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Resistant maltodextrin (RMD) from various sources of starch has been extensively studied. However, studies which reported the effects of tapioca RMD (TRM) on glucose and insulin response are lacking. This study investigated the effect of TRM on postprandial plasma glucose and serum insulin in healthy subjects. Additionally, satiety and gastrointestinal tolerability were also evaluated. Sixteen healthy participants received five different treatments on five separate days. Participants received 50 g of either: glucose (GL), tapioca maltodextrin (TM), TRM, MIX15% (7⋅5 g TRM + 42⋅5 g TM) or MIX50% (25 g TRM + 25 g TM). Plasma glucose, serum insulin and subjective appetite responses were measured postprandially over 180 min. Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated by questionnaire before and after each test day. Results showed that at 30 min after treatment drinks, plasma glucose after TRM was significantly lowest (104⋅60 (sem 2⋅63 mg/dl) than after GL (135⋅87 (sem 4⋅88) mg/dl; P <0⋅001), TM (127⋅93 (sem 4⋅05) mg/dl; P = 0⋅001), MIX15% (124⋅67 (sem 5⋅73) mg/dl; P = 0⋅039) and MIX50% (129⋅33 (sem 5⋅23) mg/dl; P = 0⋅003) (1 mg/dl = 0⋅0555 mmol/l). In addition, TRM also significantly reduced serum insulin (13⋅01 (sem 2⋅12) μIU/ml) compared with GL (47⋅90 (sem 11⋅93) μIU/ml; P = 0⋅013), TM (52⋅96 (sem 17⋅68) μIU/ml; P = 0⋅002) and MIX50% (33⋅16 (sem 4⋅99) μIU/ml; P = 0⋅008). However, there were no significant differences in subjective appetite between treatments (P > 0⋅05). A single high dose of TRM (50 g) caused flatulence (P < 0⋅05). Tapioca resistant maltodextrin has low digestibility in the small intestine and, therefore, reduced incremental plasma glucose and serum insulin, without affecting satiety in healthy subjects over 180 min. Gastrointestinal tolerability of TRM should be considered when consumed in high doses.
While medical nutrition therapy is an essential part of the care for critically ill patients, uncertainty exists about the right form, dosage, timing and route in relation to the phases of critical illness. As enteral nutrition (EN) is often withheld or interrupted during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, combined EN and parenteral nutrition (PN) may represent an effective and safe option to achieve energy and protein goals as recommended by international guidelines. We hypothesise that critically ill patients at high nutritional risk may benefit from such a combined approach during their stay on the ICU. Therefore, we aim to test if an early combination of EN and high-protein PN (EN+PN) is effective in reaching energy and protein goals in patients at high nutritional risk, while avoiding overfeeding. This approach will be tested in the here-presented EFFORTcombo trial. Nutritionally high-risk ICU patients will be randomised to either high (≥2·2 g/kg per d) or low protein (≤1·2 g/kg per d). In the high protein group, the patients will receive EN+PN; in the low protein group, patients will be given EN alone. EN will be started in accordance with international guidelines in both groups. Efforts will be made to reach nutrition goals within 48–96 h. The efficacy of the proposed nutritional strategy will be tested as an innovative approach by functional outcomes at ICU and hospital discharge, as well as at a 6-month follow-up.
Vascular disorders of the gastrointestinal tract range from non-symptomatic lesions to acute life-threatening disorders. Generally, they can be classified as ischemic or bleeding, although this is often a superficial distinction with much overlap. Primary vascular disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are assessed by pathologists at the time of biopsy or surgical resection, as well as at autopsy. Diagnoses requires a multidisciplinary approach, but pathology often plays a particularly important role in suggesting or confirming a diagnosis. Careful attention to pathologic specimens is important, as the distinguishing features of each entity may be subtle and difficult to appreciate. Likewise, patient management may differ significantly among conditions with overlapping diagnostic features. This chapter will provide a concise review of the diagnostic elements to consider in vascular disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and will discuss practical aspects that should help the pathologist to arrive at the best diagnosis for each case.
There are significant differences between paediatric and adult gastrointestinal (GI) disease, and even the normal GI histology shows some variation.
Excess eosinophils in the gut can be present in food allergies (frequent in children) but also in eosinophilic gastroenteritis.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has some distinctive features when it presents in children. Genetic factors may play a greater role in pathogenesis, and the combination of clinical and histological criteria required for diagnosing Crohn’s Disease or ulcerative colitis (UC) is different. Atypical UC patterns are more common and clinical presentation of Crohn’s disease can also be different; the frequency of granulomas in Crohn’s disease is significantly higher in children. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified (IBDU) has its highest frequency in younger patients, possibly because of atypical characteristics of paediatric UC. Monogenic forms of IBD-like colitis typically develop during infancy or early childhood, an can have features of Crohn’s disease, UC or IBD unclassified. Histology is often indistinguishable from conventional IBD.
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) primarily affects the small intestine of premature infants, with haemorrhagic necrosis of the bowel wall.
Fibrosing colonopathy has been reported in children exposed to high doses of pancreatic enzymes and is characterised by bowel wall thickening, submucosal fibrosis and chronic mucosal inflammation.
An ever increasing number of drugs are known to cause gastrointestinal injury. The histological features are often non-specific and a single drug can induce many different patterns, necessitating close collaboration between pathologists and clinicians to reach a correct diagnosis. However, there may be some histological clues that are helpful in the diagnosis of drug-induced injury.
Many diseases that have a systemic distribution may involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and liver. Furthermore, diseases that usually manifest within one extra-gastrointestinal organ or system may also involve the GI tract, either directly or as a result of treatment for the extra-GI disease. This chapter focuses initially on five systemic diseases that can have GI manifestations: sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, mast cell diseases, IgG4-related disease, and Behçet’s disease, and then discusses diseases with cutaneous manifestations and their effect(s) on the GI tract. Systemic diseases may become manifest within the GI tract in the context of a known condition. When this occurs, the cause of the GI disease may be obvious. Alternatively, the GI tract features may represent the presenting phase of the disease, which could already be active but subclinical at other sites. The differential diagnosis of certain histopathological features associated with GI tract manifestations of systemic disease, e.g. granulomas, may be wide. Therefore, careful clinicopathological correlation is essential. Finally, treatments for some extra-GI conditions may cause GI-related side effects, e.g. methotrexate therapy for psoriasis.
The term “dysplasia” refers to “an unequivocal neoplastic epithelial alteration without invasive growth”. The term “intraepithelial neoplasia” often replaces “dysplasia” in World Health Organisation (WHO) guidance. Dysplasia is a precursor lesion of cancer and a marker for high cancer risk, offering a window of opportunity for early detection and cure of neoplasia. Most pathologists now classify columnar dysplasia as low grade (LGD) and high grade (HGD). The criteria for grading dysplasia include both cytological and architectural abnormalities. The diagnosis of dysplasia can be challenging in some clinical settings, especially when there is a background of active or resolving inflammation [e.g. in Barrett’s oesophagus (BO) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)] that may cause reactive epithelial atypia. Additionally, there is significant inter- and intra-observer variability for the diagnosis and grading of dysplasia. The variability may reflect the limitations of morphology-based criteria and has led to the development of adjunctive diagnostic methods such as immunohistochemistry. These methods, although promising, are controversial and require evaluation in further studies. This chapter describes the classification, microscopic features, and grading of dysplasia at different sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
We evaluated the differences between the supplementation of urea in rumen and/or abomasum on forage digestion, N metabolism and urea kinetics in cattle fed a low-quality tropical forage. Five Nellore heifers were fitted with rumen and abomasum fistulas and assigned to a Latin square design. The treatments were control, continuous infusion of urea in the abomasum (AC), continuous infusion of urea in the rumen, a pulse dose of urea in the rumen every 12 h (PR) and a combination of PR and AC. The control exhibited the lowest (P < 0·10) faecal and urinary N losses, which were, overall, increased by supplementation. The highest urinary N losses (P < 0·10) were observed when urea was either totally or partially supplied as a ruminal pulse dose. The rumen N balance was negative for the control and when urea was totally supplied in the abomasum. The greatest microbial N production (P < 0·10) was obtained when urea was partially or totally supplied in the abomasum. Urea supplementation increased (P < 0·10) the amount of urea recycled to the gastrointestinal tract and the amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle. The greatest (P < 0·10) amounts of urea-N used for anabolism were observed when urea was totally and continuously infused in the abomasum. The continuous abomasal infusion also resulted in the highest (P < 0·10) assimilation of microbial N from recycling. The continuous releasing of urea throughout day either in the rumen or abomasum is able to improve N accretion in the animal body, despite mechanism responsible for that being different.
Sulphur mustard (HD) is a lipophilic caustic alkylating vesicant (blister agent) that has mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Among the studied perturbations are long-term genitourinary (GU) and fertility effects. Approximately 50,000 Iranian soldiers and civilians were exposed to HD during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1989). This study questioned the wives of Iraq-Iran war veterans to determine the effects of male HD-exposure on pregnancy complications, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and secondary infertility.
A retrospective, survey-based cohort study was conducted of wives of Iranian military veterans that survived HD-associated injuries while serving in Ahvaz, Iran during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1989), as compared to non-exposed veterans serving concomitantly. Patients were identified from a database of injured veterans maintained by the Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs (Iran) via a systematic random sampling method utilizing a random number table. Using a validated questionnaire, collected data included: demographics; type and severity of chemical injury; spouse’s obstetric history (pregnancy number, duration, complications, and outcomes before and after spouse’s chemical injury); and secondary infertility.
An increase in spontaneous abortion (P = .03), congenital anomalies (P < .0001), and secondary infertility (P = .003) were observed. These findings were greatest amongst those with HD injuries affecting >50% body surface area. No difference in stillbirth, premature birth, or low birth weight was observed.
Exposure to HD in combat may have long-lasting fertility effects on soldiers and their spouses, including spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, and secondary infertility. Further investigation is needed into the long-term effects of HD exposure as well as methods to better protect soldiers.
A 63-year-old female patient presents with abdominal pain, vomiting, and abdominal distention. She has previously had a cholecystectomy and hysterectomy. She has had no prior similar episodes, and denies fever, hematemesis, or diarrhea. She takes no medications. Vital signs include blood pressure 123/61 mm Hg, heart rate 97, oral temperature 37.2°C, respiratory rate 18, oxygen saturation 97% on room air. Her abdomen is diffusely tender and distended.
Apart from its role as a digestive and absorptive organ, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a vital immune organ that encompasses roughly 70 % of the total immune cells of the body. As such, the physical, chemical and nutrient composition of the diet influences overall GI function, effectively as an immune organ. With the improvement in feed technology, agro-industrial co-products that are high in fibre have been widely used as a feed ingredient in the diets of pigs and poultry. Arabinoxylan (AX) and mannan are the most abundant hemicellulosic polysaccharides present in cereal grain and co-product ingredients used in the livestock industry. When monogastric animals consume diets containing high amounts of AX and mannans, stimulation of GI immune cells may occur. This involves the activation of several cellular and molecular pathways of the immune system and requires a considerable amount of energy and nutrients to be expended by the animal, which may ultimately influence overall health and growth performance of animals. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of AX and mannan in immune modulation will be helpful in modulating untoward GI immune responses, thereby minimising nutrient and energy expenditure toward this effort. This review will summarise pertinent research on the role of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides containing AX and mannans in immune modulation in order to preserve gut integrity.
Spirulina platensis has been found to be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to elucidate the effects of ethanol extract and butanol fraction of S. platensis on insulin release and glucose homoeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats, together with their mechanism of actions. In vitro and in vivo methods were used including cellular studies to determine potential role of ion channels and cAMP in the insulinotropic actions of the extracts. The ethanol extract and butanol fraction stimulated insulin release from mouse islets and pancreatic β-cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The butanol fraction also similarly stimulated insulin release from perfused rat pancreas. The insulin-releasing action was augmented by glucose, isobutylmethylxanthine, tolbutamide and a depolarising concentration of KCl. The insulin secretory effect was attenuated with diazoxide and verapamil and by omission of extracellular Ca2+. Butanol fraction was found to significantly inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme activity. Moreover, butanol fraction improved glucose tolerance following oral glucose administration (2·5 g/kg body weight (b.w.)). The butanol fraction was tested on 24 h starved rats given an oral sucrose load (2·5 g/kg b.w.) to examine possible effects on carbohydrate digestion and absorption. S. platensis substantially decreased postprandial hyperglycaemia after oral sucrose load and increased unabsorbed sucrose content throughout the gut. During in situ intestinal perfusion with glucose, the butanol fraction reduced glucose absorption and promoted gut motility. Finally, chronic oral administration of butanol fraction for 28 d significantly decreased blood glucose, increased plasma insulin, pancreatic insulin stores, liver glycogen and improved lipid profile. The characterisation of active compounds from butanol fraction revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid, β-carotene, catechin and other antioxidant polyphenols. In conclusion, S. platensis could be an adjunctive therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes.
Nutrition and gastrointestinal cancer are inextricably linked. The metabolic effects of cancer along with changes in dietary intake, the development of cancer cachexia and the presence of sarcopenia can influence changes in body composition. These have a negative impact on quality of life and tolerance to cancer treatment. Treatment for cancer presents some significant nutritional challenges as nutrition impact symptoms may develop, be exacerbated by treatment and may contribute to a worsening in nutritional status. Nutrition screening and assessment should be an integral part of holistic patient care. The provision of appropriate, evidence-based dietary advice should occur before, during and after cancer treatment. Appropriate and timely methods of nutritional support across the spectrum of gastrointestinal cancer are needed to ensure that people are adequately supported during courses of treatment that can span weeks and months. These can range from standard approaches of supplementing oral intake to complex interventions such as managing high output intestinal stomas. The gastrointestinal tract is particularly susceptible to impact from systemic anti-cancer treatments and radiotherapy. Gastrointestinal late effects of cancer treatment are now recognised to present particular challenges in terms of both medical and nutritional management. These late effects have a significant impact on the individual and their quality of life in addition to implications for the health service. Dietary intake following cancer treatment has an impact on quality of life and future research may demonstrate its influence on the risk of recurrence of gastrointestinal cancer.
Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) is clinically effective and a commonly utilised approach in the management of functional symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Despite this, the low FODMAP diet has a number of challenges: it can alter the gut microbiota; impact nutrient intake and diet quality; is complex to understand; requires the patient to be adequately supported to follow the diet accurately and safely; and lastly, not all patients respond to the diet. The current review highlights the evidence for the clinical effectiveness of the low FODMAP diet, but focusses on the challenges associated with the diet to the patient, health professionals and the wider healthcare service. Finally, the review discusses research findings and practical guidance for how these challenges can be minimised and mitigated. The low FODMAP diet is a useful management strategy for irritable bowel syndrome, with data from clinical trials suggesting a 50–80% response rate, and when administered appropriately, the challenges to implementing the diet can be overcome so that these outcomes can be realised effectively and safely in clinical practice.
Epidemiological and clinical evidence highlight the benefit of dietary fibre consumption on body weight. This benefit is partly attributed to the interaction of dietary fibre with the gut microbiota. Dietary fibre possesses a complex food structure which resists digestion in the upper gut and therefore reaches the distal gut where it becomes available for bacterial fermentation. This process yields SCFA which stimulate the release of appetite-suppressing hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY. Food structures can further enhance the delivery of fermentable substrates to the distal gut by protecting the intracellular nutrients during upper gastrointestinal digestion. Domestic and industrial processing can disturb these food structures that act like barriers towards digestive enzymes. This leads to more digestible products that are better absorbed in the upper gut. As a result, less resistant material (fibre) and intracellular nutrients may reach the distal gut, thus reducing substrates for bacterial fermentation and its subsequent benefits on the host metabolism including appetite suppression. Understanding this link is essential for the design of diets and food products that can promote appetite suppression and act as a successful strategy towards obesity management. This article reviews the current evidence in the interplay between food structure, bacterial fermentation and appetite control.
The enteroendocrine system is located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and makes up the largest endocrine system in the human body. Despite that, its roles and functions remain incompletely understood. Gut regulatory peptides are the main products of enteroendocrine cells, and play an integral role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients through their effect on intestinal secretions and gut motility. Several peptides, such as cholecystokinin, polypeptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1, have traditionally been reported to suppress appetite following food intake, so-called satiety hormones. In this review, we propose that, in the healthy individual, this system to regulate appetite does not play a dominant role in normal food intake regulation, and that there is insufficient evidence to wholly link postprandial endogenous gut peptides with appetite-related behaviours. Instead, or additionally, top-down, hedonic drive and neurocognitive factors may have more of an impact on food intake. In GI disease however, supraphysiological levels of these hormones may have more of an impact on appetite regulation as well as contributing to other unpleasant abdominal symptoms, potentially as part of an innate response to injury. Further work is required to better understand the mechanisms involved in appetite control and unlock the therapeutic potential offered by the enteroendocrine system in GI disease and obesity.
Alterations in the maternal environment may impact on the fetal development. The objective of this study was to investigate the gastrointestinal consequences of maternal hypothyroidism for the male offspring from Wistar rats. The pregnant rats were divided into three groups: control (C – received water), experimental 1 [E1 – received methimazole (MMI) solution] during gestation and lactation, and experimental 2 (E2 – received MMI solution) during gestation. Maternal parameters evaluated: free T3 and T4, bodyweight variation, and water/food intake. Offspring parameters evaluated: litter size, number of male/female, free T3 and T4, stomach area, gastric ulcer susceptibility, small intestine length and weight, small intestine and distal colon motility, the stomach and intestinal weight–body weight ratio (SW/BW–IW/BW), and the accumulation of intestinal fluid. Maternal T3 and T4 from E1 were decreased when compared to the other groups. There were no differences for maternal water/food intake and weight gain, litter size, and number of males and females. Regarding to offspring, free T3, SW/BW, IW/BW, and intestinal fluid accumulation were not different between the groups, but T4 was decreased in E1. However, 30-day-old pups from E1 and E2 were smaller with lower stomach and small intestine. Even more, E1 presented a lower ulcer index when compared to the C, while E2 had a higher distal colon transit. It can be concluded that maternal hypothyroidism impaired the total body development, as well as gastric and intestinal development, besides interfering with the susceptibility to the ulcer and intestinal transit of male offspring from Wistar rats.
Dietary fibre fermentation in humans and monogastric animals is considered to occur in the hindgut, but it may also occur in the lower small intestine. This study aimed to compare ileal and hindgut fermentation in the growing pig fed a human-type diet using a combined in vivo/in vitro methodology. Five pigs (23 (sd 1·6) kg body weight) were fed a human-type diet. On day 15, pigs were euthanised. Digesta from terminal jejunum and terminal ileum were collected as substrates for fermentation. Ileal and caecal digesta were collected for preparing microbial inocula. Terminal jejunal digesta were fermented in vitro with a pooled ileal digesta inoculum for 2 h, whereas terminal ileal digesta were fermented in vitro with a pooled caecal digesta inoculum for 24 h. The ileal organic matter fermentability (28 %) was not different from hindgut fermentation (35 %). However, the organic matter fermented was 66 % greater for ileal fermentation than hindgut fermentation (P = 0·04). Total numbers of bacteria in ileal and caecal digesta did not differ (P = 0·09). Differences (P < 0·05) were observed in the taxonomic composition. For instance, ileal digesta contained 32-fold greater number of the genus Enterococcus, whereas caecal digesta had a 227-fold greater number of the genus Ruminococcus. Acetate synthesis and iso-valerate synthesis were greater (P < 0·05) for ileal fermentation than hindgut fermentation, but propionate, butyrate and valerate synthesis was lower. SCFA were absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract location where they were synthesised. In conclusion, a quantitatively important degree of fermentation occurs in the ileum of the growing pig fed a human-type diet.
Increasing evidence confirms a strict relationship between mental disorders and physical health. Particularly, stressful life events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been closely correlated with various physical disorders and somatic symptoms, such as chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders, and headaches. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence of somatic symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors 21 months after exposure to the L’Aquila 2009 earthquake, with particular attention to PTSD and gender impact.
Four hundred and fifty high-school senior students (253 male and 197 female) exposed to the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake, 21 months earlier, were enrolled and evaluated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self-Report (TALS-SR), for symptomatological PTSD, and the Mood Spectrum Self-Report-Lifetime Version (MOODS-SR) “rhythmicity and vegetative functions” domain, for somatic symptoms.
Significantly higher rates of endorsement of the MOODS-SR somatic symptoms emerged in survivors with PTSD compared to those without. Females reported higher rates of endorsement of at least one MOODS-SR somatic symptom compared to males; however, a Decision Tree model and a two-way analysis of variance model confirmed a significant effect of PTSD only. A multivariate logistical regression showed a significant association between the presence of at least one MOOD-SR somatic symptom and re-experiencing and maladaptive coping TALS-SR domains.
This study corroborates a relevant impact of symptomatological PTSD, across both the genders, on somatic symptoms occurring in young adults after months from exposure to a massive earthquake.
Burden of disease analyses can quantify the relative impact of different exposures on population health outcomes. Gastroenteritis where the causative pathogen was not determined and respiratory illness resulting from exposure to opportunistic pathogens transmitted by water aerosols have not always been considered in waterborne burden of disease estimates. We estimated the disease burden attributable to nine enteric pathogens, unspecified pathogens leading to gastroenteritis, and three opportunistic pathogens leading primarily to respiratory illness, in Ontario, Canada (population ~14 million). Employing a burden of disease framework, we attributed a fraction of annual (year 2016) emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalisations and deaths to waterborne transmission. Attributable fractions were developed from the literature and clinical input, and unattributed disease counts were obtained using administrative data. Our Monte Carlo simulation reflected uncertainty in the inputs. The estimated mean annual attributable rates for waterborne diseases were (per 100 000 population): 69 ED visits, 12 hospitalisations and 0.52 deaths. The corresponding 5th–95th percentile estimates were (per 100 000 population): 13–158 ED visits, 5–22 hospitalisations and 0.29–0.83 deaths. The burden of disease due to unspecified pathogens dominated these rates: 99% for ED visits, 63% for hospitalisations and 40% for deaths. However, when a causative pathogen was specified, the majority of hospitalisations (83%) and deaths (97%) resulted from exposure to the opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., non-tuberculous mycobacteria and Pseudomonas spp. The waterborne disease burden in Ontario indicates the importance of gastroenteritis not traced back to a particular pathogen and of opportunistic pathogens transmitted primarily through contact with water aerosols.