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For some older people and their families, live-in care offers a way of continuing to live independently at home in their local community. While research in the care industry has consistently highlighted the effects of caring on workers, little research has specifically explored the experiences of live-in carers. The current study examines the ways in which live-in carers construct their role, the different challenges they face and the strategies they use to mitigate them. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 21 live-in carers in the United Kingdom and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings suggest that carers perceive their role as complex and characterised by a heavy workload and tiredness. Participants emphasised the variability which was introduced to the role as a function of the quality of agency support, the character and condition of the client, and the carer's relationships with the client's family. Participants’ accounts reflected an acknowledgement of the need to orient and respond constantly to the needs and routine of the client. While this orientation was recognised as necessary for effectively fulfilling the demands of the role, it was also linked to feelings of dislocation and loss of identity. Drawing on understandings of personal and social identity, the implications of these findings for the psychological wellbeing of live-in carers and organisational support are discussed.
Negative images of old age can harm older individuals’ cognitive and physical functioning and health. Yet, older people may be confronted with age stereotypes that are inconsistent with their own personal beliefs. We examine the implications for older people's wellbeing of three distinct elements of age stereotypes: their personal beliefs about their age group, their perception about how others generally perceive older people (i.e. their meta-stereotypes) and the societal age stereotypes that are empirically widely shared in society. Using measures from the Stereotype Content Model and survey data of older people from the United Kingdom (UK) (Study 1, N = 171), we found only partial overlap between older people's personal beliefs and their meta-stereotypes. Personal beliefs were unrelated to wellbeing, but positive meta-stereotypes of older people's competence were linked to higher wellbeing. These findings were largely replicated with a sample of baby-boomers from Switzerland (Study 2, N = 400) controlling for socio-demographics. Study 3 used representative survey data (N = 10,803) across 29 European countries, to test and confirm that the link between positive competence meta-stereotypes and wellbeing can be generalised to different cultures, and that positive warmth meta-stereotypes were an additional predictor. At the country level, societal age stereotypes about competence were positively related to the wellbeing of older people, but only in countries that provide greater opportunities for competence attainment.
In this chapter, you will develop your understanding of: organisation skills to support your teaching and wellbeing, the concept of flow and how it can support you, how to recognise emotions and care for yourself, working with the curriculum and responding to change, and planning and meeting the teaching standards.
In this chapter, you will gain an understanding of resilience in teachers and teaching, coping strategies for sustaining a teaching career, being mindful as a teacher, your wellbeing and ability to flourish and the meaning of a growth mindset.
This study explored how social exclusion predicted adolescent wellbeing via stress, academic self-efficacy, and school satisfaction. Data were collected from 328 adolescents in Turkey. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative effects of social exclusion on wellbeing were partially mediated by stress, academic self-efficacy, and school satisfaction. Given its important role in students’ social, academic, and psychological development, researchers and practitioners may need to give more attention to social exclusion as a key risk factor for decreased wellbeing.
Subjective age (SA) is a core indicator of the individual ageing experience, with important consequences for successful ageing. The aim of the current study was to investigate the directions of the longitudinal associations between domains of SA and subjective wellbeing and physical functioning in the second half of life. We used three-wave survey data (2002, 2007 and 2017) spanning 15 years from the Norwegian Lifecourse, Ageing and Generation Study, including 6,292 persons born between 1922 and 1961. SA was measured with felt-age and ideal-age discrepancies, wellbeing with the Satisfaction of Life Scale and physical functioning with the Short-Form 12. Three-wave cross-lagged panel models were applied to assess the temporal relationships between the different domains of SA, life satisfaction and physical functioning, adjusted for age, gender and education. Findings indicated that wanting to be younger was negatively associated with life satisfaction and physical functioning over time. Felt-age discrepancies did not predict subsequent wellbeing or physical functioning. The results did not reveal any evidence for reversed effects, i.e. from functioning or life satisfaction to SA. Our findings support the psychological pathway from satisfaction with age(ing) to subjective wellbeing and physical functioning over time. Small ideal-age discrepancies reflect positive self-perceptions of ageing, which may help to accumulate psychological resources, guide behavioural regulation and support health.
This study aims to adapt and validate the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs Scale for older people (Échelle de Satisfaction des Besoins Psychologiques chez les personnes âgées, ESBP-PA). A total of 270 participants aged from 60 to 100 years old responded to the survey, which included the ESBP-PA and a psychological well-being scale. Exploratory factor analysis extracted the three-factor structure corresponding to the three basic psychological needs. Internal consistency estimated by Cronbach alpha and composite reliability was good for all three dimensions. With regard to convergent validity, correlation analysis indicated that the satisfaction of the three basic needs is significantly related to psychological well-being. The analysis of the scale's psychometric properties produced satisfying results. The scale is a promising instrument to assess the satisfaction of needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
There is a substantial amount of literature that suggests that animals, and specifically animals kept as pets, can have a positive effect on wellbeing. Research exploring the impact of animals on wellbeing in care homes mainly concerns visiting animals as well as shared communal pets. In light of the lack of research regarding personal pets in care homes, the aim of this study was to explore what the experience of keeping a personal pet in a care home means for residents’ sense of wellbeing. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven care home residents who were currently living with their pet in a care home. Interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Analysis revealed four master themes deemed to be relevant to participants’ wellbeing. these were: ‘sense of self and identity’, ‘responsibility and ownership’, ‘motivation and desire to live’ and ‘feeling content in the care home’. The analysis indicated that living with a personal pet in a care home has the potential to enhance residents’ wellbeing. At the same time, it also found that the benefits of keeping a personal pet may be dependent on specific circumstances, such as the attitudes of staff and fellow residents at the care home. This study indicates that it may be advisable for more care homes to accept personal pets.
Maintaining good wellbeing in older age is seen to have a positive effect on health, including cognitive and physiological functioning. This paper explores experiences of wellbeing in a particular older adult community: those who have served in the military. It aims to identify the specific challenges that ex-service personnel may have, reporting findings from a qualitative study focused on how older veterans told stories of military service and what these stories revealed about wellbeing. We used a qualitative approach; data are drawn from 30 individual interviews, and from engagement with veterans in workshops. Analysis was conducted using a data-driven constant comparison approach. Three themes are presented: how loneliness affects older adult veterans; how they draw on fictive kinship; and the role of military visual culture. Although participants had diverse experiences of military service, they felt that being a veteran connected them to a community that went beyond association with specific experiences. Using narratives of military experience to connect, both in telling stories and by stories being listened to, was vital. As veterans, older adults were able to access each other as a resource for listening and sharing. However, it was also exclusionary: civilians, because they lacked military service experience, could not empathise and be used as a resource.
The global population is ageing and the likelihood of living alone increases with age. Services are necessary to help older people living alone to optimise health and wellbeing. This systematic review aimed to summarise the effectiveness and accessibility of interventions to improve the health and wellbeing of older people living alone. Relevant electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus) were searched for all years up to August 2018. Studies were included if they involved older people (aged ⩾55 years) living alone, and an intervention with measured health and wellbeing outcomes. All study types were included. The Theory of Access was used to assess interventions across dimensions of accessibility, availability, acceptability, affordability, adequacy and awareness. Twenty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria; 17 studies focused on ageing safely in place and 11 on psychological and social wellbeing. Studies comprised quantitative (N = 19), qualitative (N = 4) and mixed-methods (N = 5) approaches. Dimensions from the Theory of Access were poorly addressed in the studies, particularly those of higher-quality methodology. Studies were heterogeneous, preliminary in scope and lacked consistent study design, methodology or measurement. Services that do not address user accessibility in design or evaluation may be limited in their uptake and impact. It is recommended that dimensions of access and co-creation principles be integrated into service design processes and be evaluated alongside clinical effectiveness.
For young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the transition from childhood to adulthood especially for those with additional mental health problems can be challenging. Increasing numbers of young people attending child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) have a recognised diagnosis of ASD. What are the outcomes of these young people when they are discharged from CAMHS and how best can services support their needs? In this editorial we consider the emerging literature on transition for young people with long-term conditions and in particular those with ASD. Longer term studies suggest that the outcomes for individuals with ASD across the ability range is mostly poor and that healthcare transfer has generally not been managed well, with service users often reporting a lack of appropriate types of support. Encouragingly there is an increasing awareness of the need to support young people with long-term conditions as they negotiate the many developmental tasks of transition to adulthood. However, less is known about the experiences and aspirations of autistic individuals of all abilities as they transition to adulthood. This knowledge can inform a more nuanced approach to identifying developmentally appropriate outcomes. Recent studies with cognitively able young people with ASD, highlight some features in common with young people with long-term conditions but also the importance of identifying ways to foster underlying skills and the ability of young people with ASD to develop and maintain relationships. Child-focussed and adult-orientated healthcare services need to work directly with autistic individuals and their support networks to facilitate successful engagement with services and enable adults to manage their mental health needs. There is an urgent need to investigate the implementation and effectiveness of research and clinical guideline recommendations that aim to increase wellbeing, health self-efficacy and improve the mental health outcomes for autistic adults.
SDG3, Health and Wellbeing for All, depends on many other SDGs but there are also potential conflicts and trade-offs. In this chapter, ee stress the importance of forests to global health and well-being as well as for Indigenous and local populations. In contrast, short-term economic and human health gains from further forest conversion (e.g. deforestation for food production) will create direct and indirect health risks for humans, as well as for other biota. Controlling indiscriminate burning and clearing of forests can reduce significant harm to health and well-being, via improved quality of water, soil and air, by reducing exposure to some infectious diseases, through preservation of traditional (and future) medicines, and by supporting other forest resources and services, including climate regulation. Many infectious diseases are associated with forest disturbance and intrusions and some may be prevented or modified through forest management. Universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including family planning, is a critical SDG3 target to decrease demographic pressures on forests at local, regional and global scales, and to enhance well-being. Greater exposure to green space, including the ‘urban forest’, is likely to have many benefits for mental, social and physical health for the increasingly urban global population.
Call generalism about children’s and adults’ wellbeing the thesis that the same theory of wellbeing applies to both children and adults. Our goal is to examine whether generalism is true. While this question has not received much attention in the past, it has recently been suggested that generalism is likely to be false and that we need to elaborate different theories of children’s and adults’ wellbeing. In this paper, we defend generalism against the main objections it faces and make a positive case for it.
Social wellbeing is important to health, but maintaining social relations often becomes difficult in later life due to retirement, chronic disease, and the death of spouses and friends. Social media platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, present accessible and low-cost communication technologies that have been demonstrated to enhance feelings of social connection and reduce loneliness in younger age groups. This exploratory study uses a four-week social media training workshop as an intervention in a randomised controlled study to examine whether similar social benefits might be realised for those at older ages, aged 65+ years. Social wellbeing measures of social capital, loneliness, social connectedness and social provisions were examined, revealing only small differences in social integration. As these findings seemingly contradict studies conducted with younger persons, the contexts of social media use in older adulthood are discussed, along with proposals for future research directions.
As the military and economic situation deteriorated in Germany, so did the military’s ability to respect the pre-war agreements on the humane treatment of prisoners of war. Shortages worsened throughout 1917 and 1918, causing all social classes to feel the effects of the war in the pits of their stomachs. Tens of thousands of Allied prisoners of war in Germany had no option but to rely on whatever their captors could feed them. Conditions were dire, but Germany was able to defray some of the long-term costs of feeding prisoners of war by granting some of them access to humanitarian aid from the Red Cross. The food situation at Karlsruhe had become so desperate in 1917 that British officers imprisoned there were offered 30 pfennigs a day to forgo the German-supplied rations so that they could be used to feed starving civilians.
This study examines the potential health-related impact of recent versus lifetime experiences of sexual orientation discrimination among older Australian lesbian women and gay men. In a nationwide survey, a sample of 243 lesbian women and 513 gay men aged 60 years and over reported on their experiences of sexual orientation discrimination and their mental and physical health, including psychological distress, positive mental health and self-rated health. Among both lesbian women and gay men, recent discrimination uniquely predicted lower positive mental health after adjusting for experiences of discrimination across the lifetime and socio-demographic variables. In addition, recent discrimination uniquely predicted higher psychological distress among gay men. Experiences of discrimination over the lifetime further predicted higher psychological distress and poorer self-rated health among gay men after adjusting for recent experiences of discrimination and socio-demographic variables. However, there were no associations between lifetime discrimination and any of the outcome variables among lesbian women. Overall, recent and lifetime experiences of sexual orientation discrimination were related to mental and physical health in different ways, especially among the men. These findings have potential implications for policy/practice, and suggest that distinguishing between recent and lifetime experiences of discrimination may be useful when assessing potential health-related impacts of sexual orientation discrimination among older lesbian women and gay men, while also taking account of differences between these two groups.
This study investigates the relative importance of living with adult children and social participation for the elderly's subjective wellbeing (happiness) in three Chinese societies (Hong Kong, urban China and Taiwan). We use data from the 2011 wave of the Hong Kong Panel Study of Social Dynamics (N = 1,658), the 2010 China Family Panel Studies in mainland China (N = 3,198) and the 2010 wave of the Taiwan Social Change Survey (N = 790). The ordinary least squares regression shows that, as the family value of society moves forward on a traditional–modern continuum, the elderly benefit more psychologically from social participation and less from living with children. The older people in Hong Kong who live independently with a spouse are in a significantly better emotional state than those living with adult children. Social participation is positively associated with subjective wellbeing among the aged in Hong Kong but not among those in urban China and Taiwan. The findings suggest that encouraging social involvement is important for effective public policy to tackle rapid population ageing in Chinese societies.
Neighbourhood environment has a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of older people. In recent years, the increase in older Chinese immigrants globally has attracted a growing amount of research which has investigated the health and wellbeing of these elderly residents. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic literature review of empirical findings on the health and wellbeing of older Chinese immigrants and the ways in which the neighbourhood environment impacts them. A systematic search was conducted using online databases where 52 articles met specific criteria and were subsequently reviewed critically. An inductive approach was undertaken to analyse the data extracted from the selected articles. The review was categorised according to the following themes: neighbourhood social environment, neighbourhood physical environment and place attachment. The findings show that the majority of research has investigated the health status of older immigrants, and in particular, the impacts related to the social environments in which they live. The literature review indicated that there is scope for future studies to investigate the impact of the physical neighbourhood environment on this group of people.
Improving educational outcomes for Pasifika learners is a national priority in New Zealand. Long-standing mathematics achievement differences between Pasifika and non-Pasifika indicate that looking beyond usual pedagogies may be essential for enhancing Pasifika student learning. Culturally sustaining pedagogy, drawing from the cultural experiences and values of Pasifika learners, offers strong potential for enhancing practice, but is, as yet, uncommon in most school settings. This article describes the results of a narrative literature review exploring the potential dance may afford as a culturally sustaining mathematics pedagogy for Pasifika learners. The review incorporates literature published between 2000 and 2018 from within and outside education. Findings include that dance has the potential to provide Pasifika learners with positive mathematical experiences that can enhance learning, engagement, achievement and wellbeing. Furthermore, using Pasifika dance pedagogically may help strengthen these learners' Pasifika cultural identities through connecting learning with cultural values, experiences and traditions. Dance can also provide opportunities for validating and appreciating Pasifika families' funds of knowledge and strengthening home-school partnerships. We describe one example of a dance relevant to secondary school mathematics learning, the sāsā. Implications for educators using dance as a mathematics pedagogy, including cultural and pedagogical challenges, are discussed.
Previous research has shown an association between subjective wellbeing and incident diabetes. Less is known about the role of wellbeing for subclinical disease trajectories as captured via glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). We aimed to explore the association between subjective wellbeing and future HbA1c levels, and the role of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical factors in this association.
We used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing for this study (N = 2161). Subjective wellbeing (CASP-19) was measured at wave 2 and HbA1c was measured 8 years later at wave 6. Participants were free from diabetes at baseline. We conducted a series of analyses to examine the extent to which the association was accounted for by a range of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical factors in linear regression models.
Models showed that subjective wellbeing (CASP-19 total score) was inversely associated with HbA1c 8 years later after controlling for depressive symptoms, age, sex, and baseline HbA1c (B = −0.035, 95% CI −0.060 to –0.011, p = 0.005). Inclusion of sociodemographic variables and behavioral factors in models accounted for a large proportion (17.0% and 24.5%, respectively) of the relationship between wellbeing and later HbA1c; clinical risk factors explained a smaller proportion of the relationship (3.4%).
Poorer subjective wellbeing is associated with greater HbA1c over 8 years of follow-up and this relationship can in part be explained by sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical factors among older adults.