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This chapter discusses global challenges in English language teaching and teacher education and the local responses in the Philippines. It outlines the issues posed by globalization from two perspectives: (1) globalization as an "economic imperative" and (2) "critical resistance" against globalization as marginalizing local economic initiatives. It discusses the government’s responses to these issues, motivated by the need for the Philippines to be globally competitive, especially as part of a community of nations in the ASEAN. This chapter also discusses critical issues arising from the local responses to the challenges of globalization, which impact on English language teaching and teacher education in the Philippines: the competing proposals for the medium of instruction, the mixed attitudes toward English, the changing standards of English, and the expanding role of the English language teacher. Finally, it outlines important insights have been gained from these discussions that may inform policy making and professional practice.
This introductory chapter introduces the topics of the book and its main purposes in light of past scholarship. It emphasises how people hold contrasting perspectives and assumptions about the place of emotions in human social life. These contrasting orientations unfold into different approaches to educating emotions, and for how teachers should treat students, in relation to their emotional experiences and expressions. It first examines some possible assumptions that readers may have about the role of emotions in education. These assumptions are examples of contrasting perspectives about emotions and education. These are (1) that education does not particularly involve emotions, and (2) that emotions are a part of education, but this is non-controversial, with a consensus on the topic established. The chapter explores these assumptions and challenges them. The last section of the chapter explains the goals of this book, and gives an overview of the main contents of the chapters that follow.
Since Singapore’s inception, the national economic playing field has always been tightly coupled with the global economy. Policy imperatives are framed and contested within the resulting global–local nexus. Education, especially language-in-education, has been and continues to be a key player in the intertwining of economic, political, and cultural imperatives at this nexus. In this chapter, we consider English language teacher education within the global–local nexus framed by globalization. First, we provide some context on English Language (EL) education in Singapore. This is followed by an overview of the teacher education system, with a focus on education for prospective EL teachers. We then discuss some of the challenges posed by Singapore’s particular view on globalization, the contradictions in that view, and their connection with EL learning and teacher education. We end by exploring some possible ways forward.
China, as a major global player, started its journey of going global in 1978. In order to understand the impact of globalisation on English language teacher education (ELTE) in China, this chapter critically reviews the development in China in the last forty years (1978–2018). The whole journey can be divided into three phases: (1) opening up to the outside world (1978–1998); (2) moving towards globalization (1999–2011); (3) becoming globalized (2012–present). This chapter aims to examine the challenges posed to EFL learning , EFL teaching and ELTE in each of these three phases and how the government has responded to these challenges. It will also discuss the critical issues in relation to the three phases and provide suggestions for policy making.
In Thailand, English proficiency is generally low but demand for English is high. Hence, the need to improve the quality of English language teacher education is urgent. Pre-service education is divided into three main types: first, Bachelor of Education (BEd) programmes for school teacher preparation, mostly run by Rajabhat teacher training institutes which are highly traditional and may manifest nationalist concerns of Thainess and preconventional morality; second, master’s programmes run by universities for university teacher preparation; and third, short initial training courses run by private companies which prepare foreigners, often native speakers of English, to be teachers. Demand for foreign teachers of English in Thailand is high since the native-speaker model of English is prevalent. The certification of teachers by the Teachers Council of Thailand following pre-service education focuses on knowledge not teaching ability, and the application of certification to foreign teachers is inconsistent. Until recently, in-service teacher education has either promoted inequalities by targeting the best teachers or has been of debatable quality. Local resistance to global trends in English language teacher education suggests that English language education in Thailand may not be able to cope with an increasingly connected and changing world.
This chapter critically examines twenty years of English language teaching and teacher education reform in Hong Kong as well as the rationale behind these changes and what they mean for Hong Kong’s English language teachers. It throws a light on the role of English language in local teacher education policy, something which has fuelled controversy and debate. The chapter details the wide-ranging reforms that have been enacted by authorities in response to local and global issues in English language teaching including curriculum changes, assessment reform, language proficiency requirements, medium of instruction (MOI) policies across schools, recruitment of overseas language teachers and the provision of mandated continued professional development. Positioning Hong Kong as a complex and multilayered landscape where cultural, political, economic, linguistic and educational factors all intertwine, the chapter concludes that a form of government ‘mandate’ has characterised the implementation of education reforms since 1997.
This introductory chapter draws on two major perspectives on globalization, glocalization, and grobalization, to make sense of the global challenges faced by English language teaching (ELT) and English language teacher education (ELTE) professions and local responses in ten countries/jurisdictions in the Asian region discussed in this volume. It highlights the common critical issues which have emerged from these responses and discusses their implications for ELT and ELTE. In the concluding reflections, it identifies three issues that are central and particularly challenging to the work of English language teachers and teacher educators.
Philosophers throughout history have pondered the relationship between emotions, rationality, and morality, and their implications for education. This chapter presents an overview of basic points and issues of contention within and across philosophical perspectives related to these topics. It considers particularly deontology, consequentialism, virtue ethics, care ethics and other relational views, and existentialism. A significant part of the chapter explores virtue ethics, as virtue ethics is seen to philosophically undergird the majority of morally-oriented social and emotional learning and character education approaches in western societies . The role in virtue ethics of emotions in moral and social life overlaps in some cases with those found in the social sciences, as well as those seen within some eastern traditions. Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism will also be discussed here. The chapter thus summarises major insights and points of debate across philosophies related to educating emotions.
English has served to facilitate the internationalization process in Taiwan; English education, at the same time, benefited enormously from internationalization in terms of the great emphasis attached to it. In order to ensure the quality of English instruction, English teacher education needs to respond to any changes in the national primary and secondary school curricula as well as changing demography, which may influence English teachers’ instructional practices. In this chapter, an overview of the teacher education system in Taiwan is first introduced as the background. Following that is a discussion of local responses to globalization, which include making English a second official language; the promotion of English for communicative purposes; new policies in major cities regarding foreign language education; an English proficiency benchmark for English teachers; and further teacher professional development for international mobility and global competitiveness. Addressed in the next sections are some critical issues in teacher education that demand further research, such as the power relationship between English and local languages, the belief in native-speakerism, and the promotion of English as the medium of instruction. Some suggestions for future directions in language teacher education are also provided.
In this text, the role of emotions in education and society has been examined from various perspectives, particularly from psychological, philosophical, and other theoretical and political views. To develop more in-depth understanding about emotions in social life, a number of emotional virtues have also been explored at length. These include basic emotions, like happiness, sadness, and fear; emotional virtues often idealised, such as gratitude and compassion; and more complex emotional and cognitive-based dispositions prized in contemporary education and society, like resilience, grit, and mindfulness. A complicated account has been given, based on an interdisciplinary orientation toward emotional virtues and educating emotions in society. As seen here, the means and ends of educating emotional virtues are not simple and straightforward, given diversity in experiences, identities, and norms around emotional expectations in society. While educational implications have been discussed across chapters, thus far such considerations have been specific to particular emotional domains and contexts. This conclusion elaborates further on a more global perspective on educating emotional virtues in schools and society.
Chapter 2 examines social science approaches to understanding emotions and their educational implications. It explores fields that study human personal and social life empirically, drawing out patterns and relationships that can inform policy and practice, in education and other fields. Its main task is to introduce, and juxtapose with the mainstream, alternative perspectives on educating emotional virtues which have thus far been left off the table, to highlight the insights of the politics of emotions for emotional virtues education. The first section examines psychological views of emotions as applied in education. The methodology and orientation toward emotions in these approaches are explored at length. The second section of this chapter introduces approaches and views related to the politics of educating emotions, which include insights about emotions developed in social psychology, sociology, feminist theory, cultural studies, and related areas.
The concluding chapter will first draw together the empirical findings and return to the five uses of English in Asia identified by Kachru and which were discussed in the Introduction. English is developing new domains of use and an increasing number of Asians are becoming highly proficient speakers of English and are shaping English to their own uses and cultures, allowing them to develop a sense of ownership of the language. English is now an Asian language, both in and of Asia. This conclusion comes with no sense of triumphalism. On the contrary, the chapter will conclude with the prediction that, unless regional governments develop holistic and coherent language education polices, it is likely that English will continue to increase its range at the expense of local and regional languages. It will be reiterated that delaying the introduction of English will result in a win-win solution through which students can graduate from secondary school, proficient in English and fluent and literate in their respective national language and their home language. As a language of Asia, English does not need to replace Asian languages.
This book aims to shift the focus from the instrumental to the symbolic dimensions of language that account for its awesome power to affect people’s view of themselves and the world. It takes a post-structuralist approach to the study of language – language not, as Dwight Bolinger wrote in 1980, as a loaded and potentially dangerous weapon, but as a discourse with symbolic effects. The chapter defines symbolic power as “the power of constituting the given through utterances, of making people see and believe, of confirming or transforming their vision of the world and, thereby, action on the world” (Bourdieu 1991) by mobilizing not only their minds but also their emotions, beliefs, memories, imaginations and aspirations. It will therefore revisit some of the mainstays of language study that are usually taught as linguistic and discourse structures and show how these structures are vectors of a symbolic power that manifests itself in all areas of everyday life from boardrooms to classrooms to courtrooms. It will show the fundamentally paradoxical nature of symbolic power that at once enhances individual language users’ ability to act upon the world through the use of symbols, and limits their ability to do so in order to be seen as legitimate members of the group that speaks that language.
While most nineteenth-century Great Powers attempted to spread their language and country's prestige via sponsored schools abroad, in the Eastern Mediterranean, these schools were actually used by residents to gain a particularly valuable cultural capital and to emancipate themselves from their respective ethnic groups. Their families' bargaining power as payers of tuition and the fierce competition between the various foreign schools enabled them to overcome the imperialist intentions of these schools.
Three figures stand out as formative influences on the young Richard Strauss: his father, Franz, a hornist of conservative tastes; Hans von Bülow, a former Liszt pupil and recovering Wagnerian who was frequently at loggerheads with Franz; and Alexander von Ritter, another Liszt student who retained his passion for the music of the future when Bülow abjured it. From his father Strauss acquired a deep and abiding love of the music of classical and early romantic eras. From Bülow, to whom he was an assistant for a few months in 1885, he learned much about the art and craft of conducting. From Ritter, Strauss received a passionate induction into the progressive ideas of Liszt, Wagner, and Schopenhauer, which led to the composition of his early tone poems and his first opera, Guntram. Even though Strauss would eventually distance himself creatively from their advice, each contributed significantly to his artistic development.
This chapter traces the transformation of the school from the site for instilling ideas about racial and class-based separate development during the colonial era into the key mechanism for ensuring African political and economic development today. Formal schooling introduced during the colonial era contributed to racial and economic divisions by promoting the idea of separate development and segregation. Missionary and colonial education institutionalized the assumptions about racial difference embedded in the development episteme. Colonial educators faced a conundrum; they sought to “civilize” Africans in Western academic traditions and at the same time to reinforce ideologies of racial difference that undergirded colonialism and the development episteme. This conflict was complicated further as schools became a place for challenging these ideas and generating African nationalist ideas of development. Some postcolonial reforms recentered African epistemologies in the schools. Today institutions and scholars of the global north still claim to be the experts in technology, science, and medicine, the sciences necessary for solving development “problems.” Nonetheless, African institutions and scholars are at the forefront of development innovations designed for their own communities including in the expansion of innovative university practices.
Chapter 9 will consider the role of English as a language of education across the region, including brief reviews of its role in primary, secondary and higher education in selected settings. It will review and critically consider language education policies that have been adopted in a range of Asian countries. The second half of the chapter will turn to a review and critical discussion of the increasing use of English as the medium of instruction in higher education across universities in the region. The chapter will conclude by arguing that language education policies need to be considered holistically and be coherent from primary to tertiary education. Otherwise there is a danger of English replacing local languages as languages of education and scholarship.
To investigate whether an after-school nutrition education (ASNE) programme can improve the nutrition knowledge and healthy eating behaviour of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families.
One-group pretest and posttest design. Nutrition knowledge and dietary intake were collected using a questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were measured before and after the intervention. Nine components of healthy eating behaviour were assessed with reference to the Dietary Guideline of Taiwan. Pretest and posttest differences were analysed using generalised estimating equations.
Three after-school programmes in central and southern Taiwan. The ASNE programme comprised three monthly 1 hour sessions (20–30 minutes lecture and 30–40 minutes interaction).
A total of 153 adolescents aged 10–15 years from economically disadvantaged families (78 elementary students and 75 junior high school students).
Elementary and junior high school students’ nutrition knowledge scores (range 0–6) increased by 0·28 (+5·7%, P = 0·02) and 0·30 points (+6·18%, P = 0·02), respectively, but their fruit intake decreased by 0·36 serving/day (−22·9%, P = 0·02) and 0·29 serving/day (−18·9%, P = 0·03), respectively. Junior high school students’ mean snacking frequency and fried food intake dropped to 0·75 days per week (−21·3%, P = 0·008) and 0.10 serving per day (−28·8%, P = 0·01), respectively.
Short-term ASNE programmes can increase nutrition knowledge and reduce snacking frequency and fried food intake despite a decrease in fruit intake among adolescents from economically disadvantaged families.
This chapter introduces Dar al-ʿUlum, a hybrid school founded in 1872 to train students from top religious schools such as al-Azhar to teach primary school subjects and Arabic within state-run civil schools. First, it locates Dar al-ʿUlum within the history of Egyptian teacher training. It explains how Dar al-ʿUlum formalised and expanded the path followed by reform-minded shaykhs since the early nineteenth century by providing a crash course in the subjects and habitus of the Egyptian civil school system, alongside advanced training in how to apply their specialist knowledge of Arabic and Islamic disciplines to teaching in a civil school. It then presents Dar al-ʿUlum as a hybrid institution whose mission was to bring religious knowledge into the civil system. As a result, it was structured as a civil school, but its curriculum and faculty combined civil and religious elements and expertise. The chapter demonstrates that Dar al-ʿUlum was founded not only because of state efforts to control and put Islamic knowledge to work, but also because of the value many Egyptians placed in the authentic connection to Egypt’s past provided by Islamic knowledge.
This chapter introduces Egyptian education and cultural politics between 1811 and 1900. First, it demonstrates how Egyptian reformers advanced projects of modernity by importing, translating, and applying European knowledge within Egypt, including through founding a new system of civil schools to run in parallel with long-standing religious schools, the elementary-level kuttab and higher-level madrasa. It explains how these school systems were misrepresented by European discourses that divided Egypt into two halves — a modern foreign and a traditional local. It uses the terms ocularcentric and audiocentric to deconstruct this dichotomy as applied to Egyptian education, and to show how Egyptian agency created projects of modernity that deliberately diverged from European models. Next, the chapter deconstructs the application of this dichotomy to the geographical and sociocultural landscapes through which Egyptians moved and claimed social status. This section focuses on the hybrid borderlands that developed around the schools and institutions associated with state-led projects of modernity. The chapter concludes by presenting 1868–75 as the key cultural turning point of late nineteenth-century Egypt, one that facilitated the colonisation of Egyptian minds a decade before the political transformations of 1876–82 finished the colonisation of their bodies.