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Identifying a need for developing a conceptual framework for the future development of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) in Europe, The Federation of European Nutrition Sciences established a Task Force for this purpose. A workshop was held with the specific objective to discuss the various dimensions considered as particularly relevant. Existing frameworks for FBDGs were discussed, and presentations from various countries illustrated several commonalities but also a high degree of heterogeneity in the guidelines from different countries. Environmental aspects were considered in several countries, and dimensions like food safety, dietary habits and preparation were included in others. The workshop provided an overview of the use of FBDGs – both in developing front-of-pack nutrition labels and for reformulation and innovation. The European FBDGs dimensions were described with examples from the close connection between FBDGs and EU policies and activities and from the compilation of a database of national FBDGs. Also, the challenges with communication of FBDGs were discussed. Considering the current scientific basis and the experiences from several countries, the Task Force discussed the various dimensions of developing FBDGs and concluded that environmental aspects should be included in the future conceptual framework for FBDGs. A change in terminology to sustainable FDBGs (SFBDGs) could reflect this. The Task Force concluded that further work needs to be done exploring current practice, existing methodologies, and the future prospects for incorporating other relevant dimensions into a future FENS conceptual framework for SFBDGs in Europe and working groups were formed to address that.
Global neurosurgery has become an increasingly popular facet of global health because of striking disparities in access to neurosurgical care across the world. Regardless of the commendable efforts invested in gaining equity in this enterprise, global neurosurgical initiatives can present with various ethical challenges and opportunities for causing harm to vulnerable populations. This chapter highlights some of the concerns that arise in the planning, implementation and follow-up of international neurosurgical aid. It also explores some of the fundamental ethical principles and theories that underlie these issues and applies them to an illustrative case. While there may never be a clear cut answer to many of these ethical dilemmas, we hope that in discussing the ethics of global neurosurgery, future neurosurgeons will be able to give the most in these noble initiatives which strive for equality in global medical care.
We introduce the concept of social sustainability, intertwined with ecological and economic aspects, to the field of service robots and comparable automation technology. It takes a first step towards a comprehensive guideline that operationalizes and applies social sustainability. By applying this guideline to the project MURMEL we offer a concept that collects and rates social key issues to visualize their individual importance. Social sustainability is an important and often overlooked aspect of sustainable technology development which should be considered in the early development phase.
Early integration of sustainability considerations into decision making is seen as a key enabler for companies to understand the potential implications of their decisions on the triple bottom line aspects. Lack of the tools to support decisions when trade-off between sustainability aspects occur, however, may lead to uninformed decision-making and undesired outcomes. By consolidating the learnings from empirical work together with literature recommendations, we propose key criteria to be considered when developing decision support tools to manage sustainability-related trade-off situations.
How do employees perceive the impact of incorporating sustainability considerations into their product development practice? In this case study, we observe how these perceptions can be shifted by teaching workshops on how to apply sustainable design methods in practice. We compare the trends for different methods on various dimensions such as creativity, design process time, product marketability etc. Results show an overall shift towards positive perception for all the methods on a majority of factors, indicating a way to ease the adoption of sustainable design into industry practice.
The aim of the study is to contribute to the knowledge on how to develop students’ skills and capabilities required when addressing complex societal challenges in practice. In this paper we are investigating the design and implementation of a teacher training module focusing on improving teacher's ability to facilitate students’ teams learning and collaboration skills. The feedback and learning from the design and implementation of the module at universities in Botswana, Kenya and Sweden is presented and discussed in this paper.
While solar photovoltaics are projected to grow, major financial barriers exist that impede installation. Soft costs (human-driven costs) can account for over half of total project costs and are often simplified in typical models. We use the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's “Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool” to quantify uncertainty of three soft cost inputs and their influence on the output cost of energy using variance-based sensitivity indices. We then suggest how the development process and model can be redesigned to represent the complexities of this socio-technical system.
We employ the concept of stupidity to address why more has not been done to address climate change and sustainable development. While the ‘new’ science of stupid has long existed in organizational studies, academicians have been too polite to call it that and organizational researchers historically labeled it the ‘threat-rigidity effect.’ With Alvesson and Spicer’s ‘stupidity-based theory of organizations’ management researchers overcame this reluctance. In this work we explore what we will call the ‘stress-stupidity system.’ Building on the threat-rigidity effect, we outline the elements of the stress-stupidity system and look at how we may be able to ‘fix stupid’ to address issues of sustainability.
Environmental issues such as climate change are leading to sustainability challenges for the aerospace industry. New materials such as composites allow significant weight reduction, which leads to a lower fuel consumption. However, composites involve complex processes and there is a lack of knowledge on their social and environmental consequences. Through two cases based on real aero-engines components, this paper shows that the weight savings provided by composites reduce significantly the CO2 emissions during flight which compensates the environmental drawbacks from production and recycling.
Linear production is related to resource scarcity and negative environmental impacts. Circular Economy (CE) emerged for society transition towards sustainability, based on regenerative systems and multiple life cycle products. Product Life cycle Management (PLM) supports the whole life cycle with the aid of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). A literature review analyzed the role of ICT enabling CE based on PLM, identifying challenges and opportunities, active and passive PLM, system perspective, stakeholder's role, and sustainability. Concluding that ICT enables the CE transition.
Product-service systems (PSSs) are regarded as one of the promising ways to contribute to a sustainable society. Despite the well-developed knowledge, PSS design lack of long-term perspective to treat related changes and uncertainties. To address this issue, this paper proposes a conceptual framework of sustainable PSS design for sustainability transition by integrating insight from design approach for system innovation and transition. Applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through application to example of PSS development project for wildlife nuisance in a suburban city.
Funding for design impacts the practical ability to address relevant problems. Using public sources, we explore funding aimed at design and business innovations for sustainable development in Africa provided by NGOs, governments, and multinational organizations. We focus on agriculture, energy, sanitation, and urban development, with successful or promising project examples. We conclude that country location, population or economic size do not drive government R&D spending; agricultural R&D funding is below targets; and NGOs combine funding with education and skill-building opportunities.
Edible insects have been introduced as a novel protein source. Although the rationales for insect-eating highlight the urgency of changing diets into more sustainable solutions, there is still a need for better understanding how packaging design is related to adoption of insects. Much consumer research has been conducted to understand the acceptance of insects, but packaging design connected to practices has been given less focus. This article looks at packaging as a medium for stimulating adoption and links an empirical study on analogies for packaging design to practices of eating insects.
Aviation strives today to include environmental and social considerations as drivers for decision making in design. This paper proposes a serious game to raise awareness of the value and cost implications of being ‘sustainability compliant’ when developing aerospace sub-systems and components. After describing the development of the game, from needfinding to prototyping and testing, the paper discusses the results from verification activities with practitioners, revealing the ability of the game to raise sustainability awareness and support negotiation across disciplinary boundaries in design.
Product-service systems are circular business models that can potentially extend product lifetimes and reduce resource consumption. However, consumer product care is crucial in these business models. We explore consumer product care of newly bought, second-hand, and accessed bicycles and washing machines through an online survey (n = 212). Our analysis shows lower consumer product care of accessed products compared to ownership. Three strategies could address this; design for care, design to reduce the need for care, contractual conditions to stimulate care or penalise the lack thereof.
This article discusses three questions. First, what drives business to ignore human rights, or even worse, consciously undermine the achievement of human rights? Second, given the state of affairs of business and human rights, why is there not a quick regulatory fix to the problems that we see? Third, in light of the failure of business and of regulation so far, what can be done? The article posits that reform of company law is key to ensuring business respect for human rights, as an intrinsic element of the transition to sustainability. The article outlines how company law can facilitate sustainable business. It concludes with some reflections on the drivers for change that make it possible to envisage that the necessary reform of company law will be enacted.
In 1974 the Norwegian physicist and co-author of Limits to Growth (1972) coined the phrase “a sustainable society.” It was meant to capture his vision for a viable environmental future, while also open a new endless frontier for science with the larger goal of mobilizing Christian religion and respect for the almighty. It was an ecumenical hope in the coming of the Golden Age and the Kingdom of God that framed early understandings of environmental sustainability. In Norway, Randers directed the Resource Policy Group, an influential think tank that provided policy papers to the Labor Party and beyond. The notion of a “sustainable development” was adapted from them by the Norwegian politician Gro Harlem Brundtland, who chaired the World Commission on Environment and Development leading up to the Our Common Future report from 1987.
The act of doing something good was the cultural Archimedean point from which Norwegians tried to move the Earth in a new, and, to them, more environmentally sound direction. This cultural point has taken the form of a self-confident, do-gooding gaze towards the rest of the world. This reflects the official foreign policy of establishing “Norway as a humanitarian super power” and “as a peace nation” in the world.
The role of calculative practices such as goals and indicators in international environmental governance causes concern among many observers, who view them as promoting a reductivist approach to the non-human world and privileging economic understandings of environmental governance above all others. Yet they possess enormous potential to provide insights into the non-human world that could be of great benefit to governance. This article takes seriously critical perspectives of calculative practices, while exploring a weakness in much of the critical literature, namely a failure to examine assumptions about the nature of scientific knowledge and the manner in which it is, and ought to be, taken up by policy makers. I contend that both the design of environmental regimes and critical analyses of these regimes bear the marks of the influence, albeit indirect, of early 20th century views on the superiority of scientific knowledge and its unique capacity to ground decision making. I argue that a richer, more nuanced account of the co-production of ecological metrics such as goals and indicators and their potential contributions to ecosystem governance and sustainability is necessary. With such accounts, scholars and political authorities would be in a better position to address the very real pitfalls and dangers of calculative practices while not feeling compelled to forego these potentially powerful approaches.
Chapter 3 is concerned with defining what success in market-driven regulatory governance would look like: improving sustainability. It opens by contrasting various definitions of sustainable agriculture; some of which rely on price manipulation, while others focus on productive choices alone. It then applies these concepts to the coffee sector; first pointing out the issue of low and volatile world prices, and then turning to the agronomic and farm management decisions a boundedly rational coffee producer needs to make, alongside their likely economic consequences. It concludes that the most rational behavior is to maximize yields and switch away from biodiversity-friendly shade production to intensified monocropping, while minimizing input costs such as wages. This leads to the sustainability challenges that plague the industry. Building on the historical emergence of sustainability as a concept, the chapter then traces the development of the sector’s sustainability discourse alongside the emergence of private sustainability standards.