considered and shown to be consistent with the present measurements over a short streamwise extent. An SWBLI representation is proposed and reasoned which explains the apparent increase in separation shock strength that occurs without an increase in incident shock strength.
Transition and flow development in a separation bubble formed on an airfoil are studied experimentally. The effects of tonal and broadband acoustic excitation are considered since such acoustic emissions commonly result from airfoil self-noise and can influence flow development via a feedback loop. This interdependence is decoupled, and the problem is studied in a controlled manner through the use of an external acoustic source. The flow field is assessed using time-resolved, two-component particle image velocimetry, the results of which show that, for equivalent energy input levels, tonal and broadband excitation can produce equivalent changes in the mean separation bubble topology. These changes in topology result from the influence of excitation on transition and the subsequent development of coherent structures in the bubble. Both tonal and broadband excitation lead to earlier shear layer roll-up and thus reduce the bubble size and advance mean reattachment upstream, while the shed vortices tend to persist farther downstream of mean reattachment in the case of tonal excitation. Through a cross-examination of linear stability theory (LST) predictions and measured disturbance characteristics, nonlinear disturbance interactions are shown to play a crucial role in the transition process, leading to significantly different disturbance development for the tonal and broadband excited flows. Specifically, tonal excitation results in transition being dominated by the excited mode, which grows in strong accordance with linear theory and damps the growth of all other disturbances. On the other hand, disturbance amplitudes are more moderate for the natural and broadband excited flows, and so all unstable disturbances initially grow in accordance with LST. For all cases, a rapid redistribution of perturbation energy to a broad range of frequencies follows, with the phenomenon occurring earliest for the broadband excitation case. By taking nonlinear effects into consideration, important ramifications are made clear in regards to comparing LST predictions and experimental or numerical results, thus explaining the trends reported in recent investigations. These findings offer new insights into the influence of tonal and broadband noise emissions, resulting from airfoil self-noise or otherwise, on transition and flow development within a separation bubble.
In turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection, a transition to the so-called ultimate regime, in which the boundary layers (BL) are of turbulent type, has been postulated. Indeed, at very large Rayleigh number $Ra\approx 10^{13}{-}10^{14}$ a transition in the scaling of the global Nusselt number $Nu$ (the dimensionless heat transfer) and the Reynolds number with $Ra$ has been observed in experiments and very recently in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of two-dimensional (2D) RB convection. In this paper, we analyse the local scaling properties of the lateral temperature structure functions in the BLs of this simulation of 2D RB convection, employing extended self-similarity (ESS) (i.e., plotting the structure functions against each other, rather than only against the scale) in the spirit of the attached-eddy hypothesis, as we have recently introduced for velocity structure functions in wall turbulence (Krug et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 830, 2017, pp. 797–819). We find no ESS scaling at $Ra$ below the transition and in the near-wall region. However, beyond the transition and for large enough wall distance $z^{+}>100$ , we find clear ESS behaviour, as expected for a scalar in a turbulent boundary layer. In striking correspondence to the $Nu$ scaling, the ESS scaling region is negligible at $Ra=10^{11}$ and well developed at $Ra=10^{14}$ , thus providing strong evidence that the observed transition in the global Nusselt number at $Ra\approx 10^{13}$ indeed is the transition from a laminar type BL to a turbulent type BL. Our results further show that the relative slopes for scalar structure functions in the ESS scaling regime are the same as for their velocity counterparts, extending their previously established universality. The findings are confirmed by comparing to scalar structure functions in three-dimensional turbulent channel flow.
Unconfined three-dimensional gravity currents generated by lock exchange using a small dividing gate in a sufficiently large tank are investigated by means of large eddy simulations under the Boussinesq approximation, with Grashof numbers varying over five orders of magnitudes. The study shows that, after an initial transient, the flow can be separated into an axisymmetric expansion and a globally translating motion. In particular, the circular frontline spreads like a constant-flow-rate, axially symmetric gravity current about a virtual source translating along the symmetry axis. The flow is characterised by the presence of lobe and cleft instabilities and hydrodynamic shocks. Depending on the Grashof number, the shocks can either be isolated or produced continuously. In the latter case a typical ring structure is visible in the density and velocity fields. The analysis of the frontal spreading of the axisymmetric part of the current indicates the presence of three regimes, namely, a slumping phase, an inertial–buoyancy equilibrium regime and a viscous–buoyancy equilibrium regime. The viscous–buoyancy phase is in good agreement with the model of Huppert (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 121, 1982, pp. 43–58), while the inertial phase is consistent with the experiments of Britter (Atmos. Environ., vol. 13, 1979, pp. 1241–1247), conducted for purely axially symmetric, constant inflow, gravity currents. The adoption of the slumping model of Huppert & Simpson (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 99 (04), 1980, pp. 785–799), which is here extended to the case of constant-flow-rate cylindrical currents, allows reconciling of the different theories about the initial radial spreading in the context of different asymptotic regimes. As expected, the slumping phase is governed by the Froude number at the lock’s gate, whereas the transition to the viscous phase depends on both the Froude number at the gate and the Grashof number. The identification of the inertial–buoyancy regime in the presence of hydrodynamic shocks for this class of flows is important, due to the lack of analytical solutions for the similarity problem in the framework of shallow water theory. This fact has considerably slowed the research on variable-flow-rate axisymmetric gravity currents, as opposed to the rapid development of the knowledge about cylindrical constant-volume and planar gravity currents, despite their own environmental relevance.
We experimentally study the influence of wall roughness on bubble drag reduction in turbulent Taylor–Couette flow, i.e. the flow between two concentric, independently rotating cylinders. We measure the drag in the system for the cases with and without air, and add roughness by installing transverse ribs on either one or both of the cylinders. For the smooth-wall case (no ribs) and the case of ribs on the inner cylinder only, we observe strong drag reduction up to DR $=33\,\%$ and DR $=23\,\%$ , respectively, for a void fraction of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}=6\,\%$ . However, with ribs mounted on both cylinders or on the outer cylinder only, the drag reduction is weak, less than DR $=11\,\%$ , and thus quite close to the trivial effect of reduced effective density. Flow visualizations show that stable turbulent Taylor vortices – large-scale vortical structures – are induced in these two cases, i.e. the cases with ribs on the outer cylinder. These strong secondary flows move the bubbles away from the boundary layer, making the bubbles less effective than what had previously been observed for the smooth-wall case. Measurements with counter-rotating smooth cylinders, a regime in which pronounced Taylor rolls are also induced, confirm that it is really the Taylor vortices that weaken the bubble drag reduction mechanism. Our findings show that, although bubble drag reduction can indeed be effective for smooth walls, its effect can be spoiled by e.g. biofouling and omnipresent wall roughness, as the roughness can induce strong secondary flows.
The evaporation of sessile droplets is analysed when the influence of the thermal properties of the system is strong. We obtain asymptotic solutions for the evolution, and hence explicit expressions for the lifetimes, of droplets when the substrate has a high thermal resistance relative to the droplet and when the saturation concentration of the vapour depends strongly on temperature. In both situations we find that the lifetimes of the droplets are significantly extended relative to those when thermal effects are weak.
Buoyancy-driven exchange flows are common to a variety of natural and engineering systems, ranging from persistently active volcanoes to counterflows in oceanic straits. Laboratory experiments of exchange flows have been used as surrogates to elucidate the basic features of such flows. The resulting data have been analysed and interpreted mostly through core–annular flow solutions, the most common flow configuration at finite viscosity contrasts. These models have been successful in fitting experimental data, but less effective at explaining the variability observed in natural systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that some of the variability observed in laboratory experiments and natural systems is a consequence of the inherent bistability of core–annular flow. Using a core–annular solution to the classical problem of buoyancy-driven exchange flows in vertical tubes, we identify two mathematically valid solutions at steady state: a solution with fast flow in a thin core and a solution with relatively slow flow in a thick core. The theoretical existence of two solutions, however, does not necessarily imply that the system is bistable in the sense that flow switching may occur. Through direct numerical simulations, we confirm the hypothesis that core–annular flow in vertical tubes is inherently bistable. Our simulations suggest that the bistability of core–annular flow is linked to the boundary conditions of the domain, which implies that is not possible to predict the realized flow field from the material parameters of the fluids and the tube geometry alone. Our finding that buoyancy-driven exchange flows are inherently bistable systems is consistent with previous experimental data, but is in contrast to the underlying hypothesis of previous analytical models that the solution is unique and can be identified by maximizing the flux or extremizing the dissipation in the system. Our results have important implications for data interpretation by analytical models and may also have interesting ramifications for understanding volcanic degassing.
We present new scaling expressions, including high-Reynolds-number ( $Re$ ) predictions, for all Reynolds stress components in the entire flow domain of turbulent channel and pipe flows. In Part 1 (She et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 827, 2017, pp. 322–356), based on the dilation symmetry of the mean Navier–Stokes equation a four-layer formula of the Reynolds shear stress length $\ell _{12}$ – and hence also the entire mean velocity profile (MVP) – was obtained. Here, random dilations on the second-order balance equations for all the Reynolds stresses (shear stress $-\overline{u^{\prime }v^{\prime }}$ , and normal stresses $\overline{u^{\prime }u^{\prime }}$ , $\overline{v^{\prime }v^{\prime }}$ , $\overline{w^{\prime }w^{\prime }}$ ) are analysed layer by layer, and similar four-layer formulae of the corresponding stress length functions $\ell _{11}$ , $\ell _{22}$ , $\ell _{33}$ (hence the three turbulence intensities) are obtained for turbulent channel and pipe flows. In particular, direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are shown to agree well with the four-layer formulae for $\ell _{12}$ and $\ell _{22}$ – which have the celebrated linear scalings in the logarithmic layer, i.e. $\ell _{12}\approx \unicode[STIX]{x1D705}y$ and $\ell _{22}\approx \unicode[STIX]{x1D705}_{22}y$ . However, data show an invariant peak location for $\overline{w^{\prime }w^{\prime }}$ , which theoretically leads to an anomalous scaling in $\ell _{33}$ in the log layer only, namely $\ell _{33}\propto y^{1-\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}}$ with $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}\approx 0.07$ . Furthermore, another mesolayer modification of $\ell _{11}$ yields the experimentally observed location and magnitude of the outer peak of $\overline{u^{\prime }u^{\prime }}$ . The resulting $-\overline{u^{\prime }v^{\prime }}$ , $\overline{u^{\prime }u^{\prime }}$ , $\overline{v^{\prime }v^{\prime }}$ and $\overline{w^{\prime }w^{\prime }}$ are all in good agreement with DNS and experimental data in the entire flow domain. Our additional results include: (1) the maximum turbulent production is located at $y^{+}\approx 12$ ; (2) the location of peak value $-\overline{u^{\prime }v^{\prime }}_{p}$ has a scaling transition from $5.7Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}^{1/3}$ to $1.5Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}^{1/2}$ at $Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}\approx 3000$ , with a $1+\overline{u^{\prime }v^{\prime }}_{p}^{+}$ scaling transition from $8.5Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}^{-2/3}$ to $3.0Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}^{-1/2}$ ( $Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}$ the friction Reynolds number); (3) the peak value $\overline{w^{\prime }w^{\prime }}_{p}^{+}\approx 0.84Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}^{0.14}(1-48/Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}})$ ; (4) the outer peak of $\overline{u^{\prime }u^{\prime }}$ emerges above $Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}\approx 10^{4}$ with its location scaling as $1.1Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}^{1/2}$ and its magnitude scaling as $2.8Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}}^{0.09}$ ; (5) an alternative derivation of the log law of Townsend (1976, The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow, Cambridge University Press), namely, $\overline{u^{\prime }u^{\prime }}^{+}\approx -1.25\ln y+1.63$ and $\overline{w^{\prime }w^{\prime }}^{+}\approx -0.41\ln y+1.00$ in the bulk.
We report on the modification of drag by neutrally buoyant spherical finite-sized particles in highly turbulent Taylor–Couette (TC) flow. These particles are used to disentangle the effects of size, deformability and volume fraction on the drag, and are contrasted to the drag in bubbly TC flow. From global torque measurements, we find that rigid spheres hardly decrease or increase the torque needed to drive the system. The size of the particles under investigation has a marginal effect on the drag, with smaller diameter particles showing only slightly lower drag. Increase of the particle volume fraction shows a net drag increase. However, this increase is much smaller than can be explained by the increase in apparent viscosity due to the particles. The increase in drag for increasing particle volume fraction is corroborated by performing laser Doppler anemometry, where we find that the turbulent velocity fluctuations also increase with increasing volume fraction. In contrast to rigid spheres, for bubbles, the effective drag reduction also increases with increasing Reynolds number. Bubbles are also much more effective in reducing the overall drag.