Skip to main content
×
Home
The Cambridge History of Science
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 6
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Carlyle, Margaret 2014. From Practice to Print: Women Crafting Authority at the Margins of Orthodox Medicine. Mémoires du livre, Vol. 6, Issue. 1,


    Kargon, Jeremy 2014. One city's ‘urban cosmography’. Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 103.


    Stouraiti, Anastasia 2012. Colonial encounters, local knowledge and the making of the cartographic archive in the Venetian Peloponnese. European Review of History: Revue europeenne d'histoire, Vol. 19, Issue. 4, p. 491.


    2012. Art is not What You Think it is.


    HUNTER, IAN 2011. CHARLES TAYLOR'S A SECULAR AGE AND SECULARIZATION IN EARLY MODERN GERMANY. Modern Intellectual History, Vol. 8, Issue. 03, p. 621.


    2010. Contesting the Renaissance.


    ×
  • Volume 3: Early Modern Science
  • Edited by Katharine Park, Harvard University, Massachusetts , Lorraine Daston, Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Berlin

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of Science
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054010
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This book provides a comprehensive account of knowledge of the natural world in Europe, c.1500–1700. Often referred to as the Scientific Revolution, this period saw major transformations in fields as diverse as anatomy and astronomy, natural history and mathematics. Articles by leading specialists describe in clear, accessible prose supplemented by extensive bibliographies, how new ideas, discoveries, and institutions shaped the ways in which nature came to be studied, understood, and used. Part I frames the study of 'The New Nature' in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Part II surveys the 'Personae and Sites of Natural Knowledge'. Part III treats the study of nature by discipline, following the classification of the sciences current in early modern Europe. Part IV takes up the implications of the new natural knowledge for religion, literature, art, gender, and European identity.

Reviews

'Undoubtedly this hefty volume is a necessary addition to the libraries of early modern scholars and to the bibliography of any course covering science in the early modern period.’

Source: British Journal for the History of Science

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Page 1 of 2


  • 1 - Introduction: The Age of the New
    pp 1-18
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book. The book covers the period from roughly 1490 to 1730, which is known to anglophone historians of Europe as the early modern era, a term pregnant with expectations of things to come. It concerns one particularly dynamic field of innovation in early modern Europe; for the sake of convenience, this field is usually subsumed under the portmanteau term 'science', taken in its sense of disciplined inquiry into the phenomena and order of the natural world. In some areas, the new scholarship led to heated debates with more traditional scholars about the value and interpretation of familiar texts, witness the flurry of attacks on and defenses of Pliny's Natural History in the 1490s. Narratives about changes in astronomy and cosmology, from Nicholas Copernicus to Isaac Newton, have traditionally furnished the backbone of historical accounts of the Scientific Revolution.
  • 2 - Physics and Foundations
    pp 19-69
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter presents a survey of some sixteenth- and seventeenth-century conceptions of the foundations of the sciences of the physical world, understood in this broad and somewhat imprecise sense. It reviews the Aristotelian foundations and discusses some of the alternatives to this conception of the world put forward by Renaissance thinkers. One group that set itself against Aristotle in the sixteenth century has come to be known as the Italian naturalists. The chapter also discusses some foundational issues connected with the so-called mechanical philosophy that came to dominate the field by the end of the seventeenth century. In the orthodox mechanical philosophy, everything was to be explained in terms of size, shape, motion, and the collision of corpuscles with one another, all governed by the laws of nature. In many ways, Newton's world was the by then familiar mechanist/ corpuscularian world of bodies governed by laws of motion.
  • 3 - Scientific Explanation from Formal Causes to Laws of Nature
    pp 70-105
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Scientific innovators in the period 1500-1800 rejects Aristotle's account of the four kinds of causes as a source of acceptable theories in the specific sciences. This chapter considers three notable changes in early modern scientific explanations. The first was a change in the overall purpose of scientific research that was initiated by those critics of Aristotelianism who relinquished Aristotle's goal of understanding the form of each natural substance. A second notable change consisted in the replacement of long-standing Aristotelian explanations of specific kinds of natural phenomena. Finally, a third notable change in early modern scientific explanations was signaled by natural philosophers' waning interest in metaphysical discussions of the nature of causality itself. The chapter shows how to define laws of nature crucially depended on the concept of God as an extrinsic final cause and on the concept of matter as an extrinsic efficient cause.
  • 4 - The Meanings of Experience
    pp 106-131
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    At the start of the sixteenth century, scholastic versions of Aristotelian natural philosophy dominated the approach to knowledge of nature that informed the official curricula of the universities. Aristotle's writings stress the importance of sense experience in the creation of reliable knowledge of the world. The teaching of human anatomy formed an integral part of an early modern medical education in the universities, and, like other areas of the study of nature, it already had its established ways of doing things. The general introduction of 'experimental experience' from the mathematical sciences into the wider arena of natural philosophy may be traced by reference to the gradual emergence in the seventeenth century of a new term, 'physico-mathematics'. Newton's optical work lay squarely within the tradition of geometrical optics, one of the mixed mathematical sciences. The varieties of experience in the sciences of early modern Europe thus ran the gamut from mathematics through the traditional topics of natural philosophy to natural history.
  • 5 - Proof and Persuasion
    pp 132-176
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The learned culture that was transmitted through and beyond the universities of early modern Europe was structured in terms of distinct intellectual disciplines. This chapter considers early modern theories of proof and persuasion in terms of three broad categories suggested by the disciplinary structure of early modern learning: demonstration, probability, and persuasion. It discusses how these conceptions were affected by developments in the study of nature and, in particular, by the incorporation of mathematics and experiment into the discipline of natural philosophy. As the earlier quotation from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics suggested that mathematics and geometry had a privileged place with respect to the certainty of its proofs. The second principal development within natural philosophy that had a decisive impact on techniques of proof and persuasion was the experiment. Finally, the chapter explains the mechanisms of proof and persuasion in two distinct but overlapping areas: the printed book and institutions for the pursuit of natural knowledge.
  • 6 - The Man of Science
    pp 177-191
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Historically responsible treatment of the early modern man of science has to embrace a splitting impulse and resist temptations toward facile generalization. Early modern scientific work, of whatever version, was pursued within a range of traditionally established social roles. Unlike the role of the university scholar in general, the social role of the medical man strongly linked natural knowledge with practical interventions. Membership in a scientific society or academy therefore had no one stable significance for the identity of the seventeenth-century man of science, though eighteenth-century developments, and especially patterns emerging in France, did eventually make the academic role increasingly important for scientific identity. Medicine was therefore one important domain within which natural knowledge enjoyed well-established social authority and credibility. The gentlemanly conception of a new social role for the man of science was important in new practitioners' self-conceptions and in justifications of new intellectual practices.
  • 7 - Women of Natural Knowledge
    pp 192-205
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter investigates the shifting institutional foundations of natural knowledge during the revolutions that marked its origins in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the changing fortunes of women within those institutions. It looks at the world of learned elites: universities, princely courts, informal humanist circles, scientific academies, and Parisian salons. These networks of literati are contrasted with the workshops of the skilled craftsmen and craftswomen. Women's exclusion from universities set limits on their participation in astronomy. The chapter also focuses on Europe, investigating the naturalists who undertook long and arduous journeys during the expansive voyages of scientific discovery. The more fluid state of scientific culture in early modern Europe left room for innovation. New institutions and new calls for equality provided openings in intellectual culture that allowed a few women to contribute to the making of natural knowledge.
  • 8 - Markets, Piazzas, and Villages
    pp 206-223
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Long before natural objects became subjects for experimental study in the laboratory, they had been commodities traded in the marketplace. The growing recognition of the marketplace as a site of natural knowledge signaled important shifts in the definition of knowledge and of who might qualify as natural knowers. The global enterprises of early modern merchant capitalists stimulated interest in the natural history of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the New World. In exploiting the possibilities of the global economy, the European states facilitated the introduction of new natural knowledge. The shops of apothecaries and distillers were also sites of natural knowledge. The piazzas were also the sites of displays of exotic rarities and demonstrations of nature's wonders. Medical practice in the countryside, as in the city, was characterized by a combination of naturalistic, religious, and magical healing. Village healers rarely distinguished among physical, magical, and religious remedies.
  • 9 - Homes and Households
    pp 224-237
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter examines some of the various ways in which home and household came to provide important frameworks for the gathering of natural knowledge in early modern Europe. It also show that numerous scientific activities were performed either within the home itself or, more broadly, by members of a household, which might include a paterfamilias, wife, sons, daughters, other relatives, and domestic servants. Natural inquiry in early modern Europe thus often constituted a family project to which a variety of household members would contribute, providing crucial support and continuity for scientific activities at a time when formal institutional support was often lacking. Structuring the division of labor among household members, the household also ensured the continuity of knowledge and skills and their transmission into the next generation. During the crucial years of the Scientific Revolution, however, it proved particularly important as a model for the pursuit of natural knowledge.
  • 10 - Libraries and Lecture Halls
    pp 238-250
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Classrooms and libraries called up radically different images in the minds of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century writers. Like the lecture hall, the library attracted some formidable attacks in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. For all his command of bookish culture, the English philosophical reformer Francis Bacon considered libraries to be the repositories of an older and less powerful form of learning than those he preferred to pursue. Yet many of the new public libraries ended up parading the wealth, power, and culture of the rulers who had caused them to be assembled more effectively than they served the needs of scholars. Many of the greatest Italian libraries, from the Marciana to the Vatican, were notoriously hard to enter and harder still to work in. In the sixteenth century, libraries became weapons in a new form of confessional warfare, one in which the archive of early Christianity was the chief realm of struggle.
  • 11 - Courts and Academies
    pp 251-271
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Ducal courts predominated in German speaking areas, and wealthier Italian courts, including the papal court in Rome, were able to bestow status and authority in a proportion far exceeding regional power. Whether a court was large or small, the personality and interests of its ruler directed court life and organized its vitality as a cultural site. In this regard, Renaissance and early modern courts shared much in common with their medieval predecessors. At the Prague court of the emperor Rudolf II, science, art, humanism, and technology intertwined, thanks in large part to the heterogeneity of the interests and backgrounds of court members. The court workshop was closely related to the curiosity cabinet, and some objects on display combined fictive and natural elements in such a way as to communicate personal messages when works of nature were marvelously turned into works of art. Members of court aristocracies shaped and influenced early scientific academies, and participation by the nobility enhanced their respectability.
  • 12 - Anatomy Theaters, Botanical Gardens, and Natural History Collections
    pp 272-289
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The anatomy theater, the botanical garden, and the natural history museum were all a direct result of the medical fascination with experience in the early sixteenth century. In the ancient university towns of Italy, however, principally Padua and Bologna, a new commitment to the place of anatomy in medical education led to the building of anatomical theaters that exist to this day. With the exception of surgeon's theaters, which had a more narrowly professional function, most anatomy theaters appeared in tandem with university botanical gardens. Although the botanical garden did not precede the permanent anatomy theater, it more quickly became part of the institutional culture of science in Renaissance Europe. Many university gardens were part of a research and teaching complex that housed an anatomy theater and various scientific collections accumulated by the medical faculty. Visitors to anatomy theaters, botanical gardens, private collections, and princely treasuries were already accustomed to looking at curiosities as part of observing nature.
  • 13 - Laboratories
    pp 290-305
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In 1603, after six years of construction, Count Wolfgang II von Hohenlohe put the finishing touches on a new two-story laboratory in his residence Schloss Weikersheim. Count Wolfgang used a single long-term laboratory worker, or Laborant, who appears to have held the major responsibility for the laboratory over a sixteen-year period. Paracelsian ideas about the alchemical reform of the world impelled many nobles, particularly in the German territories, to found alchemical laboratories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, a new conception of replicable experimentation in the controlled space of the laboratory began to be constructed. The proceedings of the Accademia del Cimento, published in 1667, also set out the academicians' experiments in plain prose and clear illustrations. The new epistemology of natural knowledge involving use of the laboratory was institutionalized in only very few universities by the end of the seventeenth century, the most notable example being the University of Leiden.
  • 14 - Sites of Military Science and Technology
    pp 306-319
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    By the middle of the thirteenth century, gunpowder had made its way to Western Europe from Asia, most likely from China, by intermediaries yet to be ascertained. Technological changes were also frequent during this early period of gunpowder weapon development. Some of the more traditional arms manufacturers, especially armorers, tried to keep pace with these gunpowder-related changes. However, at some locations an entirely new fortification system was constructed that was designed completely with an eye toward defense against gunpowder weapons. However, one group of intellectuals began to build on and tie their quest for patronage to the advent and proliferation of gunpowder weapons. The earliest of these intellectuals, from the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, have most frequently been called "courtly engineers" by modern historians. Gunnery, the building of war machines, and the design of fortifications were prominent among what were known as the "mechanical arts", which included the practical disciplines that involved working with machines.
  • 15 - Coffeehouses and Print Shops
    pp 320-340
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Experimental philosophy came to prominence on a wave of coffee. Paris coffeehouses were reputedly premises of rare elegance, and those of Amsterdam rivaled London's as centers for gossip and conversation. By the time coffee arrived in London, print had been there for almost two hundred years. By the mid-sixteenth century, print was already transforming the character of the book itself. The "printing revolution" that ensued, however, was to be at least as important in qualitative and practical as in sheer quantitative terms. The best bookshops and printing houses tended to cluster in discrete locations in major cities, such as St. Paul's Churchyard in London or the Rue S. Jacques in Paris. Rand's proposal was for collective action by natural philosophers to reform a print culture that was itself a collective creation. With its periodical, the Athenian Mercury, outselling all others, Dunton's society epitomized the alliance between print and coffeehouse.
  • 16 - Networks of Travel, Correspondence, and Exchange
    pp 341-362
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    European knowledge of the natural world depends upon expert practitioners who were entrusted with providing reliable information and authentic natural specimens while traversing ever larger and ever more remote geographical tracts. Although networks of travel and correspondence grew extensively during the late Middle Ages, they were almost without exception confined to the lands of Europe and the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. At the same time that correspondence networks proliferated, travel extended beyond European shores to those of Africa, Asia, and the New World. Broadly speaking, the fundamental changes in communications in the early modern period depended on innovations in postal services, overseas travel, and printing. Although the disinterested pursuit of scientific knowledge was never a primary goal of these corporations, the operation of long-distance networks of any sort required knowledge of certain parts of the natural world.
  • 17 - Natural Philosophy
    pp 363-406
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Natural philosophy is used by historians of science as an umbrella term to designate the study of nature before it could easily be identified with what we call "science" today. As institutionalized in the universities of medieval Christendom, starting in the thirteenth century, natural philosophy consisted in the study of and commentary on Aristotle's libri naturals. Aristotelian natural philosophy faced a number of challenges in the Renaissance that stemmed from a new awareness of alternative ancient philosophies, the resurgence of religious objections, and recent empirical observations and discoveries. The Jesuits were particularly noted among Aristotelian natural philosophers for their openness to new empirical and mathematical methods. Gassendi proposed a full-scale revival of Epicureanism, an ancient philosophy long reviled as irreligious because of its explanations based on the chance encounters of atoms. The Royal Society and the Académie Royale conferred on natural philosophy a new institutional and intellectual autonomy.
  • 18 - Medicine
    pp 407-434
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the science of physic consisted of both theoria and practica. The great eleventh-century Canon of Avicenna is remained as an especially fundamental and widely taught summary of physic. Medical Hellenists studied many subjects related to the foundations of the science of physic. The "autoptic imagination" that has been noticed from the mid-sixteenth century onward in the works of those who wrote of the New World had been present even longer among those who wrote of their medical experiences and observations. In Italy and a few other places, such as Montpellier and Leiden, surgery was included among the academic subjects taught, and throughout Europe surgeons were increasingly involved in learned medicine, even in promoting medical humanism. Philosophical materialism was also to be found among Italian philosophers who took up Averroist themes, such as Cesare Cremonini and Pietro Pomponazzi.
  • 19 - Natural History
    pp 435-468
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the early modern period, natural history was an important, controversial, and much discussed kind of knowledge. It is little wonder that natural history became the "big" science of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when the proliferation of European overseas empires further enlarged its scope. In time, the importance of the specimen complicated the role of the learned word because there were plenty of new words to be written as a result of looking at nature. One of the fundamental reasons for writing new natural histories related to the impact of the Americas, and long-distance travel in general, on thought about the natural world. By the mid-sixteenth century, naturalists shared information regularly. The scientific letter became the most important tool of communication in the development of natural history. The regular exchange of words and things suggests how important collaboration was in the pursuit of natural history. The identity of the naturalist emerged from many diverse ingredients.
  • 20 - Cosmography
    pp 469-496
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Over the course of the sixteenth century, the relationships among the various fields associated with cosmography changed. Cosmography united the natural philosophical conceptions of learned scholars, the experience of seamen and travelers, and cartographic handiwork. In the fifteenth century, Italy was the principal center of learned cosmography. Learned cosmography was changed dramatically by the overseas discoveries of the European explorers. Copernicus had not only studied astronomical classics and observed the heavens carefully but also responded attentively, competently, and creatively to the cosmographic revolution. Cosmography became a leading science by confronting the learned not only mathematicians but also natural philosophers and theologians, with new knowledge. The term "cosmography" came to be used less frequently or was equated with geography, as in the Anatomia ingeniorum et scientiarum of Bishop Antonio Zara from Aquileia. In Amsterdam, Bernhardus Varenius published his Geographia generalis, which was studied and disseminated by Isaac Newton.
  • 21 - From Alchemy to “Chymistry”
    pp 497-517
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The modern distinction between alchemy and chemistry, wherein the former refers exclusively to the transmutation of base metals into gold, is a caricature popularized by the philosophes of the French Enlightenment. Although alchemical techniques such as distillation had been employed by physicians since at least the twelfth century, Paracelsus went much further in treating the body as a chemical system. The importance of mercury in alchemical theory is underscored by the fact that one of the major schools of alchemical thought in the seventeenth century believed that the philosophers' stone should be made from that substance. Traces of Starkey's Helmontian and Geberian matter theory are also found in Newton's work, as in The Opticks. The formation of distinct chrysopoetic schools in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, like the inauguration of the chymical textbook tradition, bears witness to the increasing divergence of traditions within the domain of early modern chymistry.
  • 22 - Magic
    pp 518-540
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter describes magic by one of its most voluble advocates, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim, a German physician and philosopher. No one knew the risks and rewards of magic better than Agrippa. His notorious handbook, De occulta philosophia, had been circulated in manuscript by 1510, though it was printed only in 1533, over the complaints of Dominican inquisitors. Words, images, and experience, especially vicarious experience stored in books, confirmed the magical powers of physical objects, natural objects such as magnets, peonies, and dragons, and artificial objects such as rings, amulets, and automata. New modes of visualization, assisted by new arts of picturing, eventually helped to make magic a mere spectacle, an illusion, ready for the hilarious disclosure of its emptiness by the French dramatist Moliére. By the time Robert Hooke published his microscopic investigations, the mechanical philosophy had established itself as the new standard of intelligibility in natural philosophical explanation.
  • 23 - Astrology
    pp 541-561
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Astrology was studied within three distinct scientific disciplines, including mathematics, natural philosophy, and medicine. Astrology was served to integrate several highly developed mathematical sciences of antiquity, including astronomy, geography, and geometrical optics, with Aristotelian natural philosophy. Astrology was also taught in the natural philosophy course at Bologna, which involved studying the core texts of Aristotelian natural philosophy, including those that provided astrology's natural philosophical foundations. Moreover, reacting partly to Pico's critique and partly to their own experience, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler devoted much of their labors to reforming the astronomical and natural philosophical foundations of astrology in order to improve the system. This chapter describes astrology's place in the work of major figures of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo, Bacon, and Robert Boyle. It finally shows why astrology removed from its central place in the premodern understanding of nature over the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
  • 24 - Astronomy
    pp 562-595
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.025
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the early sixteenth-century university, astronomy was usually taught in two courses. The introductory course was based on the thirteenth-century Sphere of Johannes de Sacrobosco. More advanced instruction usually began with a study of a work called Theorica planetarum, often attributed to Gerard of Cremona. Peurbach, though often regarded as the first Renaissance astronomer, continued to develop the traditions of medieval astronomy. Astrological theory was quite distinct from astronomy, taking the planetary motions as given and considering their supposed effects. When the Mysterium cosmographicum came to Tycho Brahe's attention, he recognized Kepler's brilliance but saw that he needed to learn the discipline of working with good observations. Although the cosmological changes implicit in the works of Galileo and Descartes did not have an immediate effect on planetary theory, they helped inspire a new interest in the stars. This chapter concludes with the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica philosophiae naturalis, which completely changed the way planetary theory was to develop.
  • 25 - Acoustics and Optics
    pp 596-631
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.026
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter describes the major achievements in seventeenth-century acoustics and its relationship to music theory, with particular attention to the problem of consonances. According to the Pythagorean worldview, the essence of musical phenomena, indeed of all cosmological phenomena, consisted of numerical ratios. Vincenzo Galilei had some reasons that made him favor a more empirical approach to the science of music that reflected an approach to music theory more consonant with the Aristoxenian tradition. The development of optics after 1600 was one of dramatic empirical discoveries and theoretical innovations. Johannes Kepler extended the boundaries of prior optical knowledge to effect an optical revolution. The first optical phenomena that seemed prima facie to challenge this principle were the diffraction phenomena investigated by Francesco Maria Grimaldi and published in his Physico-mathesis de lumine, coloribus et iride. The refraction gave rise to the spectrum of colors, and Newton noticed something puzzling about the spectrum.
  • 26 - Mechanics
    pp 632-672
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521572446.027
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter shows that mechanics and natural philosophy differed widely intellectually, institutionally, and socially in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It also examines the impact of the recovery of ancient and medieval learning both in what was understood to belong to mechanics proper and in those portions of natural philosophy dealing with motion. The chapter identifies four main traditions, including pseudo-Aristotle, Archimedes, Alexandria, and the science of weights. The chapter presents the main works by some of the leading figures in the sixteenth century such as Tartaglia and Benedetti, dal Monte, and Stevin. Galileo's main work on motion and mechanics falls into three periods: at Pisa, Padua, and Florence. René Descartes and Isaac Newton implicitly used it with cosmological implications, but the science of waters remained largely a technical matter rooted in Italy. Descartes' work, together with some of Galileo's passages on the constitution of matter and Gassendi's Christianized atomism, constitute the pillars of the so-called mechanical philosophy.

Page 1 of 2


This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.


Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams , “De-Centring the ‘Big Picture’: The Origins of Modern Science and the Modern Origins of Science,” British Journal for the History of Science, 26 (1993)

John Henry , The Scientific Revolution and the Origins of Modern Science (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997)

Jill Kraye , “Philologists and Philosophers,” in The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism, ed. Jill Kraye (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), chap. 8

William R. Newman and Lawrence Principe , “Alchemy versus Chemistry: The Etymological Origins of a Historiographic Mistake,” Early Science and Medicine, 3 (1998)

Margaret J. Osler , “The Canonical Imperative: Rethinking the Scientific Revolution,” in Rethinking the Scientific Revolution, ed. Margaret J. Osler (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Porter and Teich , eds., The Scientific Revolution in National Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Jane E. Ruby , “The Origins of Scientific Law,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 47 (1986)

Eileen Serene , “Demonstrative Science,” in The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy: From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Disintegration of Scholasticism, 1100–1600, ed. Norman Kretzmann , Anthony Kenny , and Jan Pinborg (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982)

Friedrich Steinle , “The Amalgamation of a Concept – Law of Nature in the New Sciences,” in Friedel Weinert , ed., Laws of Nature: Essays on the Philosophical, Scientific, and Historical Dimensions (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1995)

James A. Weisheipl , “The Classification of the Sciences in Medieval Thought,” Mediaeval Studies, 27 (1965)

Richard J. Blackwell in “Christiaan Huygens’s The Motion of Colliding Bodies,” Isis, 68 (1977).

Antonio Clericuzio Elements, Principles, and Corpuscles: A Study of Atomism and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2000).

Daniel Garber Leibniz and the Foundations of Physics: The Middle Years,” in The Natural Philosophy of Leibniz, ed. K. Okruhlik and J. R. Brown (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1985).

Edward Grant Much Ado about Nothing: Theories of Space and Vacuum from the Middle Ages to the Scientific Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), chap. 1.

Grant , “The Condemnation of 1277, God’s Absolute Power, and Physical Thought in the Late Middle Ages,” Viator, 10 (1979).

Paul O. Kristeller The Myth of Renaissance Atheism and the French Tradition of Free Thought,” Journal of the History of Philosophy,” 6 (1968).

Larry Laudan The Clock Metaphor and Hypotheses: The Impact of Descartes on English Methodological Thought, 1650–1670,” in his Science and Hypothesis (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1981).

Thomas M. Lennon The Battle of the Gods and Giants: The Legacies of Descartes and Gassendi, 1655–1715 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993).

Peter Machamer Galileo’s Machines, His Mathematics, and His Experiments,” in The Cambridge Companion to Galileo, ed. Peter Machamer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Christia Mercer Leibniz’s Metaphysics: Its Origins and Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Graham Rees Bacon’s Speculative Philosophy,” in The Cambridge Companion to Bacon, ed. Markku Peltonen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Charles B. Schmitt Experimental Arguments For and Against a Void: The Sixteenth-Century Arguments,” Isis, 58 (1967).

Charles Schmitt Aristotle and the Renaissance (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983)

William R. Shea Galileo’s Atomic Hypothesis,” Ambix, 17 (1970)

William Wallace Traditional Natural Philosophy,” in The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy, ed. Charles B. Schmitt , Quentin Skinner , and Eckhard Kessler with Jill Kraye (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Robert Westman Kepler’s Theory of Hypotheses and the ‘Realist Dilemma’,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 3 (1972).

Robert Westman Nature, Art, and Psyche: Jung, Pauli, and the Kepler-Fludd polemic,” in Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance, ed. Brian Vickers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984)

John Wippel Essence and Existence,” in The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy, ed. Norman Kretzmann , Anthony Kenny , and Jan Pinborg (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).

Niccolò Guicciardini Analysis and Synthesis in Newton’s Mathematical Work,” in The Cambridge Companion to Newton, ed. I. Bernard Cohen and George E. Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Jonathan Lear Aristotle: The Desire to Understand (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

J. E. McGuire Force, Active Principles, and Newton’s Invisible Realm,” Ambix, 15 (1968).

McMullin The Impact of Newton’s Principia on the Philosophy of Science,” Philosophy of Science, 68 (2001).

Margaret J. Osler Divine Will and the Mechanical Philosophy: Gassendi and Descartes on Contingency and Necessity in the Created World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Antonio Pérez-Ramos Bacon’s Forms and the Maker’s Knowledge Tradition,” in The Cambridge Companion to Bacon, ed. Markku Peltonen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Sarah Waterlow Nature, Change, and Agency in Aristotle’s Physics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).

Michael Ben-Chaim , “The Value of Facts in Boyle’s Experimental Philosophy,” History of Science, 38 (2000)

Marie Boas Hall , Promoting Experimental Learning: Experiment and the Royal Society, 1660–1727 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Peter Dear , Discipline and Experience: The Mathematical Way in the Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).

Daniel Garber , “Descartes and Experiment in the Discourse and the Essays,” in Essays on the Philosophy and Science of René Descartes, ed. Stephen Voss (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993)

Zakiya Hanafi , The Monster in the Machine: Magic, Medicine, and the Marvelous in the Time of the Scientific Revolution (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2000).

Nicholas Jardine , “Epistemology of the Sciences,” in The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy, ed. Charles B. Schmitt , Skinner Quentin , and Eckhard Kessler with Jill Kraye (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Alexandre Koyré , “A Documentary History of the Problem of Fall from Kepler to Newton: De motu gravium naturaliter cadentium in hypothesi terrae motae,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s. 45 (1955), pt. 4.

Christian Licoppe , “The Crystallization of a New Narrative Form in Experimental Reports (1660–1690): Experimental Evidence as a Transaction Between Philosophical Knowledge and Aristocratic Power,” Science in Context, 7 (1994).

G. E. R. Lloyd Introduction,” in Hippocratic Writings, ed. G. E. R. Lloyd (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978).

William R. Newman , “Art, Nature, and Experiment among some Aristotelian Alchemists,” in Texts and Contexts in Ancient and Medieval Science: Studies on the Occasion of John E. Murdoch’s Seventieth Birthday, ed. Edith Sylla and Michael McVaugh (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997).

Mary Poovey , A History of the Modern Fact: Problems of Knowledge in the Sciences of Wealth and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), esp. chaps. 1–3

Phillip R. Sloan , “John Locke, John Ray, and the Problem of the Natural System,” Journal of the History of Biology, 5 (1972).

Henry G. Van Leeuwen , The Problem of Certainty in English Thought, 1630–1690 (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1963).

Wear , “Epistemology and Learned Medicine in Early Modern England,” in Knowledge and the Scholarly Medical Traditions, ed. Don Bates (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Rudolf Agricola De inventione dialectica libri tres / Drei Bücher über die Inventio dialectica: Auf der Grundlage der Edition von Alardus von Amsterdam [1539], ed. Mundt Lothar (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1992).

Bacon , The New Organon, trans. Michael Silverthorne , ed. Lisa Jardine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Peter Barker and Bernard R. Goldstein , “Is Seventeenth-Century Physics Indebted to the Stoics?” Centaurus, 27 (1984).

Quirinus Breen , “The Terms ‘loci communes’ and ‘loci’ in Melanchthon,” Church History, 16 (1947).

John C. Briggs Francis Bacon and the Rhetoric of Nature (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989).

Barry Brundell Pierre Gassendi: From Aristotelianism to a New Natural Philosophy (Synthèse Historical Library: Texts and Studies in the History of Logic and Philosophy, 30) (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1987.)

Samuel Butler Prose Observations, ed. Hugh Quehen (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979).

Harry Caplan and H. H. King , “Latin Tractates on Preaching: A Booklist,” Harvard Theological Review, 42 (1949).

Abraham Cowley A Proposition for the Advancement of Experimental Philosophy (London: Printed by J. M. for Henry Herringman, 1661.

Virginia Cox The Renaissance Dialogue: Literary Dialogue in Its Social and Political Contexts, Castiglione to Galileo (Cambridge Studies in Renaissance Literature and Culture, 2) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Catherine Crawford Legalizing Medicine: Early Modern Legal Systems and the Growth of Medico-Legal Knowledge,” in Legal Medicine in History, ed. Catherine Crawford and Michael Clark (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Lorraine Daston The Doctrine of Chances without Chance: Determinism, Mathematical Probability, and Quantification in the Seventeenth Century,” in The Invention of Physical Science: Intersections of Mathematics, Theology and Natural Philosophy Since the Seventeenth Century: Essays in Honor of Erwin N. Hiebert, ed. Mary Jo Nye , Joan L. Richards , and Roger H. Stuewer (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 139) (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1992).

Lorraine Daston The Moral Economy of Science,” Osiris, 10 (1995).

Edward B. Davis ‘Parcere nominibus’: Boyle, Hooke and the Rhetorical Interpretation of Descartes,” in Robert Boyle Reconsidered, ed. Michael Hunter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Peter Dear From Truth to Disinterestedness in the Seventeenth Century,” Social Studies of Science, 22 (1992).

Peter Dear ed., The Literary Structure of Scientific Argument: Historical Studies (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991).

René Descartes Discourse on the Method,” trans. John Cottingham , Robert Stoothoff , and Dugald Murdoch , in The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, 3 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985–91).

Wolfgang Detel Scientia rerum natura occultarum: Methodologische Studien zur Physik Pierre Gassendis (Quellen und Studien zur Philosophie, 14) (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1978).

Alberto Elena Baconianism in the Seventeenth-Century Netherlands: A Preliminary Survey,” Nuncius, 6 (1991).

Giovanna Ferrari Public Anatomy Lessons and the Carnival: The Anatomy Theatre of Bologna,” Past and Present, 117 (1987).

Maurice A. Finocchiaro Galileo and the Art of Reasoning: Rhetorical Foundations of Logic and Scientific Method (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 61) (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980).

Daniel Garber and Sandy Zabell , “On the Emergence of Probability,” Archive for the History of Exact Science, 21 (1979).

John Gascoigne The Universities and the Scientific Revolution: The Case of Newton and Restoration Cambridge,” History of Science, 23 (1985).

Anthony Grafton Jean Hardouin: The Antiquary as Pariah,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 62 (1999).

Ian Hacking The Taming of Chance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

David Harley Rhetoric and the Social Construction of Sickness and Healing,” Social History of Medicine, 12 (1999).

Henderson , “On Reading the Rhetoric of the Renaissance Letter,” in Renaissance-Rhetorik, ed. Heinrich F. Plett (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1993).

Lisa Jardine Distinctive Discipline: Rudolph Agricola’s Influence on Methodical Thinking in the Humanities,” in Rodolphus Agricola Phrisius (1444–1485): Proceedings of the International Conference at the University of Groningen, 28–30 October 1985, ed. F. Akkerman and A. J. Vanderjagt (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1988).

Lisa Jardine Lorenzo Valla and the Intellectual Origins of Humanist Dialectic,” Journal of the History of Philosophy, 15 (1977).

Nicholas Jardine Demonstration, Dialectic, and Rhetoric in Galileo’s Dialogue,” in The Shapes of Knowledge from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment, ed. R. Kelley Donald and H. Popkin Richard (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991).

Nicholas Jardine Galileo’s Road to Truth and the Demonstrative Regress,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 7 (1976).

Nicholas Jardine The Places of Astronomy in Early Modern Culture,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, 29 (1998).

E. Jennifer Ashworth Historical Introduction,” in Language and Logic in the Post-Medieval Period (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1974).

Robert Kargon Expert Testimony in Historical Perspective,” Law and Human Behaviour, 10 (1986).

Thomas Kuhn Mathematical versus Experimental Traditions in the Development of Physical Science,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 7 (1976).

Sachiko Kusukawa The Historia piscium (1686),” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 54 (2000).

John Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding [1690], ed. Peter H. Nidditch (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975).

John Locke Some Thoughts Concerning Education, ed. John W. Yolton and Jean S. Yolton (The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989).

Ian Maclean Evidence, Logic, the Rule and the Exception in Renaissance Law and Medicine,” Early Science and Medicine, 5 (2000).

Ian Maclean Montaigne philosophe (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1996).

Paolo Mancosu Aristotelian Logic and Euclidean Mathematics: Seventeenth-Century Developments of the Quaestio de certitudine mathematicarum,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 23 (1992).

John Monfasani Lorenzo Valla and Rudolph Agricola,” Journal of the History of Philosophy, 28 (1990).

Ann Moss Printed Commonplace-Books and the Structuring of Renaissance Thought (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996).

K. Neal The Rhetoric of Utility: Avoiding Occult Associations for Mathematics through Profitability and Pleasure,” History of Science, 37 (1999).

Gerhard Oestreich Neostoicism and the Early Modern State, ed. Brigitta Oestreich and H. G. Koenigsberger , trans. David McLintock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).

D. R. Oldroyd Robert Hooke’s Methodology of Science as Exemplified in his ‘Discourse of Earthquakes’,” British Journal for the History of Science, 6 (1972).

Oldroyd , “Some ‘Philosophical Scribbles’ Attributed to Robert Hooke,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 35 (1980).

Margaret J. Osler , ed., Atoms, Pneuma, and Tranquillity: Epicurean and Stoic Themes in European Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Margaret J. Osler John Locke and the Changing Ideal of Scientific Knowledge,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 31 (1970).

Pérez-Ramos , “Bacon’s Legacy,” in The Cambridge Companion to Bacon, ed. Markku Peltonen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Reif , “The Textbook Tradition in Natural Philosophy, 1600–1650,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 30 (1969).

John Schuster and R. Yeo Richard , eds., The Politics and Rhetoric of Scientific Method: Historical Studies (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1986).

Jerrold E. Seigel Rhetoric and Philosophy in Renaissance Humanism: The Union of Eloquence and Wisdom, Petrarch to Valla (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1968).

R. W. Serjeantson Testimony and Proof in Early-Modern England,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 30 (1999).

Quentin Skinner Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Alvin Snider Francis Bacon and the Authority of Aphorism,” Prose Studies: History, Theory, Criticism, 11 (1988).

James Stephens Science and the Aphorism: Bacon’s Theory of the Philosophical Style,” Speech Monographs, 37 (1970).

Benoît Timmermans The Originality of Descartes’s Conception of Analysis as Discovery,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 60 (1999).

Richard Tuck The ‘modern’ Theory of Natural Law,” in The Languages of Political Theory in Early-Modern Europe, ed. Anthony Pagden (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

Tabitta van Nouhuys The Age of Two-Faced Janus: The Comets of 1577 and 1618 and the Decline of the Aristotelian World View in the Netherlands (Brill’s Studies in Intellectual History, 89) (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1998).

Ben Vermeulen Simon Stevin and the Geometrical method in De jure praedae,” Grotiana, n.s. 4 (1983).

Brian Vickers In Defence of Rhetoric, rev. ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989).

Michael Wintroub The Looking Glass of Facts: Collecting, Rhetoric and Citing the Self in the Experimental Natural Philosophy of Robert Boyle,” History of Science, 35 (1997).

Ronald Witt Medieval ars dictaminis and the Beginnings of Humanism: A New Construction of the Problem,” Renaissance Quarterly, 35 (1982).

Paul B. Wood Methodology and Apologetics: Thomas Sprat’s History of the Royal Society,” British Journal for the History of Science, 13 (1980).

Zappen , “Francis Bacon and the Historiography of Scientific Rhetoric,” Rhetoric Review, 8 (1989).

Amir Alexander The Imperialist Space of Elizabethan Mathematics,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 26 (1995)

Paul J. Bagley On the Practice of Esotericism,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 53 (1992)

Mario Biagioli Le prince et les savants: La civilité scientifique au 17e siècle,” Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 50 (1995)

Harold Fisch The Scientist as Priest: A Note on Robert Boyle’s Natural Theology,” Isis, 44 (1953)

Carlo Ginzburg High and Low: The Theme of Forbidden Knowledge in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” Past and Present, 73 (1976).

Dena Goodman Enlightenment Salons: The Convergence of Female and Philosophie Ambitions,” Eighteenth-Century Studies, 22 (1989).

Owen Hannaway Laboratory Design and the Aim of Science: Andreas Libavius versus Tycho Brahe,” Isis, 77 (1986)

Katherine Hill ‘Juglers or Schollers?’: Negotiating the Role of a Mathematical Practitioner,” British Journal for the History of Science, 31 (1998).

James R. Jacob Henry Stubbe, Radical Protestantism and the Early Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), esp. chap. 5.

Knowles Middleton Science in Rome, 1675–1700, and the Accademia Fisicomathematica of Giovanni Giustino Ciampiani,” British Journal for the History of Science, 8 (1975)

Roy Porter Gentlemen and Geology: The Emergence of a Scientific Career, 1660–1920,” The Historical Journal, 21 (1978).

Stephen Pumfrey Ideas above His Station: A Social Study of Hooke’s Curatorship of Experiments,” History of Science, 29 (1991)

Ayval Ramati Harmony at a Distance: Leibniz’s Scientific Academies,” Isis, 87 (1996).

Simon Schaffer Godly Men and Mechanical Philosophers: Souls and Spirits in Restoration Natural Philosophy,” Science in Context, 1 (1987).

Steven Shapin ‘A Scholar and a Gentleman’: The Problematic Identity of the Scientific Practitioner in Early Modern England,” History of Science, 29 (1991)

Michael R. G. Spiller “Concerning Natural Experimental Philosophie”: Meric Casaubon and the Royal Society (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1980)

Alice N. Walters Conversation Pieces: Science and Politeness in Eighteenth-Century England,” History of Science, 35 (1997)

Edgar Zilsel The Sociological Roots of Science,” American Journal of Sociology, 47 (1942)

Harold Cook The New Philosophy in the Low Countries,” in The Scientific Revolution in National Context, ed. Roy Porter and Mikuláš Teich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Paula Findlen Science as a Career in Enlightenment Italy: The Strategies of Laura Bassi,” Isis, 84 (1993)

Joan Mason The Admission of the First Women to the Royal Society of London,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 46 (1992).

Margaret Rossiter ‘Women’s Work’ in Science, 1880–1910,Isis, 71 (1980)

Emma C. Spary Utopia’s Garden: French National History from the Old Regime to Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000)

Terrall Gendered Spaces, Gendered Audiences: Inside and Outside the Paris Academy of Sciences,” Configurations, 3 (1995).

Mary Terrall Emilie du Châtelet and the Gendering of Science,” History of Science, 33 (1995)

Jole Agrimi and Chiara Crisciani Savoir médical et anthropologie religieuse: Les représentations et les fonctions de la vetula (XIIIe–XVe siècle),” Annales: Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations, 48 (1993).

William Brockbank Sovereign Remedies: A Critical Depreciation of the London Pharmacopoeia,” Medical History, 8 (1964).

Harold J. Cook Good Advice and Little Medicine: The Professional Authority of Early Modern Physicians,” Journal of British Studies, 33 (1994)

Lorraine Daston Marvelous Facts and Miraculous Evidence in Early Modern Europe,” Critical Inquiry, 18 (1991).

William Eamon New Light on Robert Boyle and the Discovery of Colour Indicators,” Ambix, 27 (1980).

David Gentilcore ‘Charlatans, Mountebanks, and Other Similar People’: The Regulation and Role of Itinerant Practitioners in Early Modern Italy,” Social History, 20 (1995).

Roger King Curing Toothache on the Stage? The Importance of Reading Pictures in Context,” History of Science, 33 (1995).

Reginald Lennard English Agriculture under Charles II: The Evidence of the Royal Society’s ‘Enquiries’,” Economic History Review, 4 (1932).

Kathleen H. Ochs The Royal Society of London’s History of Trades Programme: An Early Episode in Applied Science,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 39 (1985).

Katharine Park The Criminal and the Saintly Body: Autopsy and Dissection in Renaissance Italy,” Renaissance Quarterly, 47 (1994).

Zambelli , ed., ‘Astrologi hallucinati’: Stars and the End of the World in Luther’s Time (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1986).

Edgar Zilsel The Origins of William Gilbert’s Scientific Method,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 2 (1941).

Michael Anderson Approaches to the History of the Western Family, 1500–1914 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980).

Alix Cooper ‘The Possibilities of the Land’: The Inventory of ‘Natural Riches’ in the Early Modern German Territories,” in Oeconomies in the Age of Newton, ed. Margaret Schabas and Neil DeMarchi (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2003).

Deborah Harkness Managing an Experimental Household: The Dees of Mortlake and the Practice of Natural Philosophy,” Isis, 88 (1997).

Olwen Hufton Women Without Men: Widows and Spinsters in Britain and France in the Eighteenth Century,” Journal of Family History, 9 (1984).

Ann Kussmaul Servants in Husbandry in Early Modern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

A. A. MacDonald The Renaissance Household as Centre of Learning,” in Centres of Learning: Learning and Location in Pre-Modern Europe and the Near East, ed. Jan Willem Drijvers and A. A. MacDonald (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995).

Marjorie McIntosh Servants and the Household Unit in an Elizabethan English Community,” Journal of Family History, 9 (1984).

James A. Secord Newton in the Nursery: Tom Telescope and the Philosophy of Tops and Balls,” History of Science, 23 (1985).

Steven Shapin The House of Experiment in Seventeenth-Century England,” Isis, 79 (1988).

Pamela H. Smith The Body of the Artisan: Art and Experience in the Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004).

Keith Tribe Cameralism and the Science of Government,” Journal of Modern History, 56 (1984).

Deborah Harkness John Dee’s Conversations with Angels: Cabala, Alchemy, and the End of Nature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Kristine Haugen A French Jesuit’s Lectures on Vergil, 1582–1583: Jacques Sirmond between Literature, History, and Myth,” Sixteenth Century Journal, 30 (1999).

Gregory Lyon Baudouin, Flacius and the Plan for the Magdeburg Centuries,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 64 (2003).

Hans Aarsleff The Berlin Academy under Frederick the Great,” History of the Human Sciences, 2 (1989).

Stephen Bamforth Paracelsisme et médecine chimique à la cour de Louis XIII,” in Paracelsus und seine internationale Rezeption in der Frühen Neuzeit, ed. Heinz Schott and Ilana Zinguer (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1998).

Mario Biagioli Scientific Revolution, Social Bricolage, and Etiquette,” in The Scientific Revolution in National Context, ed. Roy Porter and Mikulas Teich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992)

Ronald S. Calinger Frederick the Great and the Berlin Academy of Sciences (1740–1766),” Annals of Science, 24 (1968)

Hilary M. Carey Courting Disaster: Astrology and the English Court and University in the Later Middle Ages (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992).

Paula Findlen Controlling the Experiment: Rhetoric, Court Patronage, and the Experimental Method of Francesco Redi,” History of Science, 31 (1993).

Galileo Galilei Sidereus Nuncius, or The Sidereal Messenger (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989).

Owen Gingerich and Robert Westman , The Wittich Connection: Conflict and Priority in Late Sixteenth-Century Cosmology (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 78, p. 7) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988).

Bernard R. Goldstein and Peter Barker , “The Role of Rothmann in the Dissolution of the Celestial Spheres,” British Journal for the History of Science, 28 (1995).

Jan V. Golinski A Noble Spectacle: Phosphorus and the Public Cultures of Science in the Early Royal Society,” Isis, 80 (1989)

Adolf Harnack Geschichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (Berlin, 1900; repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1970)

Pearl Kibre The Intellectual Interests Reflected in Libraries of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 7 (1946)

Bruce T. Moran German Prince-Practitioners: Aspects in the Development of Courtly Science, Technology, and Procedures in the Renaissance,” Technology and Culture, 22 (1981).

William Newman Technology and Alchemical Debate in the Late Middle Ages,” Isis, 80 (1989).

Stephen Pumfrey and Frances Dawbarn , “Science and Patronage in England, 1570-1625: A Preliminary Study,” History of Science, 42 (2004).

Sarasohn , “Thomas Hobbes and the Duke of Newcastle: A Study in the Mutuality of Patronage before the Establishment of the Royal Society,” Isis, 90 (1999).

Jole Shackelford Documenting the Factual and the Artifactual: Ole Worm and Public Knowledge,” Endeavour, 23 (1999).

Shackelford , “Early Reception of Paracelsian Theory: Severinus and Erastus,” Sixteenth Century Journal, 26 (1995)

Otto Sonntag Albrecht von Haller on Academies and the Advancement of Science: The Case of Göttingen,” Annals of Science, 32 (1975).

Jay Tribby Cooking (with) Clio and Cleo: Eloquence and Experiment in Seventeenth Century Florence,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 52 (1991).

Karl H. Dannenfeldt Leonhard Rauwolf: Sixteenth-Century Physician, Botanist, and Traveler (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968)

Vivian Nutton The Rise of Medical Humanism: Ferrara, 1464–1555,” Renaissance Studies, 11 (1997).

Jan C. C. Rupp Matters of Life and Death: The Social and Cultural Conditions of the Rise of Anatomical Theatres, with Special Reference to Seventeenth Century Holland,” History of Science, 28 (1990).

Jan C. C. Rupp Michel Foucault, Body Politics and the Rise and Expansion of Modern Anatomy,” Journal of Historical Sociology, 5 (1992).

Nancy Siraisi Vesalius and Human Diversity in ‘De humani corporis fabrica,’” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 57 (1994).

Else M. Terwen-Dionisius Date and Design of the Botanical Garden of Padua,” Journal of Garden History, 14 (1994).

E. Ashworth Underwood The Early Teaching of Anatomy at Padua, with Special Reference to a Model of the Padua Anatomical Theatre,” Annals of Science, 19 (1963).

Andrew Wear William Harvey and the ‘Way of Anatomists,’” History of Science, 21 (1983).

Peter Dear Narratives, Anecdotes, and Experiments: Turning Experience into Science in the Seventeenth Century,” in The Literary Structure of a Scientific Argument: Historical Studies, ed. Peter Dear (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991).

Ursula Klein Verbindung und Affinität: Die Grundlegung der neuzeitlichen chemie an der Wende vom 17. zum 18. Jahrhundert (Basel: Birkhauser, 1994).

Pamela O. Long Power, Patronage, and the Authorship of Ars,Isis, 88 (1997)

Newman , The “Aumma Perfectionis,” and William R. Newan and Lawrence M. Principe , Alchemy Tried in the Fire: Starkey, Boyle, and the Fate of Helmontian chymistry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002)

Simon Schaffer Natural Philosophy and Public Spectacle in the Eighteenth Century,History of Science, 21 (1983).

Steven Shapin Pump and Circumstance: Robert Boyle’s Literary Technology,Social Studies of Science, 14 (1984).

Smith , “Vital Spirits: Alchemy, Redemption, and Artisanship in Early Modern Europe,” in Rethinking the Scientific Revolution, ed. Margaret J. Osler (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

R. W. Soukup S. von Osten , and H. Mayer , “Alembics, Curcurbits, Phials, Crucibles: A 16th-Century Dicimastic Laboratory Excavated in Austria,Ambix, 40 (1993)

Ben Cassidy Machiavelli and the Ideology of the Offensive: Gunpowder Weapons in The Art of War,” Journal of Military History, 67 (2003).

Kelly DeVries Debate – Catapults Are Not Atomic Bombs: Towards a Redefinition of ‘Effectiveness’ in Premodern Military Technology,” War in History, 4 (1997)

DeVries , “Gunpowder Weaponry and the Rise of the Early Modern State,” War in History, 5 (1998)

Alan R. Williams The Production of Saltpetre in the Middle Ages,” Ambix, 22 (1975).

I.Bernard Cohen Introduction to Newton’s Principia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971).

J. Gascoigne Mathematics and Meritocracy: The Emergence of the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos”, Social Studies of Science, 14 (1984).

Craig E. Harline Pamphlets, Printing, and Political Culture in the Early Dutch Republic (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987).

John Henry The Origins of Modern Science: Henry Oldenburg’s Contribution”, British Journal for the History of Science, 21 (1988).

P. G. Hoftijzer ‘A Sickle unto thy Neighbour’s Corn’: Book Piracy in the Dutch Republic”, Quaerendo, 27 (1997).

Michael Hunter and P. B. Wood , “Towards Solomon’s House: Rival Strategies for Reforming the Early Royal Society”, History of Science, 24 (1986).

Rob C. Iliffe ‘In the Warehouse’: Privacy, Property and Priority in the Early Royal Society”, History of Science, 30 (1992).

Rob Iliffe Material Doubts: Hooke, Artisan Culture and the Exchange of Information in 1670s London”, British Journal for the History of Science, 28 (1995).

Adrian Johns Miscellaneous Methods: Authors, Societies and Journals in Early Modern England”, British Journal for the History of Science, 33 (2000).

S. Johnston Mathematical Practitioners and Instruments in Elizabethan England”, Annals of Science, 48 (1991).

A. N. L. Munby The Distribution of the first edition of Newton’s Principia”, Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 10 (1952).

Steven Pincus ‘Coffee Politicians Does Create’: Coffeehouses and Restoration Political Culture”, Journal of Modern History, 67 (1995).

Alfred Rupert Hall Philosophers at War: The Quarrel Between Newton and Leibniz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).

J. H. Scott The Rapture of Motion: James Harrington’s Republicanism”, in Political Discourse in Early Modern Britain, ed. Nicholas Phillipson and Quentin Skinner (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

James Sutherland The Restoration Newspaper and its Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

Martha Baldwin , “The Snakestone Experiments: An Early Modern Medical Debate,” Isis, 86 (1995).

Biagioli , “Galileo the Emblem Maker,” Isis, 81 (1990).

Lorraine Daston , “The Ideal and the Reality of the Republic of Letters in the Enlightenment,” Science in Context, 4 (1991)

John E. Fletcher , “A Brief Survey of the Unpublished Correspondence of Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680),” Manuscripta, 13 (1969)

Fletcher , “Astronomy in the Life and Correspondence of Athanasius Kircher,” Isis, 61 (1970)

Steven J. Harris , “Long-Distance Corporations, Big Sciences, and the Geography of Knowledge,” Configurations, 6 (1998).

Steven J. Harris , “Transposing the Merton Thesis: Apostolic Spirituality and the Establishment of the Jesuit Scientific Tradition,” Science in Context, 3 (1989)

John L. Heilbron , “Science in the Church,” Science in Context, 3 (1989)

Derek Howse , “The Greenwich List of Observatories: A World List of Astronomical Observatories, Instruments, and Clocks, 1670–1850,” Journal of the History of Astronomy, 25 (1994)

Michael Hunter , “Promoting the New Science: Henry Oldenburg and the Early Royal Society,” History of Science, 26 (1988).

J. R. S. Phillips , The Medieval Expansion of Europe, 2nd ed., (New York: Clarendon Press, 1998).

Steven Shapin , “Here and Everywhere: Sociology of Scientific Knowledge,” Annual Review of Sociology, 21 (1995).

Edward L. Stevenson , “The Geographical Activities of the Casa de la Contratacíon,Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 17 (1927).

Roger Ariew Descartes’ Meditations: Background Source Materials, Roger Ariew , John Cottingham , and Tom Sorell ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

Roger Ariew and Marjorie Grene , “The Cartesian Destiny of Form and Matter,” Early Science and Medicine, 2 (1997).

Roger Ariew Descartes and Scholasticism: The Intellectual Background to Descartes’ Thought,” in The Cambridge Companion to Descartes, ed. John Cottingham (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992)

Roger Ariew Galileo’s Lunar Observations in the Context of Medieval Lunar Theory,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 15 (1984)

Ann Blair Authorship in the Popular ‘Problemata Aristotelis,’” Early Science and Medicine, 4 (1999)

Ann Blair Mosaic Physics and the Search for a Pious Natural Philosophy in the Late Renaissance,” Isis, 91 (2000)

Ann Blair Tycho Brahe’s Critique of Copernicus and the Copernican System,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 51 (1990)

Robin Briggs The Académie Royale des Sciences and the Pursuit of Utility,” Past and Present, 131 (1991).

Brian Copenhaver Symphorien Champier and the Reception of the Occultist Tradition in Renaissance France (The Hague: Mouton, 1978).

Andrew Cunningham How the Principia Got Its Name; or, Taking Natural Philosophy Seriously,” History of Science, 29 (1991).

Brendan Dooley Social Control and the Italian Universities: From Renaissance to Illuminismo,” Journal of Modern History, 61 (1989)

Noah Efron Irenism and Natural Philosophy in Rudolfine Prague: The Case of David Gans,” Science in Context, 10 (1997)

Rivka Feldhay Knowledge and Salvation in Jesuit Culture,” Science in Context, 1 (1987)

Luigi Firpo The Flowering and Withering of Speculative Philosophy – Italian Philosophy and the Counter Reformation: The Condemnation of Francesco Patrizi,” in The Late Italian Renaissance, 1525–1630, ed. Eric Cochrane (London: Macmillan, 1970)

James E. Force and Richard Popkin , eds., Essays on the Context, Nature, and Influence of Isaac Newton’s Theology (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990).

Joseph Freedman The Diffusion of the Writings of Petrus Ramus in Central Europe, c. 1570–1630,” Renaissance Quarterly, 46 (1993)

Daniel Garber Defending Aristotle/Defending Society in Early Seventeenth-Century Paris,” in Wissenideale and Wissenkulturen in der Frühen Neuzeit, ed. Claus Zittel and Wolfgang Detel (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 2002)

Edward Grant Aristotelianism and the Longevity of the Medieval World View,” History of Science, 16 (1978)

Edward Grant Ways to Interpret the Terms ‘Aristotelian’ and ‘Aristotelianism’ in Medieval and Renaissance Natural Philosophy,” History of Science, 25 (1987)

Henry Guerlac Amicus Plato and Other Friends,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 39 (1978)

Steven J. Harris Confession-Building, Long-Distance Networks, and the Organization of Jesuit Science,” Early Science and Medicine, 1 (1996)

Howard Hotson Johann Heinrich Alsted (1588–1638): Between Renaissance, Reformation, and Universal Reform (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000).

Michael Hunter and David Wootton , eds., Atheism from the Reformation to the Enlightenment (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).

Betty Jo Dobbs Newton as Final Cause and First Mover,” Isis, 85 (1994).

Charles Lohr Renaissance Latin Aristotle Commentaries: Authors A–B,” Studies in the Renaissance, 21 (1974)

Charles Lohr Renaissance Latin Aristotle Commentaries: Authors A–B,” and its sequels in Renaissance Quarterly, 28 (1975)

Ian Maclean The Interpretation of Natural Signs: Cardano’s De Subtilitate vs. Scaliger’s Exercitationes,” in Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance, ed. Brian Vickers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984)

José R. Maia Neto Academic Skepticism in Early Modern Philosophy,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 58 (1997)

Julian Martin Francis Bacon, the State, and the Reform of Natural Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Christoph Meinel Early Seventeenth-Century Atomism: Theory, Epistemology, and the Insufficiency of Experiment,” Isis, 79 (1988).

Martin Mulsow Frühneuzeitliche Selbsterhaltung: Telesio und die Naturphilosophie der Renaissance (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1998).

Sydney Ross Scientist: The Story of a Word,” Annals of Science, 18 (1962)

Simon Schaffer Scientific Discoveries and the End of Natural Philosophy,” Social Studies of Science, 16 (1986)

Ellery Schalk From Valor to Pedigree: Ideas of Nobility in France in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986), chap. 8.

Charles B. Schmitt Aristotle as a Cuttlefish: The Origin and Development of a Renaissance Image,” Studies in the Renaissance, 12 (1965)

Charles B. Schmitt Perennial Philosophy: From Agostino Steuco to Leibniz,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 27 (1966)

Heinz Schott and Ilana Zinguer , eds., Paracelsus und seine internationale Rezeption in der Frühen Neuzeit: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Paracelsismus (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1998).

Nancy G. Siraisi The Clock and the Mirror: Girolamo Cardano and Renaissance Medicine (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997).

Nancy Siraisi Avicenna in Renaissance Italy: The Canon and Medical Teaching in Italian Universities after 1500 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987)

J. M. M. H. Thijssen What Really Happened on 7 March 1277? Bishop Tempier’s Condemnation and Its Institutional Context,” in Texts and Contexts in Ancient and Medieval Science: Studies on the Occasion of John E. Murdoch’s Seventieth Birthday, ed. Edith Sylla and Michael McVaugh (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997)

Robert Westman The Melanchthon Circle, Rheticus, and the Wittenberg Interpretation of the Copernican Theory,” Isis, 66 (1975)

P. J. S. Whitmore The Order of Minims in 17th-Century France (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1967)

Jan Wojcik Robert Boyle and the Limits of Reason (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)

Jean Bernhardt Le rôle des conceptions d’Isaac Beeckman dans la formation de Thomas Hobbes et dans l’élaboration de son ‘Short Tract,”’ Revue d’histoire des sciences, 40 (1987)

James J. Bono Reform and the Languages of Renaissance Theoretical Medicine: Harvey Versus Fernel,” Journal of the History of Biology, 23 (1990).

Harold J. Cook Policing the Health of London: The College of Physicians and the Early Stuart Monarchy,” Social History of Medicine, 2 (1989)

R. J. Durling A Chronological Census of Renaissance Editions and Translations of Galen,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 24 (1961)

Mary C. Erler The First English Printing of Galen: The Formation of the Company of Barber-Surgeons,” Huntington Library Quarterly, 48 (1985)

Clifford M. Foust Rhubarb: The Wondrous Drug (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992).

Roger French William Harvey’s Natural Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)

Thomas S. Hall Descartes’ Physiological Method: Position, Principle, Examples,Journal of the History of Biology, 3 (1970).

Glenn Harcourt Andreas Vesalius and the Anatomy of Antique Sculpture,” Representations, 17 (1987)

Gary Hatfield Descartes’ Physiology and its Relation to his Psychology,” in The Cambridge Companion to Descartes, ed. John Cottingham (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992)

Howard , “Medical Politics and the Founding of the Jardin des Plantes in Paris,” Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 9 (1980)

Rio Howard Guy de La Brosse: Botanique et chimie au début de la Révolution Scientifique,” Revue d’histoire des sciences, 31 (1978)

H. H. Kubbinga Les premières théories ‘moléculaires’: Isaac Beeckman (1620) et Sébastien Basson (1621): Le concept d’ ‘individu substantiel’ et d’ ’espèce substantielle,’” Revue d’histoire des sciences, 37 (1984)

G. A. Lindeboom Florentius Schuyl (1619–1669) en zijn betekenis voor het Cartesianisme in de geneeskunde (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974).

Frank B. Livingstone On the Origin of Syphilis: An Alternative Hypothesis,” Current Anthropology, 32 (1991)

Bertoloni Meli Shadows and Deception: From Borelli’s Theoricae to the Saggi of the Cimento,” British Journal for the History of Science, 31 (1998)

Guy Meynell Locke, Boyle and Peter Stahl,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 49 (1995)

Katharine Park Doctors and Medicine in Early Renaissance Florence (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985)

Charles Webster Water as the Ultimate Principle in Nature: The Background to Boyle’s Skeptical Chymist,” Ambix, 13 (1966).

John P. Wright Locke, Willis, and the Seventeenth-Century Epicurean Soul,” in Atoms, Pneuma, and Tranquillity: Epicurean and Stoic Themes in European Thought, ed. Margaret J. Osler (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991)

Perez Zagorin Hobbes’s Early Philosophical Development,Journal of the History of Ideas, 54 (1993).

Ann Blair Humanist Methods in Natural Philosophy: The Commonplace Book,Journal of the History of Ideas, 53 (1992).

Daniel Carey Compiling Nature’s History: Travellers and Travel Narratives in the Early Royal Society,” Annals of Science, 54 (1997).

Alix Cooper The Museum and the Book: The Metallotheca and the History of an Encyclopaedic Natural History in Early Modern Italy,” Journal of the History of Collections, 7 (1995).

Martin Davies Making Sense of Pliny in the Quattrocento,” Renaissance Studies, 9 (1995).

Udo Friedrich Naturgeschichte zwischen artes liberales und frühneuzeitlicher Wissenschaft: Conrad Gesners “Historia animalium” und ihre volkssprachliche Rezeption (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1995).

Wilma George Sources and Background to Discoveries of New Animals in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” History of Science, 18 (1980).

Anthony Grafton , “Rhetoric, Philology and Egyptomania in the 1570s: J. J. Scaliger’s Invective Against M. Guilandinus’s Papyrus,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 42 (1979).

Stephen Greenblatt Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

Stephen Jay Gould Leonardo’s Mountain of Clams and the Diet of Worms (New York: Harmony, 1998).

José M. López Piñero The Pomar Codex (ca. 1590): Plants and Animals of the Old World and from the Hernández Expedition to America,” Nuncius, 7 (1992).

John Monfasani The First Call for Press Censorship: Nicolò Perotti, Giovanni Andrea Bussi, Antonio Moreto, and the Editing of Pliny’s Natural History,” Renaissance Quarterly, 41 (1988).

Vivian Nutton Conrad Gesner and the English Naturalists,Medical History, 29 (1985).

Brian Ogilvie Image and Text in Natural History, 1500–1700,” in The Power of Images in Early Modern Science, ed. Wolfgang Lefèvre , Jürgen Renn , and Urs Schöpflin (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2003).

Clara Pinto Correia The Ovary of Eve: Egg and Sperm and Preformation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).

Karen Reeds Renaissance Humanism and Botony,” Annals of Science, 33 (1976).

Steven Shapin The Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

Barbara Shapiro The Concept ‘Fact’: Legal Origins and Cultural Diffusion,” Albion, 26 (1994).

Simon Varey and Rafael Chabráu , “Medical Natural History in the Renaissance: The Strange Case of Francisco Hernández,” Huntington Library Quarterly, 57 (1994).

Hans Wellisch Conrad Gesner: A Bio-Bibliography,Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 7 (1975).

Richard White Discovering Nature in North America,” Journal of American History, 79 (1992).

Peter Apain , Cosmographicus liber a Petro Apiano mathematico studiose collecuts (Landshut: Johann Weiβenburger, 1524).

Hans Baron The Querelle of the Ancients and the Moderns as a Problem for Present Renaissance Scholarship,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 20 (1959)

Nicholas Copernicus Nicolai Copernici Torinensis De revolutionibus orbium coelestium libri VI (Nürnberg: Io. Petreius, 1543).

Reijer Hooykaas The Rise of Modern Science: When and Why?,” British Journal for the History of Science, 20 (1987).

Ernest A. Moody John Buridan on the Habitability of the Earth,” Speculum, 16 (1941)

William G. L. Randles Classical Models of World Geography and Their Transformation Following the Discovery of America,” in The Classical Tradition and the Americas, ed. Wolfgang Haase and Meyer Reinhold (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1994)

Allen G. Debus , “The Paracelsian Aerial Nitre,” Isis, 55 (1964).

Guerlac , “The Poet’s Nitre,” Isis, 45 (1954).

Rudolf Hirsch , “The Invention of Printing and the Diffusion of Alchemical and Chemical Knowledge,” Chymia, 3 (1950).

Sylvain Matton , “L’interprétation alchimique de la mythologie,” Dix-huitième siècle, 27 (1995).

Stephen Moorhouse , “Medieval Distilling-Apparatus of Glass and Pottery,” Medieval Archaeology, 16 (1972)

William R. Newman , “Newton’s Clavis as Starkey’s Key,” Isis, 78 (1987).

William R. Newman , “The Alchemical Sources of Robert Boyle’s Corpuscular Philosophy,” Annals of Science, 53 (1996)

William R. Newman , “The Background to Newton’s Chymistry,” in The Cambridge Companion to Newton, ed. I. Bernard Cohen and George Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

William R. Newman , Promethean Ambitions: Alchemy and the Quest to Perfect Nature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004).

Newman , “Alchemy, Domination, and Gender,” in A House Built on Sand, ed. Noretta Koertge (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Newman , “Corpuscular Alchemy and the Tradition of Aristotle’s Meteorology, with Special Reference to Daniel Sennert,” International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 15 (2001).

T. S. Patterson Jean Beguin and His Tyrocinium chymicum,” Annals of Science, 2 (1937).

Principe , “Boyle’s Alchemical Pursuits,” in Robert Boyle Reconsidered, ed. Michael Hunter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Copenhaver , “A Tale of Two Fishes: Magical Objects in Natural History from Antiquity through the Scientific Revolution,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 52 (1991).

Copenhaver , “Did Science Have a Renaissance?,” Isis, 83 (1992)

Copenhaver , “Scholastic Philosophy and Renaissance Magic in the De vita of Marsilio Ficino,” Renaissance Quarterly, 37 (1984)

Copenhaver , “The Secret of Pico’s Oration: Cabala and Renaissance Philosophy,” Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 26 (2002)

David Freedberg The Eye of the Lynx: Galileo, His Friends, and the Beginnings of Modern Natural History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002).

Keith Hutchison What Happened to Occult Qualities in the Scientific Revolution?,” Isis, 73 (1982)

Hutchison , “Dormitive Virtues, Scholastic Qualities, and the New Philosophies,” History of Science, 29 (1991).

Charles G. Nauert Humanists, Scientists, and Pliny: Changing Approaches to a Classical Author,” American Historical Review, 84 (1979)

Brian Vickers ed., Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984)

Tamsyn Barton Ancient Astrology (London: Routledge, 1994)

Mario Biagioli The Social Status of Italian Mathematicians, 1450–1600,” History of Science, 27 (1989).

Brian P. Copenhaver Astrology and Magic,” in The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy, ed. Charles B. Schmitt , Quentin Skinner , and Eckhard Kessler , with Jill Kraye (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Graziella Federici Vescovini I programmi degli insegnamenti del Collegio di medicina, filosofia e astrologia dello statuto dell’università di Bologna del 1405,” in Roma, magistra mundi: Itineraria culturae medievalis, Mélanges offerts au Père L. E. Boyle, 2 vols. (Louvain: La Neuve, 1998).

Mordechai Feingold The Occult Tradition in the English Universities,” in Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance, ed. Brian Vickers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).

Judith V. Field A Lutheran Astrologer: Johannes Kepler,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 31 (1984).

Anthony Grafton Giovanni Pico della Mirandola: Trials and Triumphs of an Omnivore,” in his Commerce with the Classics: Ancient Books and Their Renaissance Readers (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997).

Sachiko Kusukawa The Transformation of Natural Philosophy: The Case of Philip Melanchthon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

James M. Lattis Between Copernicus and Galileo: Christoph Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic Cosmology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994).

Samuel E. Morison Harvard College in the Seventeenth Century, 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936).

John D. North , “Celestial Influence: The Major Premiss of Astrology,” in “Astrologi hallucinati”: Stars and the End of the World in Luther’s Time, ed. Paola Zambelli (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1986).

Mary Quinlan-McGrath The Foundation Horoscope(s) for St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, 1506: Choosing a Time, Changing a Storia,” Isis, 92 (2001).

Rose-Mary Sargent The Diffident Naturalist: Robert Boyle and the Philosophy of Experiment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995)

Michael H. Shank Academic Consulting in Fifteenth-Century Vienna: The Case of Astrology,” in Texts and Contexts in Ancient and Medieval Science, ed. Edith Sylla and Michael R. McVaugh (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997).

Noel M. Swerdlow Galileo’s Horoscopes,” Journal for the History of Astronomy 35 (2004).

Robert S. Westman The Astronomer’s Role in the 16th Century: A Preliminary Study,” History of Science, 18 (1980)

Paola Zambelli The Speculum astronomiae and Its Enigma: Astrology, Theology, and Science in Albertus Magnus and His Contemporaries (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1992).

E. J. Aiton Kepler’s Second Law of Planetary Motion,” Isis, 60 (1969).

E. J. Aiton Peurbach’s Theoricae novae planetarum: A Translation with Commentary,” Osiris, ser. 2, vol. 3 (1987).

Wilbur Applebaum Keplerian Astronomy after Kepler: Researches and Problems,” History of Science, 34 (1996).

Peter Barker Stoic Contributions to Early Modern Science,” in Atoms, Pneuma, and Tranquility: Epicurean and Stoic Themes in European Thought, ed. Margaret J. Osler (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Peter Barker and Bernard R. Goldstein The Role of Comets in the Copernican Revolution,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, 19 (1988).

William H. Donahue Kepler’s Invention of the Second Planetary Law,” British Journal for the History of Science, 27 (1994).

Nicholas Kollerstrom The Path of Halley’s Comet, and Newton’s Late Apprehension of the Law of Gravity,” Annals of Science, 56 (1999).

P. M. Rattansi The Intellectual Origins of the Royal Society,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 23 (1968).

Bruce Stephenson Kepler’s Physical Astronomy (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994).

N. M. Swerdlow Regiomontanus’s Concentric-sphere Models for the Sun and Moon,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, 30 (1999).

Charles Webster Henry Power’s Experimental Philosophy,” Ambix, 14 (1967).

Curtis A. Wilson From Kepler’s Laws, So-Called, to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 6 (1970).

Kirsti Andersen The Mathematical Technique in Fermat’s Deduction of the Law of Refraction,” Historia Mathematica, 10 (1983).

H. Floris Cohen Quantifying Music: The Science of Music at the First Stage of the Scientific Revolution, 1580–1650 (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1984).

F. De Buzon Science de la nature et theorie musicale chez Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637),” Revue d’histoire des sciences, 38 (1985).

Sigalia Dostrovsky Early Vibration Theory: Physics and Music in the XVIIth Century,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 14 (1975).

Stillman Drake Renaissance Music and Experimental Science,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 31 (1970).

Mordechai Feingold and Penelope Gouk , “An Early Critique of Bacon’s Sylva Sylvarum,” Annals of Science, 40 (1983).

Franco Giudice La tradizione del mezzo e la Nuova teoria della luce di Leonhard Euler,” Nuncius, 15 (2000).

Gouk , “Acoustics in the Early Royal Society, 1660–1680,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 36 (1982).

Gouk , “The Role of Acoustics and Music Theory in the Scientific Work of R. Hooke,” Annals of Science, 37 (1980).

Gozza , “La musica nella filosofia naturale del Seicento in Italia,” Nuncius, 1 (1986).

Casper Hakfoort Optics in the Age of Euler (Basel: Birkhäuser, 1995).

Eberhard Knobloch Musurgia Universalis,” History of Science, 17 (1979).

David C. Lindberg Continuity and Discontinuity in the History of Optics: Kepler and the Medieval Tradition,” History and Technology, 4 (1987).

David C. Lindberg The Genesis of Kepler’s Theory of Light: Light Metaphysics from Plotinus to Kepler,” Osiris, 2 (1986).

Antoni Malet Keplerian Illusions: Geometrical Pictures vs. Optical Images in Kepler’s Visual Theory,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 21 (1990).

J. R. McGuire and P. N. Rattansi , “Newton and the ‘Pipes of Pan’,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 21 (1966).

Palisca , “Was Galileo’s Father an Experimental Scientist?,” in Music and Science in the Age of Galileo, ed. Victor Coelho (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1992).

Neil M. Ribe Cartesian Optics and the Mastery of Nature,” Isis, 88 (1997).

Alan E. Shapiro Kinematic Optics: A Study of the Wave Theory of Light in the Seventeenth Century,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 11 (1973).

Alan E. Shapiro The Optical Lectures and the Foundations of the Theory of Optical Imagery,” in Before Newton: The Life and Times of Isaac Barrow, ed. Mordechai Feingold (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

Stephen Straker Kepler, Tycho, and the ‘Optical Part of Astronomy’: The Genesis of Kepler’s Theory of Pinhole Images,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 24 (1981).

Jim A. Bennett Practical Geometry and Operative Knowledge,” Configurations, 6 (1998).

Edoardo Benvenuto An Introduction to the History of Structural Mechanics, 2 vols. (Berlin: Springer, 1991), vol. 1.

Mario Biagioli Etiquette, Interdependence, and Sociability in Seventeenth-Century Science,” Critical Inquiry, 22 (1996).

Marie Boas Hero’s Pneumatica: A Study of Its Transmission and Influence,” Isis, 40 (1949).

Michele Camerota and Mario Helbing , “Galileo and Pisan Aristotelianism: Galileo’s De motu antiquiora and the Quaestiones de motu elementorum of the Pisan Professors,” Early Science and Medicine, 5 (2000).

Serafina Cuomo Shooting by the Book: Notes on Niccolò Tartaglia’s Nova Scientia,” History of Science, 35 (1997).

Peter Damerow , Gideon Freudenthal , Peter McLaughlin , and Jürgen Renn , Exploring the Limits of Preclassical Mechanics (New York: Springer, 2004).

Alan Gabbey Force and Inertia in Seventeenth-Century Dynamics,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 2 (1971).

Gabbey , “Descartes’s Physics and Descartes’s Mechanics: Chicken and Egg?” in Essays on the Philosophy and Science of René Descartes, ed. Stephen Voss (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).

Ofer Gal Meanest Foundations and Nobler Superstructure (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2002).

Paolo Galluzzi Gassendi and l’Affaire Galilée on the Laws of Motion,” in Galileo in Context, ed. Jürgen Renn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Stephen Gaukroger and John Schuster , “The Hydrostatic Paradox and the Origins of Cartesian Dynamics,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 33 (2002).

Noretta Koertge Galileo and the Problem of Accidents,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 38 (1977).

Walter R. Laird The Scope of Renaissance Mechanics,” Osiris, 2nd ser., 2 (1986).

Michael S. Mahoney Huygens and the Pendulum: From Device to Mathematical Relation,” in The Growth of Mathematical Knowledge, ed. Herbert Breger and Emily Grosholz (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2000).

Bertoloni D. Meli Caroline, Leibniz, and Clarke,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 60 (1999).

Ernest Moody Galileo and Avempace: The Dynamics of the Leaning Tower Experiment,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 12 (1951).

Paul L. Rose and Stillman Drake The pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics in Renaissance Culture,” Studies in the Renaissance, 18 (1971).

Charles B. Schmitt Experience and Experiment: A Comparison of Zabarella’s views with Galileo’s in De motu,” Studies in the Renaissance, 16 (1969).

George Smith The Methodology of the Principia,” in The Cambridge Companion to Newton, ed. I. Bernard Cohen and G. Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

William Wallace Galileo and His Sources (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984).

Richard S. Westfall Floods along the Bisenzio: Science and Technology in the Age of Galileo,” Technology and Culture, 30 (1989).

Derek T. Whiteside The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 45 (1991).

Jim Bennett , “Geometry and Surveying in Early-Seventeenth-Century England,” Annals of Science, 48 (1991).

Jim Bennett , “Projection and the Ubiquitous Virtue of Geometry in the Renaissance,” in Making Space for Science: Territorial Themes in the Shaping of Knowledge, ed. C. Smith and J. Agar (London: Macmillan, 1998).

Jim Bennett , “The Mechanics’s Philosophy and the Mechanical Philosophy,” History of Science, 24 (1986).

Paolo Galluzzi , “Art and Artifice in the Depiction of Renaissance Machines,” in The Power of Images in Early Modern Science, ed. Wolfgang Lefèvre , Jürgen Renn , and Urs Schoepflin (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2003).

Robert Hooke , Micrographia; or, Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies with Observations and Enquiries Thereupon (London: J. Martyn and J. Allestry, 1665).

A. G. Keller Renaissance Theaters of Machines,” Technology and Culture, 19 (1978).

Issac Newton , Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (London: Royal Society and Joseph Streater, 1687).

Henk J. M. Bos Arguments on Motivation in the Rise and Decline of a Mathematical Theory: The ‘Construction of Equations,’ 1637-ca. 1750,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 30 (1984).

Henk J. M. Bos On the Representation of Curves in Descartes’ Géométrie,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 24 (1981)

Henk J. M. Bos Tractional Motion and the Legitimation of Transcendental Curves,” Centaurus, 31 (1988).

Henk J. M. Bos Redefining Geometrical Exactness: Descartes’ Transformation of the Early Modern Concept of Construction (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001).

Herbert Breger Mathematik und Religion in der frühen Neuzeit,” Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 18 (1995).

Giovanna C. Cifoletti La question de l’algèbre: Mathématiques et rhétorique des hommes de droit dans la France du XVIe siècle,” Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 50 (1995).

Jan Hogendijk Desargues’ Brouillon Project and the Conics of Apollonius,” Centaurus, 34 (1991).

Douglas M. Jesseph Philosophical Theory and Mathematical Practice in the Seventeenth Century,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 20 (1989).

Helena M. Pycior Symbols, Impossible Numbers, and Geometric Entanglements: British Algebra Through the Commentaries on Newton’s Universal Arithmetick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)

Ivo Schneider Forms of Professional Activity in Mathematics Before the Nineteenth Century,” in Social History of Nineteenth Century Mathematics, ed. Mehrtens Herbert , Bos Henk , and Schneider Ivo (Boston: Birkhäuser, 1981).

Ivo Schneider Johannes Faulhaber, 1580–1635: Rechenmeister in einer Welt des Umbruchs (Basel: Birkhäuser, 1993).

Hans Werner Arndt Methodo scientifica pertractatum: mos geometricus und Kalkülbegriff in der philosophischen Theorienbildung des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1971).

I. Bernard Cohen ed., Isaac Newton’s Papers & Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978)

Rainer Berndt , Matthias Lutz-Buchmann , Ralf M. W. Stammberger , Alexander Fidora , and Andreas Niederberger , eds., “Scientia” und “Disciplina”: Wissenstheorie und Wissenschaftspraxis im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2002).

Massimo L. Bianchi , “The Visible and the Invisible: From Alchemy to Paracelsus,” in Alchemy and Chemistry in the 16th and 17th Centuries, ed. Piyo Rattansi and Antonio Clericuzio (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1994)

Peter Dear , “Jesuit Mathematical Science and the Reconstitution of Experience in the Early Seventeenth Century,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 18 (1987).

Amos Funkenstein , “Descartes, Eternal Truths, and the Divine Omnipotence,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 6 (1975).

Edward Grant , The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)

Grant , God and Reason in the Middle Ages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Gary Hatfield , “Reason, Nature, and God in Descartes,” Science in Context, 3 (1989).

Hübner , “Kepler’s Praise of the Creator,” Vistas in Astronomy, 18 (1975).

William V. Hudon , “Religion and Society in Early Modern Italy – Old Questions, New Insights,” American Historical Review, 101 (1996)

James R. Jacob and Margaret C. Jacob , “The Anglican Origins of Modern Science: The Metaphysical Foundations of the Whig Constitution,” Isis, 71 (1980)

Nicholas Jardine , “The Forging of Modern Realism: Clavius and Kepler against the Sceptics,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 10 (1979).

David C. Lindberg , The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 b. c. to a. d. 1450 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992)

David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers , When Science and Christianity Meet (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003)

G. E. R. Lloyd Saving the Appearances,” Classical Quarterly, 28 (1978).

S. F. Mason The Scientific Revolution and the Protestant Reformation – II: Luthernism in Relation to Iatrochemistry and the German Nature-Philosophy,” Annals of Science, 9 (1953).

John E. Murdoch and Edith D. Sylla , eds., The Cultural Context of Medieval Learning: Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on Philosophy, Science, and Theology in the Middle Ages – September 1973 (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 26) (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1975)

Walter Pagel , “Paracelsus and the Neoplatonic and Gnostic Tradition,” Ambix, 8 (1960)

Markku Peltonen , ed., The Cambridge Companion to Bacon (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

John M. Rist , Ancient Thought Baptized (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Barbara Shapiro , “Latitudinarianism and Science,” Past and Present, 40 (1968)

Bruce Stephenson , The Music of the Heavens: Kepler’s Harmonic Astronomy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994).

Thomas Browne , Pseudodoxia epidemica (London: Edward Dodd, 1646).

Robert Burton , Anatomy of Melancholy (Oxford: John Lichfield and James Short, for Henry Cripps, 1621)

Donne , Ignatius His Conclave (London: Richard More, 1611).

Galileo Galilei , Sidereus nuncius (Venice: T, Baglionum, 1610)

Adrian Johns , The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998)

Schiebinger , “Feminine Icons: The Face of Early Modern Science,” Critical Inquiry, 14 (1988)

William Shakespeare , The Tempest (London: Isaac Jaggard and Edward Blount, 1623).

Valerie Wheeler , “Travelers’ Tales: Observations on the Travel Book and Ethnography,” Anthropological Quarterly, 59 (April 1986).

Agnes Arber Herbals: Their Origin and Evolution, a Chapter in the History of Botany, 1470–1670 [1912] (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986)

Horst Bredekamp Gazing Hands and Blind Spots: Galileo as Draughtsman,” Science in Context, 13 (2000).

Samuel Y. Edgerton Jr.Galileo, Florentine ‘Disegno,’ and the ‘Strange Spottedness’ of the Moon,” Art Journal (Fall 1984)

Martin Kemp Taking It on Trust: Form and Meaning in Naturalistic Representation,” Archives of Natural History, 17 (1990).

Sachiko Kusukawa Leonhart Fuchs on the Importance of Pictures,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 58 (1997).

Brian Ogilvie The Many Books of Nature: Renaissance Naturalists and Information Overload,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 64 (2003).

Giuseppe Olmi ‘Molti amici in varij luoghi’: Studio della natura e rapporti epistolari nel secolo XVI,” Nuncius, 6 (1991).

Peter Parshall , “Imago Contrafacta: Images and Facts in the Northern Renaissance,” Art History, 16 (1993).

Smith , “Science and Taste: Painting, Passions, and the New Philosophy in Seventeenth-Century Leiden,” Isis, 90 (1999).

Claudia Swan Ad vivum, naer het leven, from the Life: Considerations on a Mode of Representation,” Word and Image, 11 (1995).

Tongiorgi Tomasi The Study of the Natural Sciences and Botanical and Zoological Illustration in Tuscany under the Medicis from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century,” Archives of Natural History, 28 (2001).

Agrippa , Declamation on the Nobility and Pre-Eminence of the Female Sex, ed. and trans. Albert Rabil Jr. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

Susan Bordo The Cartesian Masculinisation of Thought”, Signs, 11 (1986).

Lorraine Daston How Nature Became the Other: Anthropomorphism and Anthropocentrism in Early Modern Natural Philosophy”, in Biology as Society, Society as Biology, ed. Sabine Maasen , Everett Mendelsohn , and Peter Weingart (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1995).

Lorraine Daston The Naturalised Female Intellect,” Science in Context, 5 (1992).

Mirjam de Baar ed., Choosing the Better Part: Anna Maria van Schurman, 1607–1678, trans. Lynne Richards (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1996).

Geneviève Lloyd The Man of Reason: “Male” and “Female” in Western Philosophy (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984).

Ian Maclean The Renaissance Notion of Woman: A Study in the Fortunes of Scholasticism and Medical Science in European Intellectual Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), chap. 1.

Mechthild Modersohn Natura als Göttin im Mittelalter: Ikonographische Studien zu Darstellungen der personifizierten Natur (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1997).

Ruth Perry Radical Doubt and the Liberation of Women”, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 18 (1985).

Nancy G. Siraisi Medieval and Renaissance Medicine: An Introduction to Theory and Practice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).

Pingyi Chu Trust, Instruments, and Cross-Cultural Scientific Exchanges: Chinese Debate over the Shape of the Earth, 1600–1800,” Science in Context, 12 (1999).

Catherine Jami “‘European Science in China’ or ‘Western Learning?’ Representations of Cross-Cultural Transmission, 1600–1800,” Science in Context, 12 (1999)

Donald F. Lach Leibniz and China,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 6 (1945)

J. F. Moran The Japanese and the Jesuits: Alessandro Valignano in Sixteenth-Century Japan (London: Routledge, 1993).

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 6808 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 6496 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th August 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.