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This article investigates three explanations for electoral support for the far right – ‘cultural backlash’, ‘economic grievances’ and ‘protest voting’ – in a novel way. Our main contribution is that we contrast far-right voters with voters of centre-right parties, traditional left-wing parties and abstainers. Equally innovative is the comparison between mature and post-communist democracies. Using European Social Survey data (2014–16), we conclude that anti-immigration attitudes are most important in distinguishing far-right voters from all other groups. Yet, these differences are significantly smaller in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, far-right voters are not the so-called socioeconomic ‘losers of globalization’: this is only true when compared with centre-right voters. Concerning protest voting, distrust of supranational governance particularly enhances far-right voting. Overall, our study concludes that more fine-grained distinctions pay off and avoid misleading generalizations about ‘European far-right voters’ often presented in public debates.
Scouring and sedimentation effects on the seabed induced by ship propellers during ship manoeuvring near harbour structures affect both structure stability and ship manoeuvring capabilities. This contribution proposes solutions at an operational level using the automatic identification system (AIS) and a bridge simulator. Two new alternative manoeuvres were designed and tested on a bridge simulator to obtain expected maximum scour depth and the results were compared with that of real manoeuvres (i) using mooring lines, and (ii) with tug assistance. A total of 42 test scenarios combining several manoeuvres and meteorological conditions were reproduced. Results confirmed a clear reduction in erosion depth with the alternative manoeuvres, with total reduction when using the tugboat. The presented methodology can be very useful to port authorities to prevent the effects of ship erosion on harbour infrastructures.
The worldwide coronavirus pandemic has forced health services to adapt their delivery to protect the health of all concerned, and avoid service users facing severe disruption. Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services in particular are having to explore remote working methods to continue functioning. Australian IAPT services have utilised remote delivery methods and disruptive technologies at their core from inception. This was to maintain fidelity and clinical governance across vast distances but has allowed training, supervision and service delivery to continue virtually uninterrupted through coronavirus restrictions. On this basis, key recommendations for remote working are outlined. Remote methods are defined as 1. Real Time Delivery, 2. Independent Delivery and 3. Blended Delivery. These are applied across three broad areas of Remote Training, Remote Clinical Supervision and Remote Service Delivery. Recommendations may be of great benefit to IAPT training institutions, clinical supervisors and service providers considering a move toward remote delivery. Challenges, adaptations and examples of applying Remote Methods are outlined, including case examples of methods applied to Low-Intensity & High Intensity CBT. Remote Methods can safeguard service continuity in times of worldwide crisis and can contribute to reducing the impact of increased mental health presentations post COVID-19.
The aim of the study reported in this Research Communication was to compare play behaviour and social interactions of dairy calves either separated from their mother and reared in a calf group (Artificial) or with access to their mother and the cow herd (cow-calf contact: Contact). Contact calves had access to a calf area and also to the cow barn where they could suckle their dam. Artificial calves were fed whole milk up to 16 kg per day via an automatic milk feeder and were only kept in the calf area. We observed the animals on 3 d during the first three months of life. Contact calves showed solitary play, consisting predominantly of locomotor play, for longer than Artificial calves and mainly in the cow barn. This indicates higher welfare in Contact calves. In addition, Artificial calves hardly experienced any agonistic interaction, while Contact calves both initiated and received agonistic interactions, which might contribute to the development of higher social competence.
The relationship between the cow and calf develops over time after birth. The behavioural mechanisms underlying its development are important and comparisons with other species may increase our understanding. In nature the cow will separate herself from the herd to give birth and then the cow–calf relationship will develop with the ability to recognise each other. While twinning levels are low in cows, they do rear their twin calves. If the calf is lost at or after birth the cow can be responsive towards other calves and in specific circumstances the cow can develop a maternal bond with an alien calf, i.e. foster. In this Research Reflection a distinction is made between the development of, on the one hand, maternal responsiveness (the tendency of the cow to care for a calf which occurs before birth) and, on the other hand, the development of the maternal–filial bond or relationship which is reciprocal, occurs after birth and is characterised by the ability to discriminate the mother's own calf from alien calves. These processes can overlap and the relationship between cow and calf in this ‘hider’ species is more plastic than in some other mammals. For example, a cow might form an attachment with an alien calf before she gives birth. After the cow has given birth the loss of her own calf may result in the state of maternal responsiveness being maintained, such that developing a maternal bond with one or several appropriate alien calves is possible. Viable fostering techniques are possible. If a maternal relationship to the mother's own calf has developed then fostering will be more difficult. If the cow's relationship with her own calf is not exclusive, and she is in a state of maternal responsiveness then fostering of calves of an appropriate age and status can be achieved.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that behaviour change interventions have modest effect sizes, struggle to demonstrate effect in the long term and that there is high heterogeneity between studies. Such interventions take huge effort to design and run for relatively small returns in terms of changes to behaviour.
So why do behaviour change interventions not work and how can we make them more effective? This article offers some ideas about what may underpin the failure of behaviour change interventions. We propose three main reasons that may explain why our current methods of conducting behaviour change interventions struggle to achieve the changes we expect: 1) our current model for testing the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions tends to a mean effect size. This ignores individual differences in response to interventions; 2) our interventions tend to assume that everyone values health in the way we do as health professionals; and 3) the great majority of our interventions focus on addressing cognitions as mechanisms of change. We appeal to people’s logic and rationality rather than recognising that much of what we do and how we behave, including our health behaviours, is governed as much by how we feel and how engaged we are emotionally as it is with what we plan and intend to do.
Drawing on our team’s experience of developing multiple interventions to promote and support health behaviour change with a variety of populations in different global contexts, this article explores strategies with potential to address these issues.
Canada has often been seen as immune from the powerful backlash against globalization and immigration that has driven political shifts elsewhere. This article challenges this belief, at least in part, by tracing the evolution of public attitudes toward immigration and analyzing the factors that have shaped the trajectory for over three decades. Drawing on nearly forty years of Environics Focus Canada surveys, combined with annual data on macro-economics and immigration flows, findings here suggest that Canadians’ tolerance toward immigration responds to immigration flows and is heavily influenced by macro-economic conditions.
Family meals promote healthful dietary intake and well-being among children. Despite these benefits, family meal participation typically declines as children age. This study utilises life course theory to explore parents’ perceptions of family meals in order to understand how parents’ past experiences with family meals (in childhood and earlier in adulthood) influence their current beliefs and practices regarding mealtimes with their own children.
Semi-structured qualitative interviews.
In-person interviews were conducted in participants’ homes.
Twenty families (twenty-one mothers and fifteen fathers) with a child aged between 18 months and 5 years.
Thematic analysis revealed that families seemed to primarily approach mealtimes from one of three overarching orientations: meals for (1) Togetherness, (2) Nutrition Messaging or (3) Necessity. These orientations were informed by parents’ own mealtime experiences and significant life transitions (e.g. parenthood). The current family meal context, including the messages parents shared with their children during mealtimes and the challenges experienced with mealtimes, characterised the orientations and families’ approaches to mealtimes.
Parents’ own early life experiences and significant life transitions influence why families eat meals together and have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of mealtime practices. Results may help to inform the content and timing of intervention strategies to support the continuation of frequent family meals beyond the preschool years.
Aggressive behaviour is common in animals and typically has lifetime consequences. As younger males have higher residual reproductive value than older males and lose more from injuries than older males do, the propensity for fighting tends to increase with age in many empirical reports and species. However, fighting patterns in those empirical reports cannot confirm the hypothesis that individuals cannot readily inflict injuries on their opponents. To address this shortcoming, a parasitoid wasp species, Anastatus disparis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), was used as an experimental model to explore the characteristics of aggression from a life-history perspective; this wasp exhibits extreme fighting, resulting in contestants experiencing injury and death. Results showed that the energetic costs of fighting to injury significantly shortened life and caused the loss of most mating ability. Inconsistent with general predictions, the frequency and intensity of fighting in A. disparis significantly decreased with male age. Further study results showed significantly more young males were received by and successfully mated with virgin females, and most genes related to energy metabolism were downregulated in aged males. Our study provided supporting evidence that young A. disparis males show more aggression likely because of their resource holding potential and sexual attractiveness decline with age.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the number of hours of nutrition education and teachers’ qualifications with nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour in students.
In this representative cross-sectional study, socio-demographic data, anthropometric measurements, socio-economic status (SES), physical fitness, nutrition knowledge and eating habits were assessed. Differences between groups were tested by χ2 and t tests. Multiple linear and logistic regression modelling was used to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, lifestyle and dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge, nutrition-trained teachers and number of nutrition lessons.
Sixteen secondary schools in urban (n 6) and rural regions (n 10) of Tyrol, Western Austria.
Students (n 513) aged 14·2 (sd 0·7) years.
Higher nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with attending rural school (P = 0·001), having no migration background (P < 0·001), (very) good physical activity behaviour (P = 0·040), non-trained teacher (P = 0·006) but higher number of hours of nutrition education (P = 0·013). Regression models showed that higher nutrition knowledge was independently associated with lower intake of meat and iced tea and higher intake of vegetables and plant-based oils. A higher amount of nutrition education (h/week) was significantly associated with higher intake of dark (wholegrain) bread, lower intake of meat and of energy drinks sweetened with sweeteners.
Our results suggest that more hours in nutrition education result in higher nutrition knowledge and greater nutrition literacy, which may lead to health-promoting dietary habits. School-based nutrition education can be seen as preventive measure to increase nutritional competences in adolescents independent of their SES.
Moulting is essential for crustacean growth, but is one of the causes of mortality, because a crustacean cannot move during and just after its ecdysis. In the cases of ectosymbiotic crabs, escape from the host's hostile response may also be a problem during its own ecdysis. In this study, Sestrostoma sp. (Varunidae), an ectosymbiotic crab which clings to the ventral abdomen of upogebiid shrimps with legs that can walk, was studied to clarify how the crab moults and maintains association with the host. Five cases of crab ecdysis were observed, where the crab moulted with its legs clinging to the host abdomen, without detaching from the host body. Time required for moulting was 14–21 min. Shedding of the old exoskeleton (active phase) took only 40–59 s. Sestrostoma sp. detached from the host abdomen and waited in the burrow tube during shrimp ecdysis. The crab then reattached at the same location on the host when shrimp moulting was complete. Our results suggest that Sestrostoma sp. are able to maintain a symbiotic relationship with the same shrimp host after its own ecdysis as well after ecdysis of its host.
Trematode transmission in aquatic habitats from molluscan intermediate host to vertebrate or invertebrate target host is typically undertaken by a free-living stage known as cercariae. Active locomotion by cercariae is a key aspect of the transmission process with the swimming speed potentially contributing to infection success. Individual cercarial species swim at different speeds but the significance of this to infection potential has not been determined. This study, using data from the scientific literature, investigates the role of swimming speed in relation to cercarial morphology, host-searching strategies and target host species. Larger cercariae swim faster than smaller ones with tail length being the principal factor controlling locomotion rates. Different cercarial morphotypes swim at different speeds, in particular, furcocercariae, with the exception of the schistosomes, being faster swimmers than mono-tailed cercariae. Host-searching behaviour has a significant influence on swimming speeds with ‘active-searching’ strategies swimming slower than those adopting ‘active-waiting’ or ‘prey mimcry’ strategies. Vertebrate-infecting cercariae swim faster than those infecting invertebrates with species targeting fish demonstrating the highest locomotion rates and those targeting arthropods the slowest speeds. The adaptions of individual cercarial swimming speeds to biological variables and their interactions with the physical processes of aquatic habitats are discussed.
A number of genomic conditions caused by copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with a high risk of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (ND-CNVs). Although these patients also tend to have cognitive impairments, few studies have investigated the range of emotion and behaviour problems in young people with ND-CNVs using measures that are suitable for those with learning difficulties.
A total of 322 young people with 13 ND-CNVs across eight loci (mean age: 9.79 years, range: 6.02–17.91, 66.5% male) took part in the study. Primary carers completed the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC).
Of the total, 69% of individuals with an ND-CNV screened positive for clinically significant difficulties. Young people from families with higher incomes (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.55–0.91, p = .008) were less likely to screen positive. The rate of difficulties differed depending on ND-CNV genotype (χ2 = 39.99, p < 0.001), with the lowest rate in young people with 22q11.2 deletion (45.7%) and the highest in those with 1q21.1 deletion (93.8%). Specific patterns of strengths and weaknesses were found for different ND-CNV genotypes. However, ND-CNV genotype explained no more than 9–16% of the variance, depending on DBC subdomain.
Emotion and behaviour problems are common in young people with ND-CNVs. The ND-CNV specific patterns we find can provide a basis for more tailored support. More research is needed to better understand the variation in emotion and behaviour problems not accounted for by genotype.
State backlash has marked dispute settlement mechanisms in both the international trade and investment treaty regimes. For the former, the transition from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) dispute panels to the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) represented a notable instance of the turn toward international courts within world politics.
CVD is the most common chronic condition and the highest cause of mortality in the USA. The aim of the present work was to investigate diet and sedentary behaviour in relation to mortality in US CVD survivors. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1999 and 2014 linked to the US mortality registry updated to 2015 were investigated. Multivariate adjusted Cox regression was used to derive mortality hazards in relation to sedentary behaviour and nutrient intake. A multiplicative and additive interaction analysis was conducted to evaluate how sedentariness and diet influence mortality in US CVD survivors. A sample of 2473 participants followed for a median period of 5·6 years resulted in 761 deaths, and 199 deaths were due to CVD. A monotone increasing relationship between time spent in sedentary activities and mortality risk was observed for all-cause and CVD mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·09, 1·31 and HR = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·67, respectively). Inverse mortality risks in the range of 22–34 % were observed when comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of dietary fibre, vitamin A, carotene, riboflavin and vitamin C. Sedentariness below 360 min/d and dietary fibre and vitamin intake above the median interact on an additive scale influencing positively all-cause and CVD mortality risk. Reduced sedentariness in combination with a varied diet rich in dietary fibre and vitamins appears to be a useful strategy to reduce all-cause and CVD mortality in US CVD survivors.
An understanding of the processes involved in grazing behaviour is a prerequisite for the design of efficient grassland management systems. The purpose of managing the grazing process is to identify sward structures that can maximize animal forage daily intake and optimize grazing time. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of different grazing management strategies on foraging behaviour and herbage intake by sheep grazing Italian ryegrass under rotational stocking. The experiment was carried out in 2015 in southern Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with two grazing management strategies and four replicates. The grazing management treatments were a traditional rotational stocking (RT), with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 25 and 5 cm, respectively, and a ‘Rotatinuous’ stocking (RN) with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 18 and 11 cm, respectively. Male sheep with an average live weight of 32 ± 2.3 kg were used. As intended, the pre- and post-grazing sward heights were according to the treatments. The pre-grazing leaf/stem ratio of the Italian ryegrass pasture did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05) (~2.87), but the post-grazing leaf/stem ratio was greater (P < 0.001) in the RN than in the RT treatment (1.59 and 0.76, respectively). The percentage of the non-grazed area was greater (P < 0.01) in post-grazing for RN compared with RT treatment, with an average of 29.7% and 3.49%, respectively. Herbage nutritive value was greater for the RN than for the RT treatment, with greater CP and lower ADF and NDF contents. The total time spent grazing, ruminating and resting did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05), with averages of 439, 167 and 85 min, respectively. The bite rate, feeding stations per min and steps per min by sheep were greater (P < 0.05) in the RN than in the RT treatment. The grazing time per hour and the bite rate were greater (P < 0.05) in the afternoon than in the morning in both treatments. The daily herbage intake by sheep grazing Italian ryegrass was greater (P < 0.05) in the RN than in the RT treatment (843.7 and 707.8 g organic matter/sheep, respectively). Our study supports the idea that even though the grazing time was not affected by the grazing management strategies when the animal behaviour responses drive management targets, such as in ‘Rotatinuous’ stocking, the sheep herbage intake is maximized, and the grazing time is optimized.
Big data provides high volume of data to inform product customisation. Understanding which data is relevant remains a challenge. A method is proposed to identify relevant data to inform data-driven customisation. A case study regarding customisation of orthoses was conducted. Verbal protocol analysis was employed to extract time spent on major fabrication phases. Data related to patients, therapists and fabrication time was analysed. Results showed that the number of stabilised joints, experience of therapists and whether the design is for in- or out-patient are key factors for customisation.
Behavioural design has emerged as an important domain of design practice and research due to its ability to deliver the desired outcomes beyond technical designs. Research on behavioural design is not successful in discerning it from other design domains, which is important for theory building. This paper discerns the unique characters of behavioural design by tracing the emergence of behaviour in design. Twelve interviews from six behaviour design cases belonging to four firms has been used to further discern the unique characteristics resulting into the conceptual model of behavioural design
Coworking spaces – the most prevalent form of collaborative workplaces – are said to offer the ideal solution for a new generation of creative knowledge workers, balancing flexibility and independence with structure and community. Recent studies, however, highlight deficiencies as they relate to the promise of ‘community’ made by most coworking spaces. This work reports 16 barriers that impede the process of human connectivity in coworking spaces that emerged from in-depth interviews with 26 coworkers. Suggestions are made for how these barriers might inform more effective workplace design.
Various aspects of the design process often lead to stress. This study used pre- and post-task surveys to gather information regarding the designer's cognitive experience, physiological response, and perceived sources of stress during concept generation, concept selection, and prototyping. Results confirmed that design is highly cognitive, and that mental stress is present. Variability in the results also suggests that a physiological stress component might be present. Additionally, perceived sources of stress were examined, and recommendations were offered for instructors of design courses.