To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
From midlife to old age, women are influenced differently by developmental transitions compared with men. These transitions range from menopause to subjective experiences such as appearance-related changes and caregiving responsibilities. More importantly, cultural and personal factors may impact how people understand these transitions. As such, cultural differences may be reflected in the expression, subjective experiences, and consequences of these developmental transitions. Concerning menopause, cultures influence the expression of menopausal symptoms and their psychological consequences. Moreover, cultural factors also impact women’s perceptions of appearance-related changes, and their appraisals of the caregiving experiences. Future developmental studies on women might focus on the moderating role of culture in the ways women interpret and cope with developmental changes in the second half of life.
Older people now currently drink alcohol more frequently than previous generations, indicating a need to understand how this influences health and wellbeing in older adults. However, knowledge and awareness of the changing role alcohol plays in the lives of older people is not necessarily widely understood by allied health professionals in acute hospital contexts. In turn, conversations about drinking alcohol in later life may not be routinely addressed as part of practice, limiting an older person's choice to make informed decisions about their drinking. This paper qualitatively examines when occupational therapists (N = 17) in an acute hospital setting will initiate a conversation with older people (65+ years) about their drinking, guided by a theoretical lens that encompasses both person-centredness and collective occupation. Adopting a qualitative methodology, this study illustrates a typology of reasoning describing how, and in what circumstances, therapists ask older people about their alcohol use. Three themes were generated that provide further insight into the typology, these being ‘hesitancy in practice’, ‘failure to link life transitions to alcohol use’ and ‘challenges of focusing on healthfulness’. These findings provide a potentially useful tool for therapists, services and organisations to self-assess their approach to asking older people about alcohol use; a necessary element of professional health-care practice as social trends in alcohol use continue to increase.
Evidence on how gender intersects with relevant social constructs in later phases of life is scarce. This investigation examined gender inequalities in perceived health status (self-perceived general health; SPGH) by Portuguese elderly community-dwellers while considering psycho-social and socio-demographic determinants. This study used data from a representative sample of community-dwellers aged ≥65 years (N = 920), who were enrolled in the Portuguese Elderly Nutritional Status Surveillance System (PEN-3S) project. Associations between SPGH and socio-demographic and psycho-social variables, functionality and self-reported morbidity were tested; indirect effects of relevant predictors on SPGH were also tested using a bootstrap method. Gender inequalities in health were found: women significantly rated their health worse than men; overall, participants rated their health as fair. Education, functional status, depression symptoms and self-reported morbidity significantly predicted SPGH among women, whereas only the latter two were associated with SPGH among men. For both genders, depression was the strongest predictor of SPGH. Mediation analyses detected indirect effects of cognitive function and loneliness feelings on SPGH among older adults. Results herein provide insights on the predictive role of psycho-social variables on SPGH and support the need for considering the context when addressing the correlates of SPGH among Portuguese older adults. Altogether, these findings might support cost-effective interventions targeting the most vulnerable groups of the population to inequalities in health and its predictors.
Seed is a fertilized mature ovule, which possesses an embryonic plant. When the dry, mature seeds are subjected to imbibition, they release a wide range of organic substances, which include low molecular weight carbonyl compounds (gases and volatiles) and water-soluble organic substances (enzymes and polysaccharides). The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are molecules of low molecular weight (300 g mol−1) and high vapour pressure (0.01 kPa at 20°C) and include diverse chemical compounds. The nature and emission kinetics of volatiles produced from seeds vary, depending on the moisture content of the seeds. Orthodox seeds stored at ‘low seed moisture content’ undergo seed deterioration, predominantly due to lipid peroxidation, initiated by autoxidation or enzymatic oxidation of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids. This peroxidation leads to emission of volatile compounds. The quantity of VOCs emitted is positively correlated with the advancement of seed deterioration. With respect to the seed germination process, exposure of seeds to ‘high moisture conditions’ leads to increased respiration, triggers glycolysis and mobilization of storage reserves, resulting in the emission of volatile metabolic products. The quantity of VOCs emitted on commencement of metabolic activity in germinating seeds depends on (1) vigour status and (2) amount of storage reserves. Since it has been established that there is a significant difference between high and low vigour seeds with respect to quantity and profile of VOCs emitted, there is great potential for utilizing the VOC profile to obtain a quick and reproducible test of vigour status of crop seeds. In order to harness the VOC profile for quick assessment of vigour status of seeds, research has to be taken up to develop standard protocols for fingerprinting of VOCs for the purpose of seed vigour assessment and to fix the standard volatile biomarker(s) specific to crop and vigour status of seeds.
Affective symptoms are associated with cognition in mid-life and later life. However, the role of cardiometabolic risk in this association has not been previously examined.
To investigate how cardiometabolic risk contributes to associations between affective symptoms and mid-life cognition.
Data were used from the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a sample of people born in Britain during one week in 1958. Measures of immediate and delayed memory, verbal fluency and information processing speed and accuracy were available at age 50. Affective symptoms were assessed at ages 23, 33 and 42 years and a measure of accumulation was derived. A cardiometabolic risk score was calculated from nine cardiometabolic biomarkers at age 44. Path models were run to test these associations, adjusting for sex, education, socioeconomic position and affective symptoms at age 50.
After accounting for missing data using multiple imputation, path models indicated significant indirect associations between affective symptoms and mid-life immediate memory (β = −0.002, s.e. = 0.001, P = 0.009), delayed memory (β = −0.002, s.e. = 0.001, P = 0.02) and verbal fluency (β = −0.002, s.e. = 0.001, P = 0.045) through cardiometabolic risk.
These findings suggest that cardiometabolic risk may play an important role in the association between affective symptoms and cognitive function (memory and verbal fluency). Results contribute to understanding of biological mechanisms underlying associations between affective symptoms and cognitive ageing, which can have implications for early detection of, and intervention for, those at risk of poorer cognitive outcomes.
This study applies Feldman and Beehr's three-step model to examine retirement as a decision-making process leading from retirement thoughts to retirement plans and from retirement plans to actual retirement. The results show that retirement thoughts have a clear independent effect on retirement plans as measured by intended retirement age. Furthermore, retirement plans have an isolated effect on retirement patterns. Intended retirement age is the strongest predictor of actual retirement age. Retirement intentions can be thought to represent the effect of unobservable characteristics on retirement, such as preference and motivation. Retirement plans materialise with quite high accuracy. Several key factors are associated with intended and actual retirement age in a similar manner. Unemployment and higher income are connected with earlier planned and actual retirement. Health has a pronounced effect: better health is conducive to later retirement while weaker health (sickness absences) is conducive to earlier retirement. This applies both to retirement intentions and actual retirement and to the difference between the two. The most important way for organisations to extend working lives is to look after the health of older employees. Giving older workers an increased sense of control and lowering job demands helps to prevent premature retirement. Supporting older workers’ continued employment is significant for the retention of older workers, while layoffs targeting older workers shorten working lives.
Recent evidence points to relationships between intra-specific seed mass variation and viability loss in response to ageing stress. However, little is known about how seed quality may change temporally in response to such stress. Here we examined seed–water relations of mass-separated Rudbeckia mollis seeds to better understand physiological status among mass classes. We then evaluated seed viability and vigour changes in response to various storage conditions or post-storage vigour tests (a 41°C, 75% RH stress for up to 45 d). We found similar pre-storage physiology among mass classes. However, seeds of lower mass deteriorated up to 1.5-fold faster than heavier seeds under certain conditions. Stressing seeds after storage resulted in distinct vigour differences among mass classes. For example, vigour in lower mass seeds tended to decline more compared to heavier seeds following storage in a climate-controlled room. Alternatively, vigour loss varied among mass classes following storage in a non-climate-controlled shed. Our results highlight the importance of distinguishing between pre-sowing storage and post-storage vigour effects when quantifying relative levels of viability loss among seeds of different mass. Furthermore, differential responses to storage and ageing stress among mass classes may have important implications for post-storage regeneration and subsequent population dynamics.
This paper develops knowledge of the logistics of moving house amongst older people living in insecure housing. These people typically do not move once and settle into a new house, but face ongoing moves driven by factors including housing affordability, tenure conditions and eviction. The paper identifies four domains of experience faced by people undergoing cumulative, involuntary residential moves: the material (process of relocating oneself and possessions), economic (costs of moving house), embodied (physical experience) and affective (how relocation is experienced and felt). The logistics of relocation are examined through the experiences of single older women living in insecure housing in the greater Sydney region of Australia. The accounts of these women foreground the costs and challenges of insecure housing that are a consequence of relocation. Conceptually this work contributes to understandings of mobility-based disadvantage in older age through drawing out the ways that the logistics of moving house – of relocating oneself and possessions – contribute in distinct ways to mobility-based disadvantage through risks to identity and senses of home. Empirically it addresses gaps in gerontological and housing scholarship through developing knowledge of the logistics and experiences of ongoing, involuntary residential moves.
One third of older adults in Canada are foreign-born, yet there is a dearth of literature on this population. When our team set out to engage in a mixed-methods study on the physical activity and mobility of foreign-born older adults (FBOAs), we found limited guidance. The objective of this Research Note is to share the lessons that we learned in implementing a mixed-methods study in five languages, with 49 visible minority FBOAs from diverse ethno-cultural groups. With an emphasis on practical implementation, here we share our reflections on early community engagement, linguistic accessibility and literacy considerations, facilitating communication with the research team, creating a support role for multilingual family members, organisational suggestions, and working with interpreters and monolingual transcribers. The older Canadian population is projected to become increasingly diverse in the coming decades, and it is our hope that this note will further facilitate research in this understudied area.
Many countries are reforming their pension systems so people stay in work for longer to improve the long-term sustainability of public finances to support an increasing older population. This research aimed to explore the factors that enable or inhibit people to extend working life (EWL) in a large United Kingdom-based retail organisation. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample (N = 30): 15 employees aged ⩾60 and 15 supervisors supporting these employees. Older workers were predominately female, reflecting the gender profile of the older workers in the organisation. Older workers and supervisors reported that key facilitators to EWL were good health, the perception that older workers are of value, flexibility and choice, the need for an ongoing conversation across the lifecourse, the social and community aspect of work as a facilitator to EWL and the financial necessity to EWL. Perceived barriers to EWL included poor health, negative impacts of work on health, and a lack of respect and support.
This article examines provincial policy influence on long-term care (LTC) professionals’ advice-seeking networks in Canada’s Maritime provinces. The effects of facility ownership, geography, and region-specific political landscapes on LTC best-practice dissemination are examined. We used sociometric statistics and network sociograms, calculated from surveys with 169 senior leaders in LTC facilities, to identify advice-seeking network structures and to select 11 follow-up interview participants. Network structures were distinguished by density, sub-group number, opinion leader, and boundary spanner distribution. Network structure was affected by ownership model in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, and by regional geography in New Brunswick. Political instability within each province’s LTC system negatively affected network actors’ capabilities to enact innovation. Moreover, provincial policy variations influence advice-seeking network structures, facilitating and constraining relationship development and networking. Consequently, local policy context is essential to informing dissemination strategy design or implementation.
Although legumes are rich in protein and fibre, and low in saturated fat and Na, traditional legume-based recipes include substantial amounts of processed meat, salt and potatoes, which could counteract the potential benefits of legumes. This prospective study aimed to assess the longitudinal association of consumption of different types of legumes, and traditional legume-based recipes, with unhealthy ageing in older adults. Data were taken from 2505 individuals aged ≥60 years from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. Habitual legume consumption was assessed in 2008–2010 with a validated diet history. Unhealthy ageing was measured in the 2013, 2015 and 2017 follow-up waves, with a fifty-two-item multidimensional health deficit accumulation index (DAI) which ranges from 0 (best) to 100 (worst health). The mean age was 68·7 years, with 53·1 % of women. Among study participants, 78·4 % reported consumption of legumes, with a mean intake of 57·9 g/d. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models did not show an association between total legume consumption and the DAI over a 7-year follow-up (non-standardised coefficient for the second and highest v. the lowest tertile of consumption: 0·94 (95 % CI −0·30, 2·17) and 0·18 (95 % CI −1·07, 1·43), respectively; Ptrend = 0·35). Similar results were observed for the 3-year and 5-year follow-ups and, separately, for lentils, beans, chickpeas and traditional legume-based recipes. According to the results obtained, consumption of legumes and traditional legume-based recipes is not associated with unhealthy ageing and can be part of a healthy diet in old age.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences between the consumption of plant-based v. animal-based protein-rich diets on successful ageing, as well as to identify the optimal combination of dietary protein intake for facilitating successful ageing in people aged >50 years.
A combined analysis was conducted in older adults of the ATTICA and MEDIS population-based cross-sectional studies. Anthropometrical, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters, dietary habits and level of protein intake were derived through standard procedures. Successful ageing was evaluated using the validated Successful Aging Index (SAI) composed of ten health-related social, lifestyle and clinical characteristics.
Athens area and twenty Greek islands.
A total of 3349 Greek women and men over 50 years old.
Participants with high consumption of plant proteins were more likely to be male, physically active, with higher daily energy intake, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet and higher level of SAI (P < 0·001). Participants with ‘Low animal & High plant’ and ‘High animal & High plant’ protein consumption had a 6 and 7 % higher SAI score, respectively, compared with the other participants (P < 0·001). In contrast, ‘Low animal & Low plant’ and ‘High animal & Low plant’ protein intake was negatively associated with SAI as compared to the combination of all other consumption categories (P < 0·02).
The consumption of a plant-based protein-rich diet seems to be a beneficial nutritional choice that should be promoted and encouraged to older people since it may benefit both individual’s health and prolong successful ageing.
While research on the health and wellbeing of older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults is gradually expanding, research on older trans and gender non-conforming (TGNC) adults lags behind. Current scholarship about this group raises important questions about the intersection of ageing and gender identity for enhancing care and support for older TGNC adults and the lack of preparedness of health and social professionals for meeting these needs. In this paper, we examine the accounts of 22 TGNC individuals (50–74 years) on the topic of ageing and unpack their concerns for and expectations of later life. We present qualitative findings from a study of gender identity, ageing and care, based in Wales, United Kingdom. Data were generated from two-part interviews with each participant. Four key themes are identified: (a) facilitative factors for transitioning in mid- to later life; (b) growing older as a new lease of life; (c) growing older: regrets, delays and uncertainties; and (d) ambivalent expectations of social care services. We argue that growing older as TGNC can be experienced across a multitude of standpoints, ranging from a new lease of life to a time of regret and uncertainty. We critically discuss emergent notions of trans time, precarity and uncertainty running across participants’ accounts, and the implications for enhancing recognition of gender non-conformity and gender identity in social gerontology.
The apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*ε4) is indicated as a risk for Alzheimer's disease and other age-related diseases. The risk attributable to APOE*ε4 for depression is less clear and may be because of confounding of the relationship between dementia and depression.
We examined the risk of APOE* ε4 for incident depression and depressive symptomology over a 12-year period across the adult lifespan.
Participants were from the Personality and Total Health Through Life study, aged 20 to 24 (n = 1420), 40 to 44 (n = 1592) or 60–64 (n = 1768) at baseline, and interviewed every 4 years since 1999. Ethnicities other than White, those without genotyping and those with depression at baseline, or who reported strokes and scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination <27 at any observation, were excluded.
Over the study period, there was no evidence that APOE*ε4+ was a risk factor for depression, including any depression (odds ratio (OR) = 0.94, 95% CI 0.77–1.16, P = 0.573), major depression (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.60–1.53, P = 0.860), minor depression (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.67–1.30, P = 0.695) or depressive symptomology (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.02, 95% CI 0.97–1.08, P = 0.451). APOE*ε4 was unrelated to incident depression. Findings were consistent for all age cohorts.
Among cognitively intact Australian adults who were free of depression at baseline, there was little evidence that APOE*ε4+ carriers are at increased risk for depression over a 12-year period among those who are cognitively intact.
Our study objective was to develop and validate a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of family physicians regarding dementia care and dementia strategies in Canada. Using a multistage process with a panel of experts, we developed and distributed an 83-item questionnaire to 542 eligible family physicians in 42 interdisciplinary primary care teams participating in the Quebec Alzheimer Plan implementation. Altogether, 369 physicians (68%) returned questionnaires. Median item-specific non-response rate was 0.8 per cent (0.3%–8.1%). Exploratory factor analyses and scale correlation supported the questionnaire validity. The final questionnaire contained five factors and 31 items. The KAP questionnaire has proved to be a reliable instrument for assessing the KAP of family physicians regarding dementia care and dementia strategies. This questionnaire provides researchers, clinicians, managers, and decision-makers with a tool to assess an intervention, a program, or a policy change implemented in primary health care for patients with dementia.
This chapter discusses the impact of institutional investors on the functioning of the financial system. Institutional investors are pooling funds and transferring economic resources to different asset classes and countries. They also transfer resources over time, and contribute to price discovery and thereby increase the efficiency of the financial system. In recent decades, the intermediation of financial assets has gradually shifted from banks to institutional investors such as pension funds, insurance companies, and mutual funds. During this process of re-intermediation, the assets of institutional investors of the EU-15 countries quadrupled from 49 per cent of GDP in 1990 to 223 per cent in 2017. This chapter provides an overview of the growth of institutional investors over the last three decades and documents the development of the main types of institutional investors.
The uncertainty surrounding high intakes of folic acid and associations with cognitive decline in older adults with low vitamin B12 status has been an obstacle to mandatory folic acid fortification for many years. We estimated the prevalence of combinations of low/normal/high vitamin B12 and folate status and compared associations with global cognitive function using two approaches, of individuals in a population-based study of those aged ≥50 years in the Republic of Ireland. Cross-sectional data from 3781 men and women from Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing were analysed. Global cognitive function was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Prevalence estimates for combinations of vitamin B12 (plasma vitamin B12 < or ≥258 pmol/l) and folate (plasma folate ≤ or >45·3 nmol/l) concentrations were generated. Negative binomial regression models were used to investigate the associations of vitamin B12 and folate status with global cognitive function. Of the participants, 1·5 % (n 51) had low vitamin B12 (<258 pmol/l) and high folate (>45·3 nmol/l) status. Global cognitive performance was not significantly reduced in these individuals when compared with those with normal status for both B-vitamins (n 2433). Those with normal vitamin B12/high folate status (7·6 %) had better cognitive performance (MMSE: incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0·82, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·99; P = 0·043, MoCA: IRR 0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99; P = 0·025). We demonstrated that high folate status was not associated with lower cognitive scores in older adults with low vitamin B12 status. These findings provide important safety information that could guide fortification policy recommendations in Europe.
Maintaining physical, psychological and social wellbeing is integral to older adults being able to age well in their community. Therefore, an environment that facilitates and supports ageing well is imperative. The aim of this study was to explore the views of older people about their preparation for ageing well in a rural community. Forty-nine community-dwelling older people aged between 65 and 93 years participated in a semi-structured and digitally recorded interview. The resulting qualitative data were analysed using a thematic approach. Three main themes were identified: (a) ‘sensible planning: the right place and the right people’; (b) ‘remaining independent: “it's up to me”’; and (c) ‘facing challenges: “accepting my lot”’. Findings from this study identify that across all age groups, these older people were actively and realistically preparing for ageing well. All valued their independence, believing individually they were responsible for being independent and planning for their future. Consequently, environmental planners, policy makers and practitioners need to understand that older people are a heterogeneous group and ageing policies should be geared towards older people's individual abilities and circumstances. Consideration of diversity enables inclusion of older people with a wide range of abilities and needs to achieve the perceived goals of ageing well.
Falls often have severe financial and environmental consequences, not only for those who fall, but also for their families and society at large. Identifying fall risk in older adults can be of great use in preventing or reducing falls and fall risk, and preventative measures that are then introduced can help reduce the incidence and severity of falls in older adults. The overall aim of our systematic review was to provide an analysis of existing mechanisms and measures for evaluating fall risk in older adults. The 43 included FRATs produced a total of 493 FRAT items which, when linked to the ICF, resulted in a total of 952 ICF codes. The ICF domain with the most used codes was body function, with 381 of the 952 codes used (40%), followed by activities and participation with 273 codes (28%), body structure with 238 codes (25%) and, lastly, environmental and personal factors with only 60 codes (7%). This review highlights the fact that current FRATs focus on the body, neglecting environmental and personal factors and, to a lesser extent, activities and participation. This over-reliance on the body as the point of failure in fall risk assessment clearly highlights the need for gathering qualitative data, such as from focus group discussions with older adults, to capture the perspectives and views of the older adults themselves about the factors that increase their risk of falling and comparing these perspectives to the data gathered from published FRATs as described in this review.