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One elementary proof of the spectral theorem for bounded self-adjoint operators depends on an elementary construction for the square root of a bounded positive self-adjoint operator. The purpose of this paper is to give an elementary construction for the unbounded case and to deduce the spectral theorem for unbounded self-adjoint operators. In so far as all our results are more or less immediate consequences of the spectral theorem there is little is entirely new. On the other hand the elementary approach seems to the author to provide a deeper insight into the structure of the problem and also leads directly to the spectral theorem without appealing first to the bounded case. Besides this, our methods for proving uniqueness of the square root and of the spectral family seem to be new even in the bounded case. In particular there is no need to invoke representation theorems for linear functionals on spaces of continuous functions.
Repeated improper Riemann integrals arise in a variety of contexts, and the validity of changing the order of integration is often in question. Fubini's theorem ensures the equality of two repeated Lebesgue integrals when one of them is absolutely convergent. For many years I have assumed that an analogous test is applicable to repeated improper R-integrals, since they will be absolutely convergent and therefore in agreement with the corresponding L-integrals.
Certain integers have the property that they can be partitioned into distinct positive integers whose reciprocals sum to 1, e.g., and In this paper we prove that all integers exceeding 77 possess this property. This result can then be used to establish the more general theorem that for any positive rational numbers α and β there exists an integer r(α, β) such that any integer exceeding r(α, β) can be partitioned into distinct positive integers exceeding β whose reciprocals sum to α.
We consider a set of η first order simultaneous differential equations in the dependent variables y1, y2, …, yn and the independent variable x ⋮ No loss of gernerality results from taking the functions f1, f2, …, fn to be independent of x, for if this were not so an additional dependent variable yn+1, anc be introduced which always equals x and thus satisfies the differential equation
On the basis of physical principles having a very general nature, A. Landé  has demonstrated that the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics can be derived without having recourse to the introduction of special assumptions of an ad hoc type (such as commutation rules governing canonical observables) which are not immediately suggested by our knowledge of the physical world, but which have simply originated as rules which mathematical physicists have discovered by past experience to yield conclusions in conformity with experiment.
It is well known that a real symmetric matrix can be diagonalised by an orthogonal transformation. This statement is not true, in general, for a symmetric matrix of complex elements. Such complex symmetric matrices arise naturally in the study of damped vibrations of linear systems. It is shown in this paper that a complex symmetric matrix can be diagonalised by a (complex) orthogonal transformation, when and only when each eigenspace of the matrix has an orthonormal basis; this implies that no eigenvectors of zero Euclidean length need be included in the basis. If the matrix cannot be diagonalised, then it has at least one invariant subspace which consists entirely of vectors of zero Euclidean length.
$x, y, z$
positive integers. The Erdős–Straus conjecture asserts that
. In this paper we obtain a number of upper and lower bounds for
for typical values of natural numbers
. For instance, we establish that
These upper and lower bounds show that a typical prime has a small number of solutions to the Erdős–Straus Diophantine equation; small, when compared with other additive problems, like Waring’s problem.
This paper is concerned with certain aspects of the theory and application of the probability generating functional (p.g.fl) of a point process on the real line. Interest in point processes has increased rapidly during the last decade and a number of different approaches to the subject have been expounded (see for example , , , , , , , ). It is hoped that the present development using the p.g.ﬀ will calrify and unite some of these viewpoints and provide a useful tool for solution of particular problems.