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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It has been known for some time as a both a reproductive and a metabolic disorder but more recently, mainly as a result of large longitudinal population-based studies, is becoming recognized as a complex multisystem disorder with comorbidities and long-term health implications. PCOS is associated not only with reproductive and metabolic features but also with cardiovascular abnormalities, psychological illness and endometrial cancer. Data are also emerging about possible long-term health consequences for the offspring of women with PCOS. Their children are more likely to be obese with metabolic disorders and are more likely to develop neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, the long-term health consequences of PCOS for women and their offspring are described, together with a discussion on how they should best be managed.
Oxidative stress along the gut-kidney axis is a risk factor for developing arterial hypertension in offspring from dams fed a high-fat diet. Considering the antioxidant capacity of probiotic strains, this study evaluated the effects of a daily multistrain formulation with Limosilactobacillus fermentum 139, 263, and 296 on blood pressure (BP), renal function, and oxidative stress and along the gut-kidney axis in male offspring from dams fed a high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet during pregnancy and lactation. Dams were fed a diet control or HFHC diet during pregnancy and lactation. At 100 days of age, part of the male offspring from dams fed a HFHC diet received Limosilactobacillus fermentum formulation for 4 weeks (HFHC + Lf) daily. After the 4-week intervention, BP (tail-cuff plethysmography) and urinary and biochemical variables were measured. In addition, malondialdehyde levels, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense (thiols content) were measured in the colon and renal cortex. Male offspring from dams fed a HFHC had increased blood pressure, impaired renal function, and oxidative stress along the gut-kidney axis. Administration of Limosilactobacillus fermentum reduced systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure levels and alleviated renal function impairment and oxidative stress along the gut-kidney axis in male offspring from dams fed a HFHC diet. Administration of Limosilactobacillus fermentum formulation attenuated programmed hypertension in the HFHC group through oxidative stress modulation along the gut-kidney axis.
In the field of nutritional epidemiology, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used extensively in identifying dietary patterns. Recently, compositional data analysis (CoDA) has emerged as an alternative approach for obtaining dietary patterns. We aimed to directly compare and evaluate the ability of PCA and principal balances analysis (PBA), a data-driven method in CoDA, in identifying dietary patterns and their associations with the risk of hypertension.
Cohort study. A 24-h dietary recall questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and hypertension.
2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey.
A total of 3892 study participants aged 18–60 years were included as the subjects.
PCA and PBA identified five patterns each. PCA patterns comprised a linear combination of all food groups, whereas PBA patterns included several food groups with zero loadings. The coarse cereals pattern identified by PBA was inversely associated with hypertension risk (highest quintile: OR = 0·74 (95 % CI 0·57, 0·95); Pfor trend = 0·037). None of the five PCA patterns was associated with hypertension. Compared with the PCA patterns, the PBA patterns were clearly interpretable and accounted for a higher percentage of variance in food intake.
Findings showed that PBA might be an appropriate and promising approach in dietary pattern analysis. Higher adherence to the coarse cereals dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk of hypertension. Nevertheless, the advantages of PBA over PCA should be confirmed in future studies.
Hypertension is considered one of the most persistent public health issues and the single largest contributor to avoidable morbidity and mortality in India. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in youths (15-29 years) by gender and rural-urban place of residence. Data from the fourth round of the National Family and Health Survey – 2015-16 (n = 395,207) was utilised for the study. After estimation of the stratified prevalence of hypertension by various characteristics, multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the correlates of hypertension. The results revealed that the prevalence of hypertension in youths at the national level varied from 9.16% (Meghalaya) to 3.34% (Delhi). The stratified analysis suggests pronounced gender differences in the prevalence of hypertension among youth with insignificant rural-urban differences, although the prevalence was higher in urban areas. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension was found higher for male youths living in urban areas (7.82%) and females in rural areas (5.08%). Concurrently, results from regression analysis also suggest higher odds of hypertension for males residing in urban areas for a variety of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-risk factors. Advancing age, having no education, living in the northeast region, being overweight/obese and high blood glucose level was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of hypertension for both the gender and place of residence. Public health awareness regarding blood pressure needs to be tailored differently for both males and females considering the place of residence. The study suggests that more research should focus on blood pressure/hypertension among children, adolescents and youth since they point towards adult blood pressure patterns.
The most important risk factor of cardiovascular disease is hypertension and high salt intake contributes to high blood pressure. However, to prevent iodine deficiency disorders, the iodisation of salt is a proven strategy. So, on one hand, we suggest people reduced salt consumption but on the other hand, we also fear an increase in the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of salt intake at WHO recommended levels resulting in higher or lower iodine status in India by assessing the urinary iodine status and its relation with blood pressure.
It was a cross-sectional study.
It was a community-based study.
We collected 24-hour urine samples for estimation of iodine concentrations in urine from 411 adult hypertensives in the Mandla district of central India. Urinary iodine was estimated using Thermo ORION make ion-selective electrodes.
The median urinary iodine excretion was 162·6 mcg/l. Interestingly 371 (90·26 %) subjects were observed with > 200 mcg/l urinary iodine concentration level indicating iodine sufficiency. Individuals with high urine Na significantly had high blood pressure as compared with individuals with low urinary Na excretion (P < 0·01). There is a higher probability of high urine iodine levels among individuals with higher urine Na levels.
The study revealed that 90 % of the population were excreting excessive iodine in urine, which is more than adequate iodine uptake. This excess uptake enables a scope for reduction in salt intake to control hypertension.
We aimed to investigate the associations of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet and Mediterranean-style diet with blood pressure (BP) in less-developed ethnic minority regions (LEMR).
Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ. Dietary quality was assessed by the DASH-style diet score and the alternative Mediterranean-style diet (aMED) score. The association between dietary quality and BP was evaluated using multivariate linear regression model. We further examined those associations in subgroups of BP level.
A total of 81 433 adults from the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) study were included in this study.
In the overall population, compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH-style diet score was negatively associated with systolic BP (SBP) (coefficient –2·78, 95 % CI –3·15, –2·41; Pfor trend < 0·001), while the highest quintile of aMED score had a weaker negative association with SBP (coefficient –1·43, 95 % CI –1·81, –1·05; Pfor trend < 0·001). Both dietary indices also showed a weaker effect on diastolic BP (coefficient for DASH-style diet –1·06, 95 % CI –1·30, –0·82; coefficient for aMED –0·43, 95 % CI –0·68, –0·19). In the subgroup analysis, both dietary indices showed a stronger beneficial effect on SBP in the hypertension group than in either of the other subgroups.
Our results indicated that the healthy diet originating from Western developed countries can also have beneficial effects on BP in LEMR. DASH-style diet may be a more appropriate recommendation than aMED as part of a dietary strategy to control BP, especially in hypertensive patients.
To evaluate the association of systolic blood pressure percentile, race, and body mass index with left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram and echocardiogram to define populations at risk.
This is a retrospective cross-sectional study design utilising a data analytics tool (Tableau) combining electrocardiogram and echocardiogram databases from 2003 to 2020. Customized queries identified patients aged 2–18 years who had an outpatient electrocardiogram and echocardiogram on the same date with available systolic blood pressure and body measurements. Cases with CHD, cardiomyopathy, or arrhythmia diagnoses were excluded. Echocardiograms with left ventricle mass (indexed to height2.7) were included. The main outcome was left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram defined as Left ventricle mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age.
In a cohort of 13,539 patients, 6.7% of studies had left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram. Systolic blood pressure percentile >90% has a sensitivity of 35% and specificity of 82% for left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram. Left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram was a poor predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram (9% sensitivity and 92% specificity). African American race (OR 1.31, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.56, p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure percentile >95% (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.93, p < 0.001), and higher body mass index (OR = 7.22, 95% CI = 6.23, 8.36, p < 0.001) were independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram.
African American race, obesity, and hypertension on outpatient blood pressure measurements are independent risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy in children. Electrocardiogram has little utility in the screening for left ventricular hypertrophy.
This study aimed to evaluate the association between legume intake and blood pressure, as well as the mediating role of cardiometabolic risk factors in patients in secondary cardiovascular prevention. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, clinical and food intake data were collected from the baseline of the multicentre study Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial – BALANCE (RCT: NCT01620398). The relationships between variables were explored through path analysis. In total, 2247 individuals with a median age of 63·0 (45–91) years, 58·8 % (n 1321) male and 96·5 % (n 2168) with diagnosis of hypertension were included. Negative associations were observed between histidine intake and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (standardised coefficient (SC) = −0·057; P = 0·012) and between legume intake and BMI (SC = −0·061; P = 0·006). BMI was positively associated with triglycerides–glucose (TyG) index (SC = 0·173; P < 0·001), SBP (SC = 0·144; P < 0·001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (SC = 0·177; P < 0·001), and TyG index was positively associated with DBP (SC = 0·079; P = 0·001). A negative indirect effect was observed between the intake of legumes, SBP and DBP, mediated by BMI (SC = −0·009; P = 0·011; SC = −0·011; P = 0·010, respectively). In addition, an indirect negative effect was found between the intake of legumes and the DBP, mediated simultaneously by BMI and TyG index (SC = −0·001; P = 0·037). In conclusion, legume intake presented a negative indirect association with blood pressure, mediated by insulin resistance (TyG) and adiposity (BMI) in individuals of secondary care in cardiology.
The associations of different lipid measures and related indices with incident hypertension during a median follow-up of 12·89 years were examined. Fasting levels of total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and related indices (TC/HDL-cholesterol and TAG/HDL-cholesterol) were determined in 7335 Iranian adults (men = 3270) free of hypertension, aged 39·0 (sd 13·2) years. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was applied and lipid parameters were considered either as categorical or continuous variables. During follow-up, 2413 (men = 1126) participants experienced hypertension. Using the first quartile as reference, significant trends were found between quartiles of TAG, HDL-cholesterol, TC/HDL-cholesterol and TAG/HDL-cholesterol in multivariate models; moreover considering these measures as continuous variables, a 1 sd increase in each of these parameters was significantly associated with the risk of incident hypertension; the corresponding hazard ratios and CI were 1·06 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·10), 0·94 (95 % CI 0·89, 0·98), 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·09) and 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·07), respectively. The associations between lipid measures and incident hypertension did not change after excluding lipid lowering drug users and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus and these associations were independent of the categories of baseline blood pressure (P for interaction > 0·08). These findings indicate that TAG, TAG/HDL-cholesterol and TC/HDL-cholesterol were independently associated with higher risk, while HDL-cholesterol was associated with lower risk of incident hypertension.
Coarctation of the aorta is any form of narrowing of the aorta; it is often a discrete narrowing of the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, just past the point of insertion of the ductus arteriosus. The hallmark is upper extremity hypertension characterized by a differential systolic blood pressure gradient between the upper and lower extremities of at least 20 mm Hg. If left untreated the natural history involves development of accelerated coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, and/or aortic dissection. In neonates the treatment of choice is a surgical repair but in older children the decision to utilize a surgical versus an interventional cardiology approach in the catheterization laboratory is more complex. Craniosynostosis is a condition in which one or more of the sutures in an infant’s skull fuse prematurely and alter the growth pattern of the skull; it is surgically repaired, often during infancy. This chapter discusses the perioperative challenges of caring for an infant with residual coarctation of the aorta undergoing craniosynostosis repair.
Whey protein (WP) has been heavily appreciated as a rich source of bioactive peptides, with potential benefits for cardiovascular health. This study constitutes a systematic review and meta-analysis summarising the effects of WP consumption on vascular reactivity, arterial stiffness and circulatory biomarkers of vascular function. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of science for relevant articles from inception to July 2020. Original clinical trials published in English-language journals that investigated the effects of WP on vascular function were eligible. A total of 720 records were identified in the initial search; from these, sixteen were included in our systematic review and thirteen in meta-analysis. The pooled analysis of six studies showed a significant increase in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after WP consumption (weighted mean differences (WMD): 1·09 %, 95 % CI: 0·17, 2·01, P= 0·01). Meta-analysis of available data did not show any significant reduction in arterial stiffness measures including augmentation index (effect sizes: 7, WMD: −0·29 %, 95 % CI: −1·58, 0·98, P= 0·64) and pulse wave velocity (effect sizes: 4, WMD: −0·72 m/s, 95 % CI: −1·47, 0·03, P= 0·06). Moreover, the pooled analysis of six effect sizes showed no significant effects on plasma levels of nitric oxide following WP supplementation (WMD: 0·42 μmol/l, 95 % CI: −0·52, 1·36, P= 0·38). The overall results provided evidence supporting a protective effect of WP on endothelial function measured by FMD, but not for arterial stiffness measures and circulatory biomarker of vascular function. Further research is required to substantiate the benefits of WP on vascular function.
Little is known about the impact of modifiable risk factors on blood pressure (BP) trajectories and their associations with hypertension (HTN). We aimed to identify BP trajectories in normotensive Chinese adults and explore their influencing factors and associations with HTN. We used data from 3436 adults with at least four BP measurements between 1989 and 2018 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing cohort study. We measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers with appropriate cuff sizes in all surveys. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BP trajectories between 1989 and 2009 and multiple logistic and Cox regression models to analyse their influencing factors and associations with HTN in 2011–2018. We identified five systolic blood pressure (SBP) trajectories, ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Low–stable (LS)’, ‘Moderate-increasing (MI)’, ‘High-stable (HS)’ and ‘Moderate-decreasing (MD)’, and four diastolic blood pressure (DBP) trajectories classified as ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Moderate–stable (MS)’, ‘Low-stable (LS)’ and ‘High-increasing (HI)’. People with higher physical activity (PA) levels and lower waist circumferences (WC) were less likely to be in the SBP LI, MI, HS and MD groups (P < 0·05). People with higher fruit and vegetable intakes, lower WCs and salt intakes and higher PA levels were less likely to be in the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (P < 0·05). Participants in the SBP HS group (hazard ratio (HR) 2·01) or the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (HR 1·38, 1·40, 1·71, respectively) had higher risks of HTN (P < 0·05). This study suggests that BP monitoring is necessary to prevent HTN in the Chinese population.
The diagnosis of hypertension in adolescents aged ≥13 and <16 years is based on the percentile according to age, gender, and height in the European Society of Hypertension guidelines guideline; whereas, the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline uses blood pressure above 130/80 mmHg as a single criterion. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the compatibility of these two guidelines in adolescents aged ≥13 and <16 years.
This study was designed by retrospectively screening the records of 395 adolescents with both office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Each blood pressure measurement was classified according to both the ESGH2016 and AAP2017 guidelines. Patients were divided into three subgroups according to body mass index. Cohen’s kappa analysis was used to evaluate the agreement between the two guidelines.
The majority of adolescents were normotensive according to both guidelines, 55.9% by ESHG2016 and 43.1% by AAP2017. For the whole group, the frequency of hypertension was 32.4% with ESHG2016 and 34.4% with AAP2017; while, in obese patients, hypertension frequencies were 38.8% and 43.3%, respectively. The diagnosis of hypertension was demonstrated with the two guidelines, and there was significant agreement at a substantial level, both for the obese subgroup and the whole study group (kappa value = 0.738 and 0.785, respectively). The frequency of white-coat hypertension was higher with the AAP2017 guideline (28.1% versus 16.2%, p < 0.001).
With our experience in this single-centre study, it seems that both the AAP2017 and the ESHG2016 guidelines can be used in the diagnosis of hypertension in adolescents.
Preeclampsia is a new-onset hypertension with new-onset proteinuria after 20 weeks gestation. Scarce evidence regarding psychiatric effects of preeclampsia is available.
To describe a case of a pregnant 24 year-old patient with a premature cesarean section in context of severe preeclampsia and dissociative symptoms.
Patient referred to a third-level hospital for cesarean section due to a severe preeclampsia at week 32, in whom magnesium sulfate, labetalol perfusion and betamethasone are started. In the puerperium period only labetalol up to 300 mg/6h is maintained.
Due to the appearance of pulsating headache and photophobia, a computerized tomography is conducted, showing bilateral insular and occipital hypodensity related to vasogenic edema. High blood pressure is maintained (177/121 mmHg) despite antihypertensive treatment. A magnetic resonance imaging and an ophthalmologic exam do not show significant abnormalities and blood pressure is stabilized with treatment. However, the patient refers new-onset auditory imperative hallucinations and suicide thoughts, being referred to our Acute Psychiatric Ward for clinical assessment and intervention. Treatment with risperidone 2 mg is started. The day after her admission, she does not refer psychotic symptoms, explaining depersonalization symptoms in the previous 5 days, seeing herself having to choose a knife to commit suicide. After discharge, she maintains reiterative dreams in which she falls down from a building, not presenting dissociative symptoms during the day.
Further evidence regarding psychiatric effects of preeclampsia is needed in order to study the consequences of edema and pharmacological treatment. Blood pressure and psychiatric symptoms monitoring after preeclampsia should also be considered.
Children with a family history of hypertension have higher blood pressure and hypertensive pathophysiological changes begin before clinical findings. Here, the presence of arterial stiffness was investigated using central blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis in normotensive children with at least one parent with essential hypertension. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory pulse wave analysis monitoring was performed by oscillometric method in a study group of 112 normotensive children of hypertensive parents aged between 7 and 18 comparing with a control group of 101 age- and gender-matched normotensive children of normotensive parents. Pulse wave velocity, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure values were higher in the study group than the control group (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.008, p = 0.001, p = 0.005, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). In all age groups (7–10, 11–14, and 15–18 years), pulse wave velocity was higher in the study group than the control group (p < 0.001). Pulse wave velocity was higher in children whose both parents are hypertensive compared to the children whose only mothers are hypertensive (p = 0.011). Pulse wave velocity values were positively correlated with age, weight, height, and body mass index (p < 0.05). Higher pulse wave velocity, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure values detected in the study group can be considered as early signs of hypertensive vascular changes. Pulse wave analysis can be a reliable, non-invasive, and reproducible method that can allow taking necessary precautions regarding lifestyle to prevent disease and target organ damage by detecting early hypertensive changes in genetically risky children.
To investigate associations of egg intake with blood pressure (BP) and the role of dietary variables and other macro- and micro-nutrients in the association.
We used cross-sectional data for the USA as part of the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP). INTERMAP was surveyed between 1996 and 1999, including four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections and eight measurements of systolic BP and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP). Average egg intake (g/d) was calculated. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association between egg intake (per each 50 g/d or per quintile) and BP. The roles of dietary variables and other macro- and micro-nutrients in this association were also investigated.
In the USA.
In total, 2195 US INTERMAP men and women aged 40–59 years.
Participants were 50 % female, 54 % non-Hispanic White and 16 % non-Hispanic Black. Mean egg intake (sd) in men and women was 30·4(29·8) and 21·6(20·5) g/d, respectively. Adjusting for demographics, socio-economics, lifestyle and urinary Na:K excretion ratios, we found non-linear associations with BP in non-obese women (P-quadratic terms: 0·004 for SBP and 0·035 for DBP).The associations remained after adjusting for dietary variables, macro/micro nutrients or minerals. Dietary cholesterol was highly correlated with egg intake and may factor in the association. No association was found in obese women and in obese or non-obese men.
Egg intake was non-linearly associated with SBP and DBP in non-obese women, but not in obese women or men. Underlying mechanisms require additional study regarding the role of obesity and sex.
Se reduces cellular inflammation and lipid peroxides; therefore, its association with CVD and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been studied. We aimed to investigate the association between Se intake and the MetS and its parameters (high waist circumference, hyperglycaemia, high blood pressure, high TAG and low HDL-cholesterol) in Brazilian adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. This research is part of the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a Brazilian nationwide school-based study with regional and national relevance. We assessed: (1) socio-demographic data (sex, age, type of school and maternal education) using a self-administered questionnaire; (2) dietary intake using a 24-h recall applied for the whole sample and a second one applied to a subsample to allow within-person variability adjustment; (3) anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) and blood pressure using standardised procedures; and (4) biochemical analyses (fasting glucose, TAG and HDL-cholesterol). Logistic regression was applied, basing the analysis on a theoretical model. Median Se intake was 98·3 µg/d. Hypertension and hyperglycaemia were more prevalent among boys, while a high waist circumference was more frequent in girls, and low HDL-cholesterol levels were higher among private school students. The prevalence of the MetS was 2·6 %. No association between the MetS and its parameters and Se intake was found. This lack of association could be due to an adequate Se intake in the studied population.
The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI–mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI–mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.
In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status.
Longitudinal population-based cohort.
17 262 adults ≥18 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area in China.
During a median 6-year follow-up, we recorded 1109 deaths (610 with and 499 without hypertension). In adjusted models, as compared with BMI 22–24 kg/m2, with BMI ≤ 18, 18–20, 20–22, 24–26, 26–28, 28–30 and >30 kg/m2, the hazard ratios for mortality in normotensive participants were 1·92 (95% CI 1·23, 3·00), 1·44 (95% CI 1·01, 2·05), 1·14 (95% CI 0·82, 1·58), 0·96 (95% CI 0·70, 1·31), 0·96 (95% CI 0·65, 1·43), 1·32 (95% CI 0·81, 2·14) and 1·32 (95% CI 0·74, 2·35), respectively, and in hypertensive participants were 1·85 (95% CI 1·08, 3·17), 1·67 (95% CI 1·17, 2·39), 1·29 (95% CI 0·95, 1·75), 1·20 (95% CI 0·91, 1·58), 1·10 (95% CI 0·83, 1·46), 1·10 (95% CI 0·80, 1·52) and 0·61 (95% CI 0·40, 0·94), respectively. The risk of mortality was lower in individuals with hypertension with overweight or obesity v. normal weight, especially in older hypertensives (≥60 years old). Sensitivity analyses gave consistent results for both normotensive and hypertensive participants.
Low BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality regardless of hypertension status in rural Chinese adults, but high BMI decreased the mortality risk among individuals with hypertension, especially in older hypertensives.
The goal of the present study was to investigate the association between PTSD and the onset of hypertension in previously normotensive individuals in a population living in the stressful environment of the urban slums while controlling for risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Participants were 320 normotensive individuals who lived in slums and were attending a family doctor program. Measurements included a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, clinical status and life habits, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Incident hypertension was defined as the first occurrence at the follow-up review of the medical records of (1) systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher, (2) the participant started taking antihypertensive medication, or (3) a new diagnosis of hypertension made by a physician. Differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics between hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals were compared using the χ2 and t tests. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Six variables – age, educational level, body mass, smoking, diabetes, and PTSD diagnosis – showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.20) association with the hypertensive status. In the Cox regression, only PTSD diagnosis was significantly associated with incident hypertension (multivariate HR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.11–3.40).
The present findings highlight the importance of considering a diagnostic hypothesis of PTSD in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.