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The US Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends increased consumption of the dairy group to three daily servings for ages 9+ years to help achieve adequate intakes of prominent shortfall nutrients. Identifying affordable, consumer-acceptable foods to replace dairy’s shortfall nutrients is important especially for people who avoid dairy.
Linear programming identified food combinations to replace dairy’s protein and shortfall nutrients. We examined cost, energy and dietary implications of replacing dairy with food combinations optimised for lowest cost, fewest kJ or the smallest amount of food by weight.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011–2014).
Nationally representative sample of US population; 2 years and older (n 15 830).
Phase 1 (only dairy foods excluded): when optimised for lowest cost or fewest kJ, all non-dairy food replacements required large amounts (2·5–10 cups) of bottled/tap water. Phase 2 (dairy and unreasonable non-dairy foods excluded (e.g. baby foods; tap/bottled water): when intake of non-dairy foods was constrained to <90th percentile of current intake, the lowest cost food combination replacements for dairy cost 0·5 times more and provide 5·7 times more energy; the lowest energy food combinations cost 5·9 times more, provide 2·5 times more energy and require twice the amount of food by weight; and food combinations providing the smallest amount of food by weight cost 3·5 times more and provide five times more energy than dairy.
Identifying affordable, consumer-acceptable foods that can replace dairy’s shortfall nutrients at both current and recommended dairy intakes remains a challenge.
An understanding of the nexus of organic fertilizer use decisions that smallholder farmers take is essential to designing relevant policy to support adoption in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we applied exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on observed farmer decisions to identify a set of common management approaches that farmers in the northeastern part of Ghana adopt in using organic fertilizer. After identification, seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) analysis was applied to relate each approach to farmer characteristics that influence uptake decisions. The EFA identified four approaches, labeled as Augmentary Compost Use Approach, Urban Human Waste Organic Fertilizer Approach, Integrated Livestock Manure Approach and Mineral Fertilizer Cost Constraint Organic Approach. Each of the first three approaches involves a set of strategic farmer decisions which could be supported to increase organic fertilizer use. The SUR analysis showed that the uptake of each approach is affected by different subsets of farmer characteristics. However, participation in organic fertilizer management training positively influences the adoption of all four approaches. Thus, we recommend free training of smallholder farmers as a core element of any policy package to support organic fertilizer adoption.
There is a fundamental concern regarding the prediction of kiwifruit yield based on the concentration of nutrients in the leaf (2–3 months before fruits harvesting). For this purpose, the current study was designed to employ an artificial neural network (ANN) to evaluate the kiwi yield of Hayward cultivar. In this regard, 31 kiwi orchards (6–7 years old) in different parts of Rudsar, Guilan Province, Iran, with 101 plots (three trees in every plot) were selected. The complete leaves of branches with fruits were harvested, and the concentration of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium measured. After fruit harvesting in late November, the fruit yield of each plot was evaluated along with the fresh and dry weights of the fruit. The ANN analyses were carried out using a multi-layer perceptron with the Langburge-Marquardt training algorithm. Using calcium (Ca) as input data (Ca-model) was more accurate than using nitrogen (N-model). The maximum R2 and the lowest root mean square error was obtained when all nutrients and related ratios were considered as input variables. Since the difference between the proposed model and the model fitted by the calcium variable (Ca-model) was only about 6%, the Ca-model is recommended.
Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important phytophagous pest of Trichosanthes anguina L. in India. We studied life table parameters by age-stage, two-sex, amylolytic and proteolytic activities, and food utilization parameters of D. indica on the leaves of three T. anguina cultivars (Baruipur Long, Polo No. 1 and MNSR-1). Further, nutrients (total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, amino acids and nitrogen) and antinutrients (total phenols, flavonols and tannins) in leaves were determined. The development time (egg to adult emergence) was the shortest on MNSR-1 (19.79 d) and the longest on Polo No. 1 (25.72 d). Fecundity was the highest and lowest on MNSR-1 (259 eggs) and Polo No. 1 (151.22 eggs), respectively. The lowest intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and net reproductive rate (R0) of D. indica on Polo No. 1 were 0.1112 d−1 and 27.22 offspring individual−1, respectively. The mean generation time (T) was the shortest on MNSR-1 (23.99 days) and the longest on Polo No. 1 (29.70 d). The larvae of D. indica fed with MNSR-1 had the highest level of amylolytic and proteolytic activities, and the lowest activities were in the larvae fed with Polo No. 1. The fifth-instar larvae fed with Polo No. 1 had the lowest consumption index and growth rate. The higher larval development time and lower fecundity of D. indica on Polo No. 1 were due to the lower level of nutrients and a higher level of antinutrients than other cultivars. Our results concluded that Polo No. 1 cultivar could be suggested for cultivation.
To assess the usual dietary intake of twenty micronutrients and to identify their food sources in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents.
Cross-sectional data from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS). Vitamin and mineral intakes were estimated from two 24 h dietary recalls by sex and age groups. Estimates were calculated using the National Research Council method and the statistical software package Stata13 to account for within- and between-person variations. The prevalence of nutrients’ inadequacy among sample was estimated using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. The contribution of food groups to nutrient intake was estimated to identify micronutrients food sources.
Children and adolescents aged 1–19 years (n 577) who provided sufficient and plausible 24-h recalls.
A substantial percentage of children and adolescents had insufficient intakes of numerous micronutrients. Usual intake of vitamins D, K and potassium was inadequate in practically all individuals. Vitamin A, folate, Ca and Mg were also insufficient to a considerable percentage, especially in girls aged 14–18 years. Pantothenic acid was highlighted as nutrient of interest since only one out of ten boys 9–13 years and girls 14–19 years had intake above the EAR. Data demonstrated that food groups highly ranked in energy contribution were not necessarily important sources of micronutrients.
Results suggest that micronutrient density of Greek children and adolescents’ diet should be improved. These findings might be used by public health policy-makers to help young people optimise their food choices in Greece.
The Nutrition Society's 1st Annual Nutrition and Cancer Networking Conference brought together scientists from the fields of Nutrition, Epidemiology, Public Health, Medical Oncology and Surgery with representatives of the public, cancer survivors and cancer charities. Speakers representing these different groups presented the challenges to collaboration, how the needs of patients and the public can be met, and the most promising routes for future research. The conference programme promoted debate on these issues to highlight current gaps in understanding and barriers to generating and implementing evidence-based nutrition advice. The main conclusions were that the fundamental biology of how nutrition influences the complex cancer risk profiles of diverse populations needs to be better understood. Individual and population level genetics interact with the environment over a lifespan to dictate cancer risk. Large charities and government have a role to play in diminishing our current potently obesogenic environment and exploiting nutrition to reduce cancer deaths. Understanding how best to communicate, advise and support individuals wishing to make dietary and lifestyle changes, can reduce cancer risk, enhance recovery and improve the lives of those living with and beyond cancer.
All multicellular organisms, be they heterotroph or autotroph, saprophyte or detritivore, herbivore or carnivore, harbour a distinct microbiome that is adapted to aid the flow of nutrients to its host. Often these symbioses have a long evolutionary history. This microbially mediated release of nutrients has implications for host health at the organismal scale, as well as environmental turnover and regulation of nutrient cycles on the global scale. Classic examples of plant–soil nutrient dynamics include symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia and Frankia spp. in leguminous and non-leguminous species, respectively, and the mycorrhizal symbioses that facilitate the release of phosphorous for plants by fungi in return for carbon produced via photosynthesis. A number of invertebrate–microbe symbioses have also been studied in detail, including aphids and nutrient-fixing symbionts, fungal gardens of leafcutter ants and termites, and honeybees and pollen digestion. We provide an overview of these here, in addition to the interactions between gut microbes and nutrition in vertebrates, particularly humans and agriculturally important species.
To examine associations of tree nut snack (TNS) consumption with diet quality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in UK adults from National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008–2014.
Cross-sectional analysis using data from 4-d food diaries, blood samples and physical measurements for CVD risk markers. To estimate diet quality, modified Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and modified Healthy Diet Score (HDS) were applied. Associations of TNS consumption with diet quality and markers of CVD risk were investigated using survey-adjusted multivariable linear regression adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, socio-economic and smoking status, region of residency and total energy and alcohol intake.
UK free-living population.
4738 adults (≥19 years).
TNS consumers had higher modified MDS and HDS relative to non-consumers. TNS consumers also had lower BMI, WC, SBP and DBP and higher HDL compared to non-consumers, although a dose-related fully adjusted significant association between increasing nut intake (g per 4184 kJ/1000 kcal energy intake) and lower marker of CVD risk was only observed for SBP. TNS consumption was also associated with higher intake of total fat, mono-, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, vitamin A, thiamin, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium and iron; and lower intake of saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, total carbohydrate, starch, free sugar, sodium and chloride.
TNS consumers report better dietary quality and consumption was associated with lower CVD risk factors. Encouraging replacement of less healthy snacks with TNS should be encouraged as part of general dietary guidelines.
The purpose of the present review is to describe how human physiology at very low carbohydrate intakes relates to the criteria for nutritional essentiality. Although we did not limit ourselves to one particular type or function of carbohydrates, we did primarily focus on glucose utilisation as that function was used to determine the recommended daily allowance. In the general population, the human body is able to endogenously synthesise carbohydrates, and does not show signs of deficiency in the absence of dietary carbohydrates. However, in certain genetic defects, such as glycogen storage disease type I, absence of dietary carbohydrates causes abnormalities that are resolved with dietary supplementation of carbohydrates. Therefore, dietary carbohydrates may be defined as conditionally essential nutrients because they are nutrients that are not required in the diet for the general population but are required for specific subpopulations. Ketosis may be considered a physiological normal state due to its occurrence in infants in addition to at very low carbohydrate intakes. Although sources of dietary carbohydrates can provide beneficial micronutrients, no signs of micronutrient deficiencies have been reported in clinical trials of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets. Nonetheless, more research is needed on how micronutrient requirements can change depending on the dietary and metabolic context. More research is also needed on the role of dietary fibre during a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet as the beneficial effects of dietary fibre were determined on a standard diet and several studies have shown beneficial effects of decreasing non-digestible carbohydrates.
The community composition of zooplankton with an emphasis on copepods was assessed in the frontal zones of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (SO) during summer 2013. Copepods were the dominant group in both the bongo net and multiple plankton sampler across the entire region. High zooplankton abundance was recorded along each transect in the Polar Front (PF). Community structure in this front was dominated by common taxa, including Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus spp., Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, Calanus australis and Rhincalanus gigas, which together accounted for > 62% of the total abundance. Calocalanus spp., Neocalanus tonsus and C. propinquus were indicator species in the Sub-Tropical Front (STF), Sub-Antarctic Front and PF, respectively. A strong contrast in population structure and biovolume was observed between then PF and the STF. The community structure of smaller copepods was associated with the high-temperature region, whereas communities of larger copepods were associated with the low-temperature region. Thus, it seems probable that physical and biological characteristics of the SO frontal regions are controlling the abundance and distribution of zooplankton community structure by restricting some species to the warmer stratified zones and some species to the well-mixed zone.
The role of meat in the diet has come under scrutiny recently due to an increased public emphasis on providing healthy diets from sustainable food systems and due to health concerns relating to the consumption of red and processed meat. The present review aimed to summarise dietary guidelines relating to meat, actual meat intakes and the contribution of meat to energy and nutrient intakes of children, teenagers and adults in Europe. The available literature has shown that food-based dietary guidelines for most countries recommend consuming lean meat in moderation and many recommend limiting red and processed meat consumption. Mean intakes of total meat in Europe range from 40 to 160 g/d in children and teenagers and from 75 to 233 g/d in adults. Meat contributes to important nutrients such as protein, PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and essential minerals such as Fe and Zn; however, processed meat contributes to significant proportions of saturated fat and Na across population groups. While few data are available on diaggregated intakes of red and processed meat, where data are available, mean intakes in adults are higher than the upper limits recommended by the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (70 g/d) and the World Cancer Research Fund (500 g/week). While there are no recommendations for red and processed meat consumption in children and teenagers, intakes currently range from 30 to 76 g/d. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of the role of meat in the European diet which may be of use to stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the agri-food sector.
Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link] is a drought-tolerant invasive grass that is a threat to native biodiversity in the drylands of the Americas and Australia. Despite efforts from land managers to control P. ciliare, management approaches tend to have mixed success, treatment results can be poorly communicated among entities, and there are few long-term controlled studies. In this literature review, we synthesize data from both peer-reviewed and “gray” literature on the efficacy of management techniques to control P. ciliare and the secondary impacts to native plant communities. Our search resulted in 42 unique sources containing a total of 229 studies that we categorized into 10 treatment types, which included herbicide, seeding, manual removal, fire, grazing, biocontrol, fire + additional treatments, manual removal + additional treatments, herbicide + additional treatments, and herbicide + manual removal. We found that treatments that used multiple techniques in tandem along with follow-up treatments were the most effective at controlling P. ciliare. Fewer than one-third of the studies reported impacts of management on native species, and the most commonly studied treatment (herbicide, N = 130) showed detrimental impacts on native plant communities. However, the average time between treatment and outcome measurement was only 15 mo; we suggest the need for more long-term studies of treatment efficacy and secondary impacts of treatment on the ecosystem. Finally, we conducted a second literature review on P. ciliare biology and traits for mechanisms that allows P. ciliare to alter the invaded environment to facilitate a competitive advantage over native species. We found evidence of self-reinforcing feedbacks of invasion being generated by P. ciliare through its interactions with water availability, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes. We developed a conceptual model of P. ciliare based on these feedback loops and offer management considerations based on its invasion dynamics and biology.
Much of the global population lacks access to basic public sanitation, energy and fertilizers. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion presents an opportunity for low-cost decentralized waste management that creates valuable co-products of renewable energy and organic fertilizer. However, field-based assessments of system performance and clearly articulated guidelines for digestate management and field application are needed. Feedstocks and effluent from seven digesters in Kampala, Uganda were monitored for standard wastewater and fertilizer metrics including indicator organisms (Escherichia coli and fecal coliform), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorous (TP), heavy metals, pH, temperature and total solids (TS) over 2 yr. Results reveal that digester effluent does not meet standards for wastewater discharge or international safety standards for field application. Data indicate that digestate could be a suitable source of fertilizer (TKN = 1467 mg L−1, TP = 214 mg L−1) but poses issues for water quality if not managed properly (TS = 26,091 mg L−1, COD = 3471 mg L−1 and BOD5 = 246 mg L−1). While effluent from the digester contained pathogen indicator organisms (fecal coliform = 8.13 × 105 CFU/100 ml, E. coli = 3.27 × 105 CFU/100 ml), they were lower than the influent concentrations, and lower than reported concentrations in drainage canals. All digestate samples contained little to no heavy metals suggesting effective source separation. Data suggest that micro-scale biogas systems have potential to improve waste handling and meet standards associated with fertilizer application with proper post-digestion treatment.
Breast cancer (BC) is a growing public health concern in most developed and developing countries. Since an increasing number of patients with BC are diagnosed before the menopause and premenopausal women show a more aggressive phenotype, there is consistent interest in promoting prevention strategies in order to reduce the incidence of BC in the premenopause. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been reported to have beneficial effect in terms of cancer prevention. This healthy dietary pattern consists primarily of foods having important antioxidant properties along with a favourable fatty acid profile, all associated with a reduced risk of cancer. Due to the large variability in study subject characteristics, the protective role of the MD on BC still remains controversial and studies that have investigated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of BC in premenopausal women are fewer than those in postmenopausal women. In addition, the possibility that the beneficial effects of the MD are due to a single component or might more probably derive from the synergic effects of all components of the MD remains a scantly explored field. Considering the increased risk of recurrence and mortality rate of BC in premenopausal women as compared with postmenopausal women, the aim of the present report is to provide a general overview of the current evidence on the relationship between BC and the MD specifically in premenopausal women, and to emphasise the potential role of the MD as an effective measure to reduce the risk of developing BC in premenopausal women.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The present study explored genetic risk scores (GRS) of genetic variants that influence the MetS and the effect of interactions between GRS and nutrient intake on MetS risk. The genetic variants that influence MetS risk were selected by genome-wide association study after adjusting for age, sex, area of residence and BMI in 8840 middle-aged adults. GRS were calculated by summing the risk alleles of the selected SNP and divided into low (0–1), medium (2–3) and high (4–7) risk groups, and the relationships between the MetS and GRS were determined by logistic regression after adjusting covariates involved in MetS risk. We also analysed the interaction between GRS and lifestyles. Four genetic variants (APOA5_rs651821, EFCAB4B_rs4766165, ZNF259_rs2160669 and APOBEC1_rs10845640) were selected because they increased MetS risk after adjusting for covariates. Individuals with medium-GRS and high-GRS alleles had a higher MetS risk by 1·48- and 2·23-fold, respectively, compared with those with low-GRS after adjusting for covariates. The increase in MetS risk was mainly related to serum TAG and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The GRS had an interaction with carbohydrate (CHO) and Na intakes and daily physical activities for MetS risk. In conclusion, Asian middle-aged adults with high-GRS alleles were at increased MetS risk mainly due to dyslipidaemia. High daily physical activity (≥1 h moderate activity per d) reduced the MetS risk but a low-CHO diet (<65 % of total energy intake) increased the risk in carriers with high-GRS alleles. Low Na intake (<1·6 g Na intake/4 MJ) did not decrease its risk.
To evaluate the dietary diversity and the nutrient contribution of traditional foods (locally cultivated and wild) by conducting a food intake study in rural Ecuador.
Repeated 24 h recalls over a 14 d interval and frequency of consumption served to simulate the usual diet by the Multiple Source Method. Data on missing visits (n 11) were imputed using multivariate imputation by chained equations. The intakes of three macro- and six micronutrients were reported. Nutrient Adequacy Ratios, Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), Dietary Species Richness (DSR) and Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women were used as measures of dietary quality. A linear quantile mixed model was used to investigate the association between DSR, local species, MAR, age, education and occupation.
Guasaganda, Cotopaxi (Ecuador).
Rural, indigenous adult women, non-pregnant and not breast-feeding.
The studied diet had MAR of 0·78. Consumption of traditional foods contributed 38·6 % of total energy intake. Daily requirements for protein, carbohydrates, Fe and vitamin C were reached. An extra level of consumption of local species was associated with an increase in median MAR for macronutrients of 0·033 (P < 0·001). On the other hand, an extra level of consumption of local species was associated with an increase in median MAR for micronutrients of 0·052 (P < 0·001).
We found statistical evidence that traditional foods contribute to adequate intakes of macro- and micronutrients and dietary diversification in the studied population. Future public health interventions should promote the cultivation and consumption of traditional foods to increase the quality of the local diet.
Although bariatric surgery is approved for a woman of child-bearing age with an interest in subsequent pregnancy, reports of in utero growth issues during pregnancy have garnered a closer look at the impact of maternal surgical weight loss on the pre- and postpartum periods. Offspring of dams having received vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are born small-for-gestational age and have increased risk for metabolic syndrome later in life. Here, we aimed to determine whether the postnatal catch-up growth trajectory of bariatric offspring may be affected by milk composition. Milk samples were collected at postnatal day 15/16 from dams having received VSG surgery and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (H-VSG), Sham surgery and fed chow (C-Sham), or Sham surgery and fed HFD (H-Sham). Milk obtained from H-VSG dams had elevated glucose (P < 0.05) and significantly reduced triglyceride content (P < 0.01). Milk from H-Sham dams had the lowest amount of milk protein (P < 0.05). Fatty acid composition measured by fractionation was largely not affected by surgery but rather maternal diet. No difference was observed in milk leptin levels; however, insulin, adiponectin, and growth hormone levels were significantly increased in milk from H-VSG animals. H-Sham had the lowest level of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, whereas IgG was significantly reduced in H-VSG. Taken together, the quality of milk from H-VSG dams suggests that milk composition could be a factor in reducing the rate of growth during the lactation period.
Higher fibre intake reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among healthy population, but such data in dialysis patients are limited. We aimed to examine these associations in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). This single-centre prospective cohort study enrolled 881 incident PD patients between October 2002 and August 2014. All patients were followed until death, transfer to haemodialysis, renal transplantation or until being censored in June 2018. Demographic data were collected at baseline. Biochemical, dietary and nutrition data were examined at baseline and thereafter at regular intervals to calculate the average values throughout the study. The outcomes were defined as all-cause and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional regression models were applied to explore the relationship between fibre intake and outcomes. Participants with higher fibre intake were more likely to be younger, male and have better residual renal function and serum lipids at baseline. They were prone to maintain better nutrient status, higher blood pressure and lower inflammatory status at baseline and afterwards. Neither baseline nor time-averaged fibre intake did show protective effects on all-cause mortality after multivariate adjustment in the whole cohort. Among non-diabetic PD patients, an independent association between fibre intake and all-cause mortality was found, in which each 1 g/d increase in time-averaged fibre intake correlated to 13 % of reduction in all-cause mortality. We did not observe any benefits of fibre intake in the CVD mortality for both whole cohort and subgroups. The present study revealed that higher dietary fibre intake appeared to have a protective effect on all-cause mortality in non-diabetic PD patients, which suggest that PD patients should be encouraged to eat a diet rich in fibres.
Agroforestry (AF) is considered to be a sustainable land use practice as it combines agricultural production with multiple beneficial effects such as carbon sequestration, enhanced nutrient cycling and increased biodiversity. Quantification of these beneficial effects in temperate arable fields is still limited, however, and most studies focus on one sole parameter (i.e., impact on crop productivity, soil quality, biodiversity, etc.). Combined effects are only rarely considered, resulting in a lack of integrated quantification. Here we assess the effect of rows of walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) on soil organic carbon (SOC), soil nutrient status, the presence of potentially beneficial ground-dwelling arthropods and on the yield and quality of neighboring arable crops. Significantly higher SOC and soil nutrient concentrations were found near the trees, which is assumed to be primarily a result of tree leaf litter input. Abundance of macro-detritivorous arthropods was increased in and near the tree rows, whereas only limited effects of tree presence were found on the presence of the predatory arthropod taxa under study. The yield of all crops under study was reduced as a result of tree presence, with the strongest reductions observed for grain maize and sugar beet near the trees (<10 m). In addition, alteration of crop quality was observed near tree rows with decreased dry matter concentration of grain samples and increased crude protein concentration of winter cereals.
In 2000, we established a 24-ha plot in Peninsular Thailand to investigate how forest composition, structure and dynamics vary with spatial heterogeneity in resource availability. Detailed soil and topographic surveys were used to describe four edaphic habitats in the plot. Disturbance history was inferred from historical records and floristic analysis. The plot included >119 000 trees ≥1 cm dbh in 578 species, and was recensused in 2010. Species distributions, floristic turnover, stand structure, demographic rates and biomass dynamics were strongly influenced by heterogeneity in soils, topography and disturbance history. Over 75% of species were aggregated on specific edaphic habitats leading to strong compositional turnover across the plot. Soil chemistry more strongly affected species turnover than topography. Forest with high biomass and slow dynamics occurred on well-drained, low fertility ridges. The distribution and size structure of pioneer species reflected habitat-specific differences in disturbance history. Overall, above-ground biomass (AGB) increased by 0.64 Mg ha−1 y−1, from 385 to 392 Mg ha−1, an increase that was entirely attributable to recovery after natural disturbance. Forest composition and stand structure, by reflecting local disturbance history, provide insights into the likely drivers of AGB change in forests. Predicting future changes in tropical forests requires improved understanding of how soils and disturbance regulate forest dynamics.