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Understanding trends in grain consumption is essential to tackle the low consumption of healthful grain foods. This study aimed to evaluate trends and determinants of grain foods meeting the ≤10:1 carbohydrate:fibre ratio (≤10:1 ratio) in Brazil and to estimate this intake for the next years.
Three editions of the cross-sectional, population-based study Health Survey of São Paulo (2003, 2008 and 2015).
Urban area of São Paulo, Brazil.
The sample included 5801 participants aged 12 years or more.
A growing trend in the intake of these foods (0·9 percentage of energy (%E) in 2003 to 1·5 %E in 2015) was observed. Also, the proportion of the population consuming at least one grain food meeting the ≤10:1 ratio increased from 8·7 % in 2003 to 15·8 % in 2015, and 20·3 % of the population would be consuming some kind of healthful grain food by 2030. Sociodemographic factors associated with the consumption of grain foods meeting the ≤10:1 ratio changed according to study edition, but overall, older individuals (+79 %), females (+28 %), those with higher education (+138 %) and higher family income (+135 %) were more likely to consume grain foods meeting the ratio, whereas participants who self-reported black, brown or indigenous ethnicity were less likely to consume these foods (–30 %).
There was a growing trend to consume grain foods meeting the ≤10:1 ratio from 2003 to 2015, but this consumption continues to be far from recommended levels. Intersectoral changes are urgently needed in order to increase the intake of healthful grain foods.
Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) have become the main instrument to combat poverty in Latin America, they have been exported around the globe and are one of the most popular social policies of the twenty-first century. CCTs deliver cash transfers to poor families with conditionalities like attendance to school and health appointments. This article aims to explain the creation of CCTs. The research applies arguments from theories of social policy development to explain the formulation of the first two CCTs introduced in Brazil at the sub-national level and in Mexico at the national level during the mid-1990s. Findings show that the original formulation of CCTs can be explained by the emergence of a new policy paradigm based on a conceptualisation of the nature of poverty as lack of human capital among poor population, enabled by critical junctures created by the transitions to democratic regimes.
This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with mortality and survival of COVID-19 cases in a state of the Brazilian Northeast. It is a historical cohort with a secondary database of 2070 people that presented flu-like symptoms, sought health assistance in the state and tested positive to COVID-19 until 14 April 2020, only moderate and severe cases were hospitalised. The main outcome was death as a binary variable (yes/no). It also investigated the main factors related to mortality and survival of the disease. Time since the beginning of symptoms until death/end of the survey (14 April 2020) was the time variable of this study. Mortality was analysed by robust Poisson regression, and survival by Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression. From the 2070 people that tested positive to COVID-19, 131 (6.3%) died and 1939 (93.7%) survived, the overall survival probability was 87.7% from the 24th day of infection. Mortality was enhanced by the variables: elderly (HR 3.6; 95% CI 2.3–5.8; P < 0.001), neurological diseases (HR 3.9; 95% CI 1.9–7.8; P < 0.001), pneumopathies (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4–4.7; P < 0.001) and cardiovascular diseases (HR 8.9; 95% CI 5.4–14.5; P < 0.001). In conclusion, mortality by COVID-19 in Ceará is similar to countries with a large number of cases of the disease, although deaths occur later. Elderly people and comorbidities presented a greater risk of death.
Brazilians comprise a rapidly growing immigrant Latino group in the USA, yet little research has focused on health issues affecting Brazilian children in immigrant families. As increasing evidence is documenting fathers’ influential role in their children’s eating behaviours and ultimately weight status, the current study sought to explore the Brazilian immigrant fathers’ perspectives and practices related to child’s feeding practices and their preschool-aged children’s eating.
Qualitative study using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted in Portuguese by native Brazilian research staff using a semi-structured interview guide. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically using a hybrid approach that incorporated deductive and inductive analytical approaches.
Twenty-one Brazilian immigrant fathers who had at least one child aged 2–5 years.
Results revealed fathers’ awareness of the importance of healthy eating for their children, their influence as role models and their involvement in feeding routines of their preschool-aged children. Moreover, fathers were receptive to participating in family interventions to promote their children’s healthy eating. Nearly all fathers reported wanting to learn more and to do ‘what’s right’ for their children.
The current study provides new information about Brazilian immigrant fathers’ views about factors influencing their children’s healthy eating behaviours and paternal feeding practices. Future research should quantify fathers’ feeding styles and practices and solicit fathers’ input in the design of culturally appropriate family interventions targeting the home environment of preschool-aged children of Brazilian immigrant families.
Each of these chapters contains a case study of a couple from the relevant country. Each includes a description of the everyday life of the couple with respect to the division of housework and childcare, a recounting of the history of their relationship and how it became equal, a discussion of how they balance paid work and family, and an analysis of the factors that facilitate their equality. Those factors include their conviction in gender equality, their rejection of essentialist beliefs, their familism, and their socialization in their families of origin. By showing how and why they undo gender, these couples provide lessons on how equality at home can be achieved.
This chapter begins with an overview of international festivals in the region before moving into a detailed examination of the often-competing dynamics and complexities operating within today’s Latin American theatre festival. The chapter centres on two of the region’s major festivals – Chile’s annual Santiago a Mil Festival and Argentina’s biannual Festival Internacional de Buenos Aires – in order to illustrate fundamental differences that range from origins to institutional and funding structures to programming decisions and even to individual festivals’ varied relationships to the international cultural marketplace. Albeit easily dismissed as ‘encuentros vitrina’ (display- or show-case encounters), and despite having cemented a professional and commercial inter-festival relationship in recent years, the two festivals converge and diverge significantly, thus offering insights into the challenges and opportunities found in contemporary Latin American theatre festivals when positioned within the international festival circuits.
This article offers an analysis of the transnational discursive construction processes informing Latin American security governance in the aftermath of 9/11. It demonstrates that the Global War on Terror provided an opportunity for external and aligned local knowledge producers in the security establishments throughout the Americas to reframe Latin America's security problems through the promotion of a militarised security epistemology, and derived policies, centred on the region's ‘convergent threats’. In tracing the discursive repercussions of this epistemic reframing, the article shows that, by tapping into these discourses, military bureaucracies throughout the Americas were able to overcome their previous institutional marginalisation vis-à-vis civilian agencies. This development contributed to the renaissance of counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism discourses and policies in the region, allowing countries such as Colombia and Brazil to reposition themselves globally by exporting their military expertise for confronting post-9/11 threats beyond the region.
In the mid-1950s, the United States became the largest destination for Israeli emigration. While Israeli emigrants heading to the United States did not experience the troubles faced by remigrants in Europe, the movement to the United States was not free of frictions and hardships. Migrants faced obstacles emanating from American immigration policies and from the negative attitude of Jewish aid organizations towards emigration from Israel. This attitude in turn led to debates among American Jews regarding the proper attitude towards Jewish migrants moving from Israel to the United States. Emigration from Israel subsequently became a polarizing issue in the American Jewish community. As the chapter shows, it played a similar role, with varying degrees of intensity, in other Jewish communities in the Americas such as those of Brazil and Canada.
Despite these difficulties, however, tens of thousands of emigrants from Israel were able to settle in America – and as their testimonies reveal, many succeeded in building new lives there. They thus repudiated the concept of the rejection of exile and offered a tangible alternative to the idea that Jewish existence outside Israel was pointless or untenable.
To update the estimation of the prevalence of anaemia in Brazilian children according to four different epidemiological scenarios.
A new systematic review was conducted with a meta-analysis of the results published between 2007 and May 2019. Literature search was carried out in the PubMed and LILACS databases using keywords anaemia, child and Brazil. A total of thirty-seven articles (17 741 children) were selected and categorised according to the origin of their respective samples: childcare centres (Childcare; n 13 studies/2697 individuals), health services (Services; n 4/755), populations with social inequities (Inequities, n 7/6798) and population-based studies (Populations; n 13/7491). Assuming a prevalence of 20·9 % as reference (Health National Survey; n 3455), the combined prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated. A random-effects model was used.
Brazilian children 6–60 months of age.
The prevalence of anaemia, by scenario, was: Childcare 24·8 % (PR 1·06; 95 % CI 0·81, 1·40); Services 39·9 % (PR 1·76, 95 % CI 1·33, 2·35); Inequities 51·6 % (PR 2·02, 95 % CI 1·87, 2·18); and Populations 35·8 % (PR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·23, 1·64). Therefore, the values were all higher than the national prevalence; the Inequities had the highest prevalence, and only Childcare did not reach statistical significance. Concerning the previous meta-analysis, there was a reduction in anaemia prevalence in all scenarios: –52·3, –33·7, –22·4 and –10·7 %, respectively.
Compared to the situation revealed in the previous meta-analysis, anaemia, although observed to a lesser extent, remains an important public health problem in the different scenarios analysed, especially for children living in Inequities. Access to Childcare mitigates the risk for this condition.
The Santa Elina rock shelter (Central Brazil) was recurrently occupied from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Holocene. We compare sets of previously published anthracological analyses with new data to reconstruct the landscape, vegetation, and climate over the several thousand years of occupation, providing information on firewood management from about 27,000 to about 1500 cal BP. Laboratory analyses followed standard anthracological procedures. We identified 34 botanical families and 84 genera in a sample of almost 5,000 charcoal pieces. The Leguminosae family dominates the assemblage, followed by Anacardiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Sapotaceae. The area surrounding the shelter was forested throughout the studied period. The local landscape was formed, as it is today, by a mosaic of vegetation types that include forest formations and open cerrado. Some regional vegetation changes may have occurred over time. Our data corroborate the practice of opportunistic firewood gathering in all periods of site occupation, despite a possible cultural preference for some taxa. The very long occupation of Santa Elina may be due not only to its attractiveness as a rock shelter but also to the continuously forested vegetation around it. It was a good place to live.
Complementary feeding (CF) and overweight relationships during early childhood are inconsistent in the literature. We described the association of CF during the first year of life with risk of overweight at 24 months of age in the population-based 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohorts (2004c and 2015c). CF introduction was evaluated at the 3 and 12 months’ follow-ups by asking mothers using a list of foods. Risk of overweight at 24 months of age was BMI-for-age z-score above +1sd from the median of the WHO 2006 growth standards. Our analyses included 3823 (2004c) and 3689 (2015c) children. Early introduction CF (before 6 months of age) prevalence in 2004c was 93·3 (95 % CI 92·5, 94·1) % and in 2015c was 87·2 (95 % CI 86·1, 88·2) %. Tea was the item introduced earlier in both 2004c (68·8 %) and 2015c (55·7 %). At 6 months of age, vegetable mash was the most introduced food in 2004c (33·5 %) and 2015c (47·9 %). Between 2004c and 2015c, the introduction of fresh milk decreased 82·1 to 60·5 % and yogurt from 94·4 to 78·1 % during the first year. Risk of overweight prevalence at 24 months was 33·0 (95 % CI 31·6, 34·5) % in 2004c and 32·0 (95 % CI 30·5, 33·5) % in 2015c. In 2015c, the adjusted odds of risk of overweight at 24 months were increased 1·66 and 1·50 times with the early introduction of fresh/powdered milk: plus water, tea or juice, and plus semi-solid/solid food groups, respectively. It is essential to reinforce the adherence to global recommendations on timely feeding introduction and encourage exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months of age to prevent child overweight.
The New Village (Atarashiki Mura) was an experiment in rural living created in 1918 by novelist and White Birch founder member Mushanokōji Saneatsu. Mushanokōji envisaged the village as the start of a social movement which would transform Japanese rural life from below. In fact, though, the village (which still exists today) remained tiny. However, I argue in this chapter that it had an influence and significance which cannot simply be measured by its size. The New Village helped to inspire a boom in the creation of experimental rural communities in Japan and China in the 1920s, and its practical influence even extended as far as South America. Despite internal problems, and despite the fact that Mushanokōji expressed enthusiastic support for Japan’s wartime military expansion, the village experienced a postwar period of revival and continued to be seen as a model for some social experiments in the 1970s, when the rise of environmentalism inspired a new interest in the creation of intentional communities.
In June 2018, the Igreja Episcopal Anglicana do Brasil’s (IEAB) General Synod voted, by an overwhelming majority, to amend its canons by redefining marriage as a ‘lifelong union between two people, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity’.2 In this essay, I intend to describe the process that led to such decision both as the result of major changes that happened in Brazilian society and as a response to IEAB’s inner process of discernment and theology-making in parallel with other Anglican provinces. Rather than merely copying theological developments and discussions produced in the English-speaking world, IEAB creatively engaged foreign and local sources (Anglican and non-Anglican), thus producing a contextually based theology that led to its embracing of same-gender couples as full members, worthy of all sacraments and rites.
There is an assumption that truth commissions have not taken on corporations for their complicity in past human rights abuses. The aim of this chapter is to expose the truths about corporate complicity hidden in truth commissions’ reports. It analyzes truth commissions’ potential as a non-judicial transitional justice corporate accountability mechanism. It considers models that truth-gathering instruments might incorporate in future efforts at corporate accountability.
The chapter begins with an analysis of truth commissions’ efforts to unveil the story of corporate complicity in past violence. It challenges the notion that economic actors were peripheral to, or unwilling partners in, authoritarian state and armed conflict human rights abuses. It magnifies the details of these truths that have been overlooked. It then attempt to explain how the truth about corporate complicity made it into these reports, drawing on our Archimedes’ Lever analogy. In the conclusion, it explores strategies to promote corporate accountability through new truth-gathering processes.
The anthracological analyses of domestic and ceremonial contexts of proto-Jê archaeological sites in southern Brazil and Argentina have yielded data regarding landscape, fire technology, fuel economy, wood selection, and wood use from about 1200 to 250 years BP. The inhabitants of these sites built up the landscape that they occupied, actively constructing and experiencing their domestic and ceremonial places and possibly engaging in vegetation management practices. They gathered timber and firewood in the Araucaria Forest and in intensely modified areas covered by secondary vegetation. These practices likely included logging and gathering fallen deadwood. Our data indicate cultural selection of particular species. Inga sp., Jacaranda sp., and Araucaria angustifolia were probably selected because of the meaning of these woods in the cosmological dual system of proto-Jê societies. Bamboos and palm stems may have been used as kindling and for fire making. These results are an important contribution to our understanding of the proto-Jê occupation and the relationships that these groups maintained with their plant environment.
To evaluate the prevalence and associated variables of intentional self-poisoning in individuals from 8 to 17 years.
This study includes 4658 cases. Analyzed variables were gender, age, agent and time (month, week day and hour).
In total, 3759 (80.70%) were girls. The rate in 100,000 children and adolescents residents grown from 25.12 in 2005 to 35.24 to 2012. The biggest incidence was in the 15 to 17 age group (63.35%). The leading agent was medications (84.6%): 1093 (23.47%) antidepressant, 967 (20.76%) benzodiazepines, 708 (15.20%) antipyretics, 606 (13.01%) anticonvulsants, 460 (9.88%) neuroleptics and 382 (8.2%) anti-inflammatory non-steroids. The antidepressant more used was amitriptyline (7.26%), followed by fluoxetine (6.57%). Growing cases involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been seen, as a fall of self-poisoning tricyclic antidepressants cases. The majority of cases was in October (10.1%), on Tuesday (15.1%), and at 18:00 to 21:00 (29.46%).
The elevated rate of self-poisoning in children and adolescents in southern Brazil, growing each year, shows the relevance of this subject. It is important to considerate how easily these children and adolescents have access to psychotropics.
This article traces resistance among members of the armed forces who opposed the military dictatorship in Brazil during the first four years of the regime, 1964–67. I show that despite scholars’ efforts to depict the 1964 coup as a project supported by the armed forces as a strategic and ideological unit, there were battle lines within those forces along which hard-liners and moderate interventionists battled for government control. There were, in fact, hundreds of officers and soldiers who opposed the coup and organized against it. To contain resistance efforts inside the armed forces, the generals who orchestrated the coup labeled opponents to intervention as communists and expelled them from the institution, in many cases under considerable duress. This article discusses the first opposition efforts of officers and soldiers, particularly the Nationalist Armed Resistance (RAN) and the Caparaó Guerrilla Movement. Members of the military who were opposed to the coup shared an anti-interventionism and nationalism that united them against the regime. After 1964, their efforts to oppose military interventionism, previously carried out inside the military barracks, became the fight of all its opponents, members of the armed forces and civilians alike.
This chapter examines the history of racial violence in Portuguese America as a transatlantic coercive pedagogy. It considers the ideas and methods refined by secular and ecclesiastical authorities to teach peoples of indigenous and African descent, as well as white settlers, about the parameters governing the permissible use of force. Concentrating on the enslavement of Indians and blacks, it examines how colonisers came to accept violence organised along racial lines. The Portuguese devised an array of practices intended to inflict physical and psychological harm on early Brazil’s non-white majority population. Imperial authorities rationalised physical aggression as necessary, virtuous and just, deeming violence indispensable as an instructional practice intended to communicate and secure the dominant position of Portuguese settlers. They did so by making biologised judgements about native, African and mixed-race peoples. They then translated these judgements into punitive acts orchestrated to achieve didactic effects. The chapter concentrates on sixteenth- and seventeenth-century efforts to assemble and control the largest enslaved workforce in the Americas.
Conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs) have emerged as an important social welfare innovation across the Global South in the last two decades. That poor mothers are typically the primary recipients of the grants renders easy, but not necessarily correct, the notion that CCTs empower women. This article assesses the relationship between the world’s largest CCT, Brazil’s Bolsa Família, and women’s empowerment. To systematize and interpret existing research, including our own, it puts forth a three-part framework that examines the program’s effects on economic independence, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Findings suggest that women experience some improved status along all three dimensions, but that improvements are far from universal. A core conclusion is that the broader institutional context in which the Bolsa Família is embedded—that is, ancillary services in health and social assistance—is crucial for conditioning the degree of empowerment obtained.