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Managing interactions between humans and wild elephants is a complex problem that is increasing as a result of agricultural and urban expansion into and alongside protected areas. Mitigating negative interactions requires the development of new tools to reduce competition and promote coexistence. Many studies have tested various mitigation techniques across elephant ranges in Africa and Asia, with varying levels of success. Recently, strobe lights have been suggested as a potential mitigation strategy in deterring African lions Panthera leo from kraals or bomas, but this technique has to date not been tested to reduce negative human–elephant interactions. Over a 2-year period (November 2016–June 2018), we tested the effectiveness of solar-powered strobe light barriers in deterring African elephants Loxodonta africana, in collaboration with 18 farmers in a community adjacent to the Chobe Forest Reserve and Chobe National Park in northern Botswana. Although elephants were more likely to pass by fields with solar-powered strobe light barriers (which was probably a result of selection bias as we focused on fields that had previously been damaged by elephants), they were less likely to enter these treatment fields than control fields without such barriers. Our findings demonstrate the efficacy of light barriers to reduce negative human–elephant interactions in rural communities.
This period of enforced pastoral intensification was accompanied by a strong anti-conservationist stand. To provide space and resources for a rapidly growing bovine population wildlife was eliminated. Poaching became rampant in the 1970s. South African military staff, administrators, and local people gained from this total onslaught on wildlife. This provoked international protest and the formation of a conservationist agenda for the region: an agenda which would then be formative from the 1990s onwards.
Chapter 11 deals with future trajectories. How will environmental infrastructures in north-western Namibia develop in future? There are very different visions on what will and what should happen. Climate change projections suggest that by the end of the twenty-first century, herding and agriculture may be difficult in the region due to continuous desiccation. Conservationists allege that only conservation-based economic acitivities will be viable and opt for a strengthening of community conservation and advertise the Kaokoveld's nature (which in many visions entails wildlife, landscape, and humans alike) to the global tourism market. Yet others highlight the opportunities mining brings about. The region is extremely rich in different ores and foreign comapnies line up to lay claim to future minining options.
Since the 1990s conservation is of major importance in the region. Communal conservancies now cover most of north-western Namibia. Conservancies self-organise conservationist measures and relegate land to exclusive wildlife use. Such conservancies are territorial units with clearly defined boundaries. They are governmentally acknowledged and are run by elected committees. They hope to reap income from tourism and all figures document that conservancies gain first of all profound monetary support from international donors but also gain from tourism (at least some of them do). The chapter discusses the economic, social, and cultural repercussions of the reorganisation of communal natural resource management. It problematises the difficult translation of global blueprints of sustainable environmental management into local settings.
Large carnivores have extensive spatial requirements, with ranges that often span geopolitical borders. Consequently, management of transboundary populations is subject to several political jurisdictions, often with heterogeneity in conservation challenges. In continental Asia there are four threatened leopard subspecies with transboundary populations spanning 23 countries: the Persian Panthera pardus saxicolor, Indochinese P. pardus delacouri, Arabian P. pardus nimr and Amur P. pardus orientalis leopards. We reviewed the status of these subspecies and examined the challenges to, and opportunities for, their conservation. The Amur and Indochinese leopards have the majority (58–100%) of their remaining range in borderlands, and the Persian and Arabian leopards have 23–26% of their remaining ranges in borderlands. Overall, in 18 of 23 countries the majority of the remaining leopard range is in borderlands, and thus in most countries conservation of these subspecies is dependent on transboundary collaboration. However, we found only two transboundary initiatives for Asian leopards. Overall, we highlighted three key transboundary landscapes in regions that are of high importance for the survival of these subspecies. Recent listing of the leopard in the Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals is important, but more international collaboration is needed to conserve these subspecies. We provide a spatial framework with which range countries and international agencies could establish transboundary cooperation for conserving threatened leopards in Asia.
Crocodilians are distributed widely through the tropics and subtropics, and several species pose a substantial threat to human life. This has important implications for human safety and crocodilian conservation. Understanding the drivers of crocodilian attacks on people could help minimize future attacks and inform conflict management. Crocodilian attacks follow a seasonal pattern in many regions, but there has been limited analysis of the relationship between attack occurrence and fine-scale contemporaneous environmental conditions. We use methods from environmental niche modelling to explore the relationships between attacks on people and abiotic predictors at a daily temporal resolution for the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus in South Africa and Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), and the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis in Florida, USA. Our results indicate that ambient daily temperature is the most important abiotic temporal predictor of attack occurrence for both species, with attack likelihood increasing markedly when mean daily temperatures exceed 18 °C and peaking at 28 °C. It is likely that this relationship is explained partially by human propensity to spend time in and around water in warmer weather but also by the effect of temperature on crocodilian hunting behaviour and physiology, especially the ability to digest food. We discuss the potential of our findings to contribute to the management of crocodilians, with benefits for both human safety and conservation, and the application of environmental niche modelling for understanding human–wildlife conflicts involving both ectotherms and endotherms.
This chapter applies Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) to a real dataset on Finnish birds, with the aim of using the case study to simultaneously demonstrate the many uses of HMSC. Specifically, it illustrates the full workflow of a typical HMSC analysis, shows how the researcher can access the full posterior distribution to go beyond the default outputs of HMSC analyses, shows how predictions of HMSC can be used as a starting point for further analyses as well as compares HMSC outputs to results obtained by other statistical methods in community ecology. The chapter starts by outlining the five steps of the HMSC workflow, and then shows how the researcher can access the entire posterior distribution of model parameters or predictions, e.g. for examining the level of statistical support related to either of these. Next the chapter illustrates how one may use HMSC predictions as a starting point for applied research, such as spatial conservation prioritisation or bioregionalisation. Finally, the chapter applies other widely used methods in statistical community ecology such as ordination methods and co-occurrence analysis to the same data, with the aim of comparing how their results relate to those obtained by HMSC.
Parakmeria omeiensis is a Critically Endangered tree species in the family Magnoliaceae, endemic to south-west China. The tree is functionally dioecious, but little is known about the species’ status in the wild. We investigated the range, population size, age structure, habitat characteristics and threats to P. omeiensis. We located a total of 74 individuals in two populations on the steep slopes of Mount Emei, Sichuan province, growing under the canopy of evergreen broadleaved forest in well-drained gravel soil. A male-biased sex ratio, lack of effective pollinating insects, and habitat destruction result in low seed set and poor seedling survival in the wild. We have adopted an integrated conservation approach, including strengthening in situ conservation, cultivation of saplings, ex situ conservation and reintroduction, to protect this species. The successful conservation of P. omeiensis has important implications for the conservation of the genus Parakmeria and the family Magnoliaceae.
Biocultural and indigenous approaches to conservation, such as the sacred forests of India, are increasingly being recognized and valued. At these sites, the ecological aspects as well as the local community management and cultural significance of the landscape contribute to conservation success. From 2012 to 2015, we investigated five sacred forests in western Odisha (India) that varied in size from 1 to 1000 ha. Through interviews with 81 residents, we explored the types of groves, their use and management approaches. We investigated levels of grove disturbance and plant use with botanical survey methods. Some groves experience pressures from annual pilgrimage visitors, and we documented the relative impacts of pilgrims and other activities using ethnographic methods. Community participation or management by the Forest Department alone has not been completely effective in conserving these sacred natural sites; however, collaborative work can contribute to successful conservation. Continued community involvement is key to future biodiversity conservation in the sacred groves.
Tillage regimes can influence weed population dynamics, and consequently, the choice of appropriate weed management practices. Studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in a long-term (36-yr) grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. bicolor] experiment at Texas A&M University, College Station to determine the impact of long-term no-till (NT) and conventional till (CT) systems on weed species dynamics. Higher densities of johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.], prostrate spurge [Chamaesyce humistrata (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Small], waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.), and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.) were recorded in the NT system, compared to the CT system. Further, the NT system showed greater weed diversity (Shannon-Wiener’s index, H = 0.8) and species richness (S = 6.2), compared to the CT system (H = 0.6; S = 4.2). Seedling emergence of some dominant weed species was also delayed in the NT system. In the CT system, 50% emergence of S. halepense (8.5 C base temperature) and waterhemp (10 C base temperature) occurred at 59 and 63 growing degree days (GDD) respectively, whereas it required 68 and 75 GDD respectively, in the NT system. Further, a greater proportion (61%) of the viable seedbank was present at the top 5 cm of the soil in the NT system compared to the CT system (46%). Overall, findings from this 36-year long tillage experiment have revealed that the NT system had greater weed densities (especially of the perennial weed S. halepense) and a high proportion of weed seeds (particularly small-seeded annuals) on the topsoil layer, corroborating some earlier reports that were based on short-term investigations. Findings indicate that growers transitioning to NT systems should be mindful of potential shifts in weed species dominance and develop appropriate management tactics.
Anchored in conservation of resources theory, this study considers how employees' experience of job stress might reduce their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), as well as how this negative relationship might be buffered by employees' access to two personal resources (passion for work and adaptive humor) and two contextual resources (peer communication and forgiving climate). Data from a Mexican-based organization reveal that felt job stress diminishes OCB, but the effect is subdued at higher levels of the four studied resources. This study accordingly adds to extant research by elucidating when the actual experience of job stress is more or less likely to steer employees away from OCB – that is, when they have access to specific resources that hitherto have been considered direct enablers of such efforts instead of buffers of employees' negative behavioral responses to job stress.
Sets out the aims and objectives of the book, and the need it will fill. The scope is described in terms of topics included, geograpic coverage, literature consulted and cited (mainly 2005-2018), and other sources of reference (e.g. the IUCN Red List).
Inland waters and their biodiversity are a valuable resource. They are a source of fresh water, helping to purify it, and provide habitat for organisms (e.g. fishes) that may be eaten or used by humans. To improve the condition of fresh waters globally, it is imperative to link biodiversity conservation to human well-being. The concept of ecosystem services - the benefits humans derive from ecosystems - offers a means to make this link explicit, resolving the conflict between human water use and biodiversity protection. Ecosystem services thus serve as a proxy for biodiversity, assuming that maintaining the former will serve to protect the latter, representing a win-win conservation solution. While relevant for fisheries (a provisioning service), the substitution may be less applicable to supporting services that depend upon maintaining ecological functioning, not maximizing final services for humans. While valuation of biodiversity (and its subsequent monetization) is problematic, payment for ecosystem (or watershed) services can incentivize land-owners to protect sources of clean water for downstream users.
Fresh waters are not amenable to protection by fortress conservation, since entire drainage basins can seldom be set aside. Site selection by conservation modelling has shortcomings because of the directional connectivity of river ecosystems. In the many cases where habitat degradation is the primary threat to freshwater biodiversity, restoration measures (that include riparia) may ameliorate matters, allowing species persistence or even recovery. However, rehabilitation is often the best that can be achieved. Mitigation of the barrier effects of dams by fishways have limited effectiveness, but complete removal of dams is an effective means of restoring connectivity. Ex situ (captive breeding, reintroduction, translocation) and in situ conservation measures – sometimes in combination – have been applied to a variety of freshwater animals, using new techniques such as eDNA for monitoring. Various international networks have been established recently to facilitate collaboration on conservation and improve data collection and sharing. There are thus reasons to be hopeful – rather than optimistic – about the prospects for preserving freshwater biodiversity in a warming world.
Organizations can expand their impact through strategic partnerships. We used social network analysis to compare two network theories in order to determine whether zoos’ conservation partnerships form networks that reflect collaborative social movements or business-style competition. Data from 234 zoos revealed a conservation network involving 1679 organizations with 3018 partnerships. The network had 40 subgroups: 1 large network, 6 small networks and 33 disconnected zoos. Social network analysis metrics revealed an incohesive and low-density network. Zoos are more likely to behave competitively like businesses with limited partnerships to protect resources, rather than behaving as collaborative social movement organizations partnering to further the cause of conservation across their communities. Content analyses of organizational activities revealed that 62% of zoos’ partners display different skills and roles in conservation projects, while 38% participated in the same activities as zoos. These novel findings about zoos behaving as competitive institutions inform opportunities for better collaboration in order to expand organizations’ conservation impact.
We present an assessment of the Southern Paraguayan Grasslands using Important Bird Areas (IBAs) located in a grassland landscape mosaic. Eleven IBAs in southern Paraguay were evaluated 10 years after their designation, using the BirdLife International method to assess the state, pressure, and response of these areas, during 2017 and 2018. Overall, the Pressure from ecosystem modifications led by fire, and fire suppression, agricultural expansion, and intensification due to farming and grazing have been identified as the major threats to IBAs. Regarding the State, 64% of the IBAs presented Very poor habitat quality to support grassland bird communities. The level of conservation Response was mostly negligible when considering conservation designation, management planning and conservation actions for the trigger species. Our results provide useful information to partners to reconsider these areas as IBAs as most of them no longer fulfill international requirements, we also highlight the importance of strengthening national policies to adequately protect natural grasslands.
Frogs have been harvested from the wild for the last 40 years in Turkey. We analysed the population dynamics of Anatolian water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) in the Seyhan and Ceyhan Deltas during 2013–2015. We marked a total of 13,811 individuals during 3 years, estimated population sizes, simulated the dynamics of a harvested population over 50 years, and collated frog harvest and export statistics from the region and for Turkey as a whole. Our capture estimates indicated a population reduction of c. 20% per year, and our population modelling showed that, if overharvesting continues at current rates, the harvested populations will decline rapidly. Simulations with a model of harvested population dynamics resulted in a risk of extinction of > 90% within 50 years, with extinction likely in c. 2032. Our interviews with harvesters revealed their economic dependence on the frog harvest. However, our results also showed that reducing harvest rates would not only ensure the viability of these frog populations but would also provide a source of income that is sustainable in the long term. Our study provides insights into the position of Turkey in the ‘extinction domino’ line, in which harvest pressure shifts among countries as frog populations are depleted and harvest bans are effected. We recommend that harvesting of wild frogs should be banned during the mating season, hunting and exporting of frogs < 30 g should be banned, and harvesters should be trained on species knowledge and awareness of regulations.
A basic tenet of ecotourism is to enhance conservation. However, few studies have assessed its effectiveness in meeting conservation goals and whether the type of tourism activity affects outcomes. This study examines whether working in ecotourism changes the perceptions of and attitudes and behaviours of local people towards the focal species and its habitat and, if so, if tourism type affects those outcomes. We interviewed 114 respondents at four whale shark Rhincodon typus tourism sites in the Philippines to compare changes in perceptions of and attitudes and behaviours towards whale sharks and the wider marine environment. We found that the smaller scale tourism sites had greater social conservation outcomes than the mass or failed tourism sites, including changes in conservation ethics and perceptions of and attitudes and behaviours towards whale sharks and the ocean. Furthermore, of the three active tourism sites, the smallest site, with the lowest economic returns and the highest negative impacts on whale sharks prior to tourism activities, had the largest proportion of respondents who reported a positive change in perceptions of and attitudes and behaviours towards whale sharks and the ocean. Our results suggest that tourism type, and the associated incentives, can have a significant effect on conservation outcomes and ultimately on the ecological status of an Endangered species and its habitat.
Governments and conservation organizations worldwide are motivated to manage invasive species due to quantified and perceived negative ecological and economic impacts invasive species impose. Thus, determining which species cause significant negative impacts, as well as clear articulation of those impacts, is critical to meet conservation priorities. This process of determining which species warrant management can be straightforward when there are clear negative impacts, such as dramatic reductions in native diversity. However, the majority of changes to ecosystem pools and fluxes cannot be readily categorized as ecologically negative or positive (e.g., lower soil pH). Additionally, diverse stakeholders may not all agree on impacts as negative. This complexity challenges our ability to simply and uniformly determine which species cause negative impact, and thus which species merit management, especially as we expand invader impacts to encompass a more holistic ecosystem perspective beyond biodiversity and consider stakeholder perspectives and priorities. Thus, we suggest impact be evaluated in a context that is dictated by governing policies or conservation/land management missions with the support of scientists. In other words, within each jurisdiction, populations are identified as causing negative impact based on the hierarchical governing policies and mission of that parcel. Framing negative impact in a management context has the advantages of (1) easily scaling from individual landscapes to geopolitical states; (2) better representing how managers practice, (3) reflecting invasive species as spatially contextual, not universal, and (4) allowing for flexibility with dynamic ecosystems undergoing global change. We hope that framing negative impact in an applied context aids management prioritization and achieving conservation goals.
The species of Jasminum Tourn. ex L. (Oleaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia are revised. Eighteen species are recognised, of which eight are endemic. Five of these species have been recorded from Singapore. A key to species is provided, all names are typified, and all species are described. Conservation assessments are given for all species in Peninsular Malaysia. One species is Extinct in Peninsular Malaysia, eleven are Endangered and one is Data Deficient. Jasminum shahii Kiew is described as a new species. In Singapore, two species are certainly Extinct.